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Anujsharma.com.npInstitute of Agriculture and Animal Science Tribhuwan University An Assignment on Medicinal Plants Dr. Krishna Kumar Pant Associate Professor Department of Environment Science B.Sc. Ag. 5th semester Introduction to Medicinal Plants Medicinal Plants Medicinal plants have been identified and used throughout human history. Before the introduction of chemical medicines, man relied on the healing properties of medicinal plants. Some people value these plants due to the ancient belief which says plants are created to supply man with food, medical treatment, and other effects. There are nearly 2000 ethnic groups in the world, and almost every group has its own traditional medical knowledge and experiences. Plants have the ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals. At least 12,000 such compounds have been isolated so far; a number estimated to be less than 10% of the total. Chemical compounds in plants mediate their effects on the human body through processes identical to those already well understood for the chemical compounds in conventional drugs; thus herbal medicines do not differ greatly from conventional drugs in terms of how they work. The use of herbs to treat disease is almost universal among non-industrialized societies, and is often more affordable than purchasing expensive modern pharmaceuticals. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 80% of the population of some Asian and African countries presently use herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Their use is less common in clinical settings, but has become increasingly more in recent years as scientific evidence about the effectiveness of herbal medicine has become more widely available. Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are an important part of the Nepalese economy, with exports to India, Hong Kong, Singapore, Japan, as well as France, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, the USA, and Canada. These plants have a potential for contributing to the local economy, subsistence health needs, and improved natural resource management, leading to the conservation of ecosystem and biodiversity of an area. Nepal's ethnic diversity is also remarkable, so are the traditional medical practices. About 85% of total population inhabit in rural areas, and many of them rely on traditional medicines, mostly prepared from plants for health care. The majority of Nepal's population, especially the poor, tribal and ethnic groups, and mountain people, relies on traditional medical practices. A large number of products for such medical practices are derived from plants. The knowledge of such medical practices has been developed and tested through generations. In many cases this knowledge is transmitted orally from generation to generation and confined to certain people. In this paper, we will discuss about two particular medicinal plants, Aloe and Datura. Aloe vera is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine since the beginning of the first century AD. Extracts from A. vera are widely used in the cosmetics and alternative medicine industries, being marketed as variously having rejuvenating, healing, or soothing properties. Datura, although widely known as weed, has be used significantly along the history owing to its deliric effects. It has been known to have been used in witchcraft, religious processions and more. Medically, it is used as anti-inflammatory drug. Because of its toxic property, it's used has be controversial among physicians for a long time. Let's explore these plants along with their cultivation practice, phytochemical properties and medical use in detail.
Scientific classification Kingdom : Plantae Sub-kingdom : Angiosperms Class : Monocots : Asparagales : Xanthorrhoeaceae : Asphodeloideae : A. vera Aloe Vera Aloe vera is an important traditional medicinal plant belonging previously to the family Liliaceae. It is exploited for growing cosmetic and neutraceutical market. The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine since the beginning of the first century AD. Extracts from A. vera are widely used in the cosmetics and alternative medicine industries, being marketed as variously having rejuvenating, healing or soothing properties. Description Aloe vera is a stemless or very short-stemmed succulent plant growing to 60–100 cm tall, spreading by offsets. The leaves are lanceolate, thick and fleshy, green to grey-green, with some varieties showing white flecks on the upper and lower stem surfaces. The margin of the leaf is serrated and has small white teeth. The flowers are produced in summer on a spike up to 90 cm tall, each flower being pendulous, with a yellow tubular corolla 2–3 cm long. Like other Aloe species, Aloe vera forms arbuscular mycorrhiza, a symbiosis that allows the plant better access to mineral nutrients in soil. Pharmacological active ingredients are concentrated in both the gel and rind of the Aloe vera leaves. These active ingredients have been shown to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Origin It is indigenous to Africa and Mediterranean countries. The species does not have any naturally occurring populations, although closely related aloes do occur in northern Africa. The lack of obvious natural populations of the species have led some to belief that Aloe vera may be of hybrid origin. However, it is reported to grow wild on islands of Cyprus, Malta, Sicily, Carary cape and Cape Verde. Distribution The natural range of Aloe vera is unclear, as the species has been widely cultivated throughout the world. The species was introduced to China and various parts of southern Europe in the 17th century. The species is widely naturalized elsewhere, occurring in temperate and tropical regions of Australia, Barbados, Belize, Nigeria, Paraguay and the United States. It has been suggested that the actual species' distribution is the result of human cultivation. China, U.S.A., Mexico, Australia and some of the Latin American countries are the major producers and exporters of aloe products. In Nepal, it is commercially cultivated in Terai region. However, potting of Aloe is practiced in almost any household from Terai to hills for both aesthetic and medicinal purpose. Cultivation
Aloe vera has been widely grown as an ornamental plant. The species is popular with modern
gardeners as a putatively medicinal plant and due to its interesting flowers, form, and succulence. This
succulence enables the species to survive in areas of low natural rainfall, making it ideal for rockeries
and other low-water use gardens. The species is hardy, although it is intolerant of very heavy frost or
snow. The species is relatively resistant to most insect pests, though spider mites, mealy bugs, scale
insects, and aphid species may cause a decline in plant health. In pots, the species requires well-
drained sandy potting soil and bright sunny conditions. When potted aloes become crowded with
"pups" growing from the sides of the "mother plant," they should be divided and re-potted to allow
room for further growth and help prevent pest infestations. During winter, Aloe vera may become
dormant, during which little moisture is required. In areas that receive frost or snow, the species is
best kept indoors or in heated glasshouses.
Soil It can be grown in a variety of soils ranging from sandy coastal soils to loamy soil of plains. It is sensitive to water logged conditions. The crop also comes up well in light soils. It can tolerate higher pH and high Na and K salts. Growth is faster under medium fertile, heavy soils such as black cotton soils. In well drained, loam to coarse sandy loam in a pH range upto 8.5, it grows well with higher foliage. Climate Aloe has wide adaptability and can grow in various climatic conditions. It can be seen growing equally good in warm humid or dry climate. However, it is intolerant to extreme cool conditions. The plant flourishes well on dry sandy soils at localities with lower annual rainfall of 50 to 300mm. It needs protection against frost and low winter temperature. Varieties Commercially important sub-species are Aloe barbedensis, A. chinensis, A. perfoliata, A. vulgaris, A. indica, A. littoralis and A. abyssinica. Propagation Aloe vera is generally propagated by root suckers or rhizome cuttings. For this purpose, medium sized root suckers are chosen and carefully dug out without damaging the parent plant at the base and directly planted in the main field. It can also be propagated through rhizome cuttings. In this case, after the harvest of the crop, the underground rhizome is also dug out and made in 5-6 cm length cuttings which should have a minimum of 2-3 nodes on them. It is rooted in specially prepared sand beds or containers and after starting sprouting, it is ready for transplanting. On an average, about 36500 suckers are required for a nursery of 1 ha size (14550 for 1 acre nursery). Spacing and plant population Normally a spacing of 40cm x 45cm or 60cm x 30cm is followed. This accommodates about 55000 plants per hectare. Land preparation and planting The land is ploughed and cross ploughed thoroughly. Farm yard manure is added @ 15 t/ha during the last ploughing. Ridges and furrows are formed at 45 or 60cm apart. The plot may be irrigated if necessary. The suckers are planted at 40 or 30cm apart, maintaining the spacing suggested. Manures and fertilizers The crop responds well to the application of farm yard manure and compost. In the first year of plantation, FYM @15 t/ha is applied during the land preparation. During the subsequent years, the same dose of FYM is applied every year. Besides 50:50:50 kg/ha of N:P:K is applied as basal dose. Irrigation Aloe can be successfully cultivated both under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Provision of irrigation immediately after planting and during summer season will ensure good yields. However, the plants are sensitive to water logged conditions. Plant protection Aloe is known to be infected by fungus causing leafspot disease. This effects yield and quality of the gel adversely. The disease can be controlled by spraying recommended fungicides. Interculture In order to facilitate healthy soil atmosphere, soil works like spading, earthing up, etc. are required in aloe plantation. Weeding at regular intervals are some important intercultural operations. Harvest The thick fleshy leaves are ready for harvest from the second year after planting. Normally, three harvests are taken in a year by removing three to four leaves per plant .Harvesting is labor intensive. It is carried out in the morning and / or evening. The leaves will regenerate from the scar and thus the crop can be harvested upto 5 years after planting. Apart from leaves, the side suckers, which can be used as planting material, can also be sold. Yield Yield may be as high as 50 - 55 tons of thick fleshy leaves from one hectare plantation. However, a conservative yield of about 40 t/ha may be considered for working out day viability of bankable schemes. Suckers from about 55-60% of the plants could be sold out annually.
Uses Preparations made from the plant Aloe vera are often referred to as "aloe vera". It is utilized in cosmetic and medicinal field for its soothing, moisturizing, and healing properties. Aloe vera gel is used as an ingredient in commercially available lotions, yogurt, beverages, and some desserts.
Aloe contains a mixture glucosides collectively called aloin, which is the active constituent of the drug.
Aloin and its gel are used as skin tonic, has cooling effect and moisturizing agent and so it is used in
preparation of creams, lotions, shampoos and allied products. Traditionally, aloe is extensively used
in treating urine related problems, pimples, ulcers etc.
The aloin is extensively used as active ingredient in laxative and anti-obesity preparations.
Folk medicine Aloe vera has a long association with herbal medicine, although it is not known when its medical applications were first suspected. The species is used widely in the traditional herbal medicine of China, Japan, Russia, South Africa, the United States, Jamaica, Latin America, India and Nepal. Phytochemicals Aloe vera leaves contain phytochemicals under study for possible bioactivity, such as acetylated mannans, polymannans, anthraquinone C-glycosides, anthrones, anthraquinones, such as emodin, and various lectins. Some of these compounds are used to manufacture insecticides. Commodities Aloe vera is now widely used on facial tissues, where it is promoted as a moisturizer and/or anti-irritant to reduce chafing of the nose of users suffering hay-fever or cold. It is common practice for cosmetic companies to add sap or other derivatives from Aloe vera to products such as makeup, tissues, moisturizers, soaps, sunscreens, incense, shaving cream, and shampoos. Other uses for extracts of Aloe vera include the dilution of semen for the artificial fertilization of sheep, use as fresh food preservative, and use in water conservation in small farms. It has also been suggested that biofuels could be obtained from Aloe vera seeds. Aloe is also used as a food substance. Ayurveda It has been used as a medicine by ayurvedic experts and vaidhyas for treating burns, bed-wetting, diabetes and more. Research for possible medical uses Wound & Lesion Treatment . A 2007 review concluded that the cumulative evidence supports the use of Aloe vera for the healing of first to second degree burns. Topical application of Aloe vera may also be effective for genital herpes and psoriasis. Aloe vera extracts might have antibacterial and antifungal activities, which possibly could help treat minor skin infections, such as boils and benign skin cysts and may inhibit growth of fungi causing tinea. For bacteria, inner-leaf gel from Aloe vera was shown in one study to inhibit growth of Streptococcus and Shigella species in vitro. Skin Protection and Cancer Although anecdotally useful, Aloe vera has been supposed to offer protection for humans from sunburn, suntan, or other damage from the sun. The plant polysaccharides present in Aloe vera, although offering no direct protection against sunburn, may offer skin protection by specifically targeting pathways activated by UV radiation that can lead to non-melanoma skin cancer. These saccharides have also been seen to preserve delayed-type hypersensitivity and cutaneous contact hypersensitivity suppressed by acute UV radiation. Compounds extracted from Aloe vera have been used as an immunostimulant that aids in fighting cancers in cats and dogs; however, this treatment has not been scientifically tested in humans. Dental care In a double-blind clinical trial, both the group using an Aloe vera containing dentifrice and the group using a fluoridated dentifrice had a reduction of gingivitis and plaque. Diabetes and blood lipids There is preliminary evidence that A. vera extracts may be useful in the treatment of diabetes and elevated blood lipids in humans. These positive effects are thought to be due to the presence of compounds such as mannans, anthraquinones and lectins. Internal intake of Aloe vera has been linked in preliminary research with improved blood glucose levels in diabetics. It has also been linked with lower blood lipids in hyperlipidaemic patients, but also with acute hepatitis (liver disease). Other Preliminary studies have suggested oral Aloe vera gel may reduce symptoms and inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis. Toxicity Ingestion of Aloe vera is associated with diarrhea, electrolyte imbalance, kidney dysfunction, and conventional drug interactions; episodes of contact dermatitis, erythema and phototoxicity have been reported from topical applications. Diarrhea, caused by the laxative effect of oral Aloe vera, can decrease the absorption of many drugs. Post-harvest management Care must be taken in preparing the leafy plant material for drying or distillation. Freshly harvested plant are generally allowed to wilt and loose moisture in the field before transporting, although some volatiles are lost. Wilting is noticed normally within 24 to 72 hours. But the plant should be kept dry and cool to prevent fermentation or mould growth. A concrete floor under shade can be used. The best oil is in the top leaves. Economic life Commercially yield is obtained from the second to fifth year, after which it needs replanting. Marketing and export potentiality The product can be marketed in different commercial pharmaceutical and herbal firms located in Nepal. Cosmetics containing aloe content command phenomenal rates in the markets abroad. But hardly any export takes place. Traded in processed form such as gel, juice and concentrate, aloe content is present in over 80 per cent of the cosmetics in the European market. Demand The major market of Aloe vera and its extracts are in Australia, USA and Europe. Aloe vera is not only used for medicinal purpose but it is used in cosmetics, as food ingredients, beverages, in incenses, etc. The demand for Aloe vera is increasing and with scientific studies supporting the medicinal benefits of Aloe vera it is profitable to cultivate Aloe vera. Unit cost In the present model, the unit cost for the development of Aloe vera in 1 ha of land works out to be about one lakh rupees. This may be modified to suit the local conditions taking into account the different techno-economic parameters prevailing in the locality. Conclusion As more and more studies are being undertaken, positive benefits of Aloe vera are revealed. The cost for cultivating Aloe vera will yield good return of investment. Nepal has an ideal climate for the cultivation of Aloe vera and possibly can utilize its medicinal benefits for diabetes, cholesterol, etc. for the local population at a cheaper cost. This is a hardy perennial tropical plant that can be cultivated in drought areas. But its potential is yet to be exploited. Aloe, despite being identified as 'a new plant resource with the most promising prospects in the world', remains a disregarded plant.
Scientific classification Kingdom Sub-kingdom : Angiosperms Class : D. Stramonium Datura Stramonium Datura stramonium (D. stramonium) is one of the widely well-known folklore medicinal herbs. The troublesome weed, D. stramonium is a plant with both poisonous and medicinal properties and has been proven to have great pharmacological potential with a great utility and usage in folklore medicine. D. stramonium has been scientifically proven to contain alkaloids, tannins, carbohydrates and proteins. This plant has various pharmacological actions like analgesic and anti-asthmatic activities. Description D. stramonium is an annual plant. The stem is herbaceous, branched and glabrous or only lightly hairy. By cultivation the plant reaches a height of about one meter. The branching stems are spreading, leafy, stout, erect, smooth and pale yellowish green in color, branching repeatedly in a forked manner. Leaves are hairy, big, simple dentate, oval glabrous, apposite veins of leaves are pale black, stalked, 4-6 inch long, ovate and pale green. The upper surface is dark and grayish-green, generally smooth, the under surface paler, and when dried, minutely wrinkled. D. stramonium bears funnel shaped, white or purple colored flowers, with 5 stamens and superior ovary. The average length of flower is about 3 inches. The calyx is long, tubular and somewhat a swollen below and very sharply five angled surmounted by five sharp teeth. Corolla is funnel shaped. Stem stalk is pale blue or greenish white. Seeds are black, kidney shape and flat. Fruits are as large as walnuts and full of thorns (hence the English name "thorn apple"). The plant is strong narcotic, but has a peculiar action on the human which renders it very valuable as medicines. The whole plant is poisonous and the seeds are the most active; neither dying nor boiling destroys the poisonous properties. The symptoms of acute Jimsonweed poisoning included dryness of the mouth and extreme thirst, dryness of the skin, pupil dilate ion, impaired vision, urinary retention, rapid heartbeat, confusion, restlessness, hallucinations, and loss of consciousness. Origin and Distribution D. stramonium is probably originated in Caspian Sea territories and spread to Europe in the first century. At present it grows in waste places in Europe, Asia, America and South Africa. D. stramonium is cultivated in Germany, France, Hungary, South America and throughout the world. In Nepal, it is grown in temperate region. It mostly appears as weed. It's commercial cultivation has yet to be prevalent. It is generally cultivated in small scale with objective of consuming during Shiva Raatri in early February. Cultivation Thorn apple is easily cultivated, growing well in open, sunny situation. Datura species are usually planted annually from the seed produced in the spiny pods, but with care, plants can be overwintered. Most species are suited to being planted outside or in containers. As a rule, they need warm, sunny places and soil that will keep their roots dry. When grown outdoors in good locations, the plants tend to reseed themselves and may become invasive. In containers, they should have porous, aerated potting soil with adequate drainage. The plants are susceptible to fungi in the root area, so organic enrichment such as compost and manure should be avoided. Climate Datura grows easily under different climatic conditions. It has been grown from deserts to cool temperate forests. However, it is a warm-loving plant and grows well above 25°C. There is a minimum temperature which a plant can sustain. D. stramonium can tolerate temperatures down to -18°C but this differs according to species. Soil It flourishes in most moderately good soil but grows best in calcareous rich soil, or in a good sandy loam, with leaf mould added. Heavy or tight soil should be avoided. Optimum pH is 6.5-8. Varieties Out of 9 recognized species of Datura, only 2 are of commercial importance: D. stramonium and D. inoxia. Important varieties are Double Purple, Evening Fragrance and Indian Datura. Propagation The primary method of propagation in Datura is stem-tip cutting. Softwood cutting is taken in summer and raised until rooting in misty condition for commercial propagation. After that they are transferred to the field. Datura is also propagated by seed. Seeds are sown in summer and they germinate and emerge outside soil within 3-6 weeks. Sometimes, root cutting are also used. They are propagated under misty environment too. Spacing Seeds are sown in open in May, in drill 3 feet apart, barely covered. Sown thinly, as the plants attain a good size and grow freely from seed. Interculture Thin out the young plants to a distance of 12 to 15 inches between each plant. The soil should be kept free from weeds in the early stages. If the summer is hot and dry, give a mulching of rotted cow-manure. Harvest If grown for leaf crop, the capsule should be picked off as soon as formed, as in a wind the spines tear the leaves. In August the plant reaches to a height of 1 meter and bears flowers and fruits. In the end of August stems with leaves and flowering tops are collected and dried as soon as possible at 45 °C to 50 °C. The leaves should be gathered when the plant is in full bloom and carefully dried. They are generally harvested in late summer. In August, the crop is cut by the sickle on a fine day in the morning, after the sun has dried off the dew, and the leaves are stripped from the stem, dried carefully as quickly as possible. Ethanomedical uses Plant derived drugs come into use in the modern medicine through the uses of plant material as indigenous cure in folklore or traditional systems of medicine. The leaves of D. stramonium L. are used for the relief of headache and vapours of leaf infusion is used to relive the pain of rheumatism and gout. The smoke from the burning leaf is inhaled for the relief of asthma and bronchitis. European remedy of D. stramonium for hemorrhoid is to steam the part over boiling water containing leaf. The fruit juice is applied to the scalp for the treatment of falling hair and dandruff. It is also applied to smooth painful wounds and sores. Seeds and leaves of D. stramonium were used to sedate hysterical and psychotic patients, also to treat insomnia. D. stramonium was used as hallucinogenic drug. It is also used to relax the smooth muscles of the bronchial tube and asthmatic bronchial spasm. It was reported that D. stramonium was used internally to treat madness, epilepsy and depression. Externally it forms the basis of ointment for burns and rheumatism. It is also used in the treatment of Parkinsonism and hemorrhoids. Its leaves, applied after roasting, are useful in relieving pain. The bitter narcotic plant relieves pain and encourages the healing process. The seeds of the plant are medicinally the most active. Externally, the plant is used as a poultice in treating fistulas, abscesses wounds and severe neuralgia. Scopolamine is also found in the plant, which makes it a potent cholinergic-blocki hallucinogen that has been used to calm schizoid patients. Its leaves, containing hyoscyamine and atropine, can be used as an immensely powerful mind-altering drug. The seeds of Datura are analgesic, anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory and as such, they are used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal pain that results from worm infestation, toothache, and fever from inflammation. The juice of its fruit is applied to the scalp, to treat dandruff and falling hair. The growing plant works as an insect repellant, which protects neighboring plants from insects. Phytochemicals The major tropane alkaloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine and several minor tropane alkaloids have been identified in Datura species. Typical examples of minor alkaloids in D. stramonium are tigloidin, aposcopolamine, apoatropin, hyoscyamine N-oxide and scopolamine N-oxide17-20. The production of hycyamine and scopolamine in D. stramonium has been investigated in the different plant parts, at different stages of their life cycle. The maximum contents were found in the stems and leaves of young plants, hyocyamine being always the predominate component. These compounds were included in many pharmacopieas because of their anticholinergic activities. D. stramonium contain variety of alkaloids including atropine, hyoscamine and scopolamine. Sixty-four tropane alkaloids have been detected from D. stramonium. The phytochemical analysis of the plant revealed that D. stramonium contained saponins, tannins and alkaloids and glycosides. Pharmacological activity Antiasthmatic activity D. stramonium in asthma treatment and possible effects on prenatal development was studied. Exposure of the fetus to D. stramonium when a mother use it for asthma, will cause a continuous release of acetylcholine, resulting in the desensitization of nicotinic receptors, this could ultimately result in permanent damage to the fetus. Therefore we conclude that this African herbal remedy should be used with caution during pregnancy. Anticholinergic activity The alkaloids found in D. stramonium, are organic esters used clinically as anticholinergic agents. Jimson weed has been reported as a drug of abuse and has been involved in the accidental poisoning of humans and animals. Symptoms of acute jimson weed poisoning included dryness of the mouth and extreme thirst, dryness of the skin, pupil dilation and impaired vision, urinary retention, rapid heartbeat, confusion, restlessness, hallucinations, and loss of consciousness. The anticholinergic syndrome results from the inhibition of central and peripheral muscarinic neurotransmission. Antimicrobial Activity The methanol extracts of D. stramonium and Datura inoxia showed activity against Gram positive bacteria in a dose dependent manner. Little or no antimicrobial activity was found against Escherichia coli and Psuedomonas aeruginosa. The anti-microbial activity of combined crude ethanolic extract of D. stramonium, Terminalia arjuna and Withania somnifera in cup plate diffusion method for antibacterial and antifungal activity. The extracts were subjected to screening to detect potential antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteus and Candida albicans with compare Ciprofloxacin standard drug. Anticancer activity An integrated approach is needed to manage cancer using the growing body of knowledge gained through scientific developments. Thousands of herbal and traditional compounds are being screened worldwide to validate their use as anti-cancerous drugs. D. stramonium in therapeutic dose of 0.05-0.10 g was used to cure cancer. Likely unsafe produce vomiting, hypertension, loss of consciousness may lead to coma but may interact with anti-cholinergic drugs. Antiinflamatory activity Coriandrum sativum, D. stramonium and Azadirachta indicia are traditionally used in treatment of inflammation. Ethanolic extracts of fruits of C. sativum, leaves of D. stramonium and A. indica were subjected to preliminary screening for anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats. All ethanolic extracts exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to the standard drug diclofenac sodium against carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. Larvicidal and mosquito repellent activities Ethanolic extracts of leaves of D. stramonium were evaluated for larvicidal and mosquito repellent activities against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The LD50 values for larvicidal activity were found to be 86.25, 16.07 and 6.25 mg/L against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively. The ethanolic leaves extract of D. stramonium provided complete protection time (mosquito repellency) of 2.7, 71.7 and 117.7 min against them respectively at higher concentration (1%). Pesticide toxicity Extract of D. stramonium was effective in countering the toxicity of the cypermethrin pesticide toxicity. Antifungal activity Antifungal activity of a concoction brewed from D. stramonium, Calotropis gigantea, A. indica and cow manure (T1) against Fusarium mangiferae. The study proved that the concoction-brewed compost T1 is effective, inexpensive, easy to prepare and constitutes a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to control floral malformation in mango when it is sprayed at bud break stage and again at fruit set stage. Vibriocidal activity A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinal plants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. The results indicated that D. stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents. Toxicity studies Toxicity studies of ethanol extract of the leaves of D. stramonium was done in rats. After acute i.p. administration, there were no remarkable changes in general appearance and no deaths occurred in any experimental group. Twenty four hour after total alkaloids of seeds, a significant reduction in indices of liver, spleen brain and kidney function and some biochemical and haematological parameters were observed. Feed intake, final body weight, billurubin, total protein, urea and the electrolyte studied were not affected by the extract administration. Serum creatinine levels were however significantly raised in the rats administered with ethanol extract. The biochemical and haematological parameters were also affected. Diarrhoea and hypoactivity were observed. The relative weight of liver was significantly less than that of the control group. Biopesticide with antifungal activity Biopesticides (leaf extracts) obtained D. stramonium showed antifungal activities against the fungal pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum) of wilt of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.). Both in vivo and in vitro higher concentration of ethanotic leaf extracts showed complete inhibition in linear growth and sporulation in test fungi. Protective agent in severe organophosphate toxicity Treatment of patients following an organophosphate (OP) exposure can deplete a hospital's entire supply of atropine. There exists a need for either greater atropine stores or the development of alternative antidotes. D. stramonium contains atropine and other anticholinergic compounds and is common and readily available. It is used recreationally for its central anticholinergic effects and is easy to be made into an extract by boiling the crushed seeds. The extract has rapid onset of effects and may be useful for treatment of OP poisoning. Pretreatment with D. stramonium extracts significantly increases survival following severe dichlorvos exposure. Folklore medicine and Beliefs D. stramonium Linn is one of the widely well-known folklore medicinal herb. D. stramonium is a plant with both poisonous and medicinal properties and has been proven to have great pharmacological potential with a great utility and usage as folklore medicine. From ancient civilization it was traditionally used for religious visionary purposes throughout the world and used by witchcraft in medieval Europe. The god Lord Shiva was known to smoke Cannabis and Datura. People still provide the small thorn apple in feasts as offerings in Shiva icons at temples. Post-harvest management If the leaves and flowering tops are harvested, they must be dried as soon as possible at 45 °C to 50 °C. If seed is collected, it should be dried and the active ingredients atropine and scopolamine are extracted by boiling.
Safety aspect Careful consideration of the toxicity of the plant is required before its use. Its ingestion induces characteristic symptoms. The mouth becomes dry, an intense thirst develops, the vision gets blurred with prominent mydriasis and the heart rate increases. This is followed by hallucinations, delirium, and loss of motor coordination which may lead to command ultimately to death by respiratory failure. Marketing and export potentiality The product can be marketed in different commercial pharmaceutical and herbal firms located in Nepal. Datura hasn't been significantly exploited in Nepal, which makes it a cherry-pick enterprise for production and marketing thoughout the country. It has high demand in Europe, East Asia and even in India. Unit cost In the present model, the unit cost for the development of Aloe vera in 1 ha of land works out to be about two lakh rupees. Relatively, more cost falls under harvest/extraction rather than cultivation. This may be modified to suit the local conditions taking into account the different techno-economic parameters prevailing in the locality. Conclusion Present review gives a broad information about the bioactive constituents, ethnopharmacology along with the scientifically claimed medicinal uses of D. stramonium. Several alkaloids, carbohydrates, fat, proteins and tannins have been reported to be present in different parts of D. stramonium. The plant shows various types of activities such as analgesic and antiasthamatic activity which may be due to the presence of the investigated active chemical constituents. The pharmacological studies so far have been performed in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, there is a need of investigation and quantification of phytoconstituents and pharmacological profile. References
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BY DAVID COIL "I'm going to raid the pharmacy, treat you with tetracycline, and then give you a fungal infection." "Oh yeah, I'm going to give you botulism!" "That's fine because I'm going to give myself a fecal transplant." SHORT VERSION OF THE RULES (FOR PEOPLE WHO DON'T LIKE TO READ) 1. You can only play one Microbe per turn, otherwise play as many cards per turn as you'd like.