"N" - No Medical Care:

neurvanaedge.com

The Role and Use of PEA in Depression & Neurobehavioral Disorders by DR RICHARD CLARK KAUFMAN The Phenylethylamine Hypothesis of Depression According to the "Phenylethylamine Hypothesis of Depression" proposed in 1974, the endogenous trace amine Beta- Phenylethylamine (PEA) sustains psychological energy just as thyroid hormone sustains physical energy And a deficit of PEA produces depressions. The Phenylethylamine hypothesis goes on to state that PEA is a neuromodulator of mood, attention, pleasure-seeking behavior, and libido. The phenylethylamine hypothesis led to simple safe and effective way of treating depression and other affective disorders by based on years of research conducted by Dr. Hector Sabelli and colleagues. Take an oral replacement of PEA as replacement to correct an underlying deficiency or defect in neural transmitter functioning. The majorities of depressed individuals show a significant reduction in their symptoms or have complete recovery without any adverse reactions. Plus, there're is significant increases in cognitive performance functions, attention, awareness, and feelings of pleasure, libido, normal social behavior and sense of wellbeing. PEA. More than Endogenous Amphetamine in our Brain The Phenylethylamine Hypothesis of Depression stems from the observation that amphetamines increased energy and relieved depressive symptoms of depressive patients. Amphetamine is essentially phenylethylamine with an added methyl group. Studies show that PEA induces behavioral and electrophysiological effects similar to those of amphetamine. Unlike amphetamine, PEA is endogenous to the brain and does not develop tolerance or dependency, or produce any side effects. The stimulant effects of amphetamines and PEA are attributed to the release of catecholamines (noradrenalin, dopamine). This is the basis for the catecholamine hypothesis of depression. However current research shows that PEA is significantly more effective than amphetamine in relieving depression and has therapeutic value in a wide range of neurological and behavioral disorders, Endogenous Mesencephalic Enhancer and Transmitter Signal Amplifier Starting around 1995, Dr Joesph Knoll and his colleagues began presenting their evidence of PEA as an endogenous "mesencephalic enhancer". There are enhancer-sensitive neurons in the brain work in a split-second on a high activity level due to endogenous enhancer substances. The mesencephalic enhancer PEA enhancers of the impulse propagation mediated release of catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine) and serotonin in the brain.

nt.swimming.org.au

NORTHERN TERRITORY INSTITUTE OF SPORT Northern Territory Institute of Sport Sports Supplement Guidelines (as at 24 May 2013) Overview - This NTIS Sports Supplement Guidelines document provides advice and direction on use of supplements for NTIS athletes, coaches and service providers. The Guidelines follow recommendations made by the AIS Sports Supplement Panel, whose membership includes people

nmu.edu

2014–2015 Student Injury and Sickness Insurance Plan for Northern Michigan University Who is eligible to enroll? All eligible registered students taking credit hours are required to enroll in the plan on a Hard Waiver basis. Eligible Dependents of students enrolled in the Student Health Insurance plan may participate in the plan on a voluntary basis. Eligible Dependents are the student's spouse and dependent children under 26 years of age.

ndma.co.sz

National Multi Hazard Contingency Plan 2012 to 2013 July 2012 KINDGOM OF SWAZILAND Page 1 of 107 FOREWORD The impact of global climate change has not spared Swaziland. Climate and weather experts have predicted that this country, like other countries in the world, will experience climate change that will inhibit human development and food security in the short and longer terms. Swaziland has experienced an increase in hazardous events like flash floods, drought, storms, extreme temperatures, wildfire, disease outbreaks, significant damage to ecosystems, threats to agriculture production and food security. These hazards have become more frequent and intense. This year alone, the country experienced threats from cyclone Dando and Irina, respectively albeit without causing any significant adverse effects revealing Swaziland's vulnerability to such climate and weather hazards. Natural hazards such as cyclones cannot be prevented from occurring, but their effects can be mitigated through early warning systems and effective emergency preparedness, mitigation, disaster response and early recovery systems. As a result of extreme climatic events, the country has experienced numerous droughts; effects of which reduced food production and threatening food security, human, financial and other losses. It is presented that many countries across the globe will see a fall in gross domestic product (GDP) with the dry spells cutting down agricultural production. The fiscal crisis in the country is occurring in the background of a fragile risk profile resulting from threats of natural hazards such as cyclones, storms, flash floods, drought/dry spells with possibility of triggering outbreak of epidemics such as cholera, waterborne diseases and malaria. The fiscal crisis, compounded b y r i s i n g f o o d p r i c e s , severely impacts p o o r e r households and vulnerable groups such as households with members living with HIV. All these challenges have motivated the country to develop the Multi Hazard Contingency plans in order to better prepare and mitigate the adverse effects of potential weather and climate hazards. The National Multi Hazard Contingency Plan (MHCP) demonstrates Government's commitment to preventing and mitigating the effects of natural disasters. Successful implementation of the plan requires concerted efforts and collaboration from all stakeholders. I am informed that the plan was developed through a participatory and inclusive multi-sectoral process involving stakeholders from Government, the United Nations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the Private Sector. I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to all stakeholders for their inputs and collaboration in ensuring effective and successful prevention and mitigation of effects of natural disasters and protecting livelihoods of the Swazi Nation. Deputy Prime Minister Senator Themba N. Masuku

Management of psychosis in parkinson disease

Management of Psychosis in Parkinson DiseasePublished on Neurology Times (http://www.neurologytimes.com) Management of Psychosis in Parkinson Disease May 01, 2014 [1]By [2] and [3] For some patients with Parkinson disease, the neuropsychiatric complications are a greater sourceof morbidity than the motor dysfunction. This article focuses on the management of psychosis inParkinson disease.

A semantic graph-based approach to biomedical summarisation

Contents lists available at Artificial Intelligence in Medicine A semantic graph-based approach to biomedical summarisation Laura Plaza , Alberto Díaz, Pablo Gervás Departamento de Ingeniería del Software e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, C/Profesor José García Santesmases, s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain Objective: Access to the vast body of research literature that is available in biomedicine and related

nosology.info

Appendix: A Proposed Approach to Nosology © Ronald B. David, MD While the practice of medicine has experienced major technological advances in recent years, nosologic systems (e.g., International Classification of Diseases – 10 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual – IV of the American Psychiatric Association) present at times a confusing array of diagnostic possibilities. Many diseases/disorders may even be represented in more than one place in the diagnostic system. Lack of a comprehensive framework leads to diagnostic confusion in the clinical, teaching, and often in the research setting. Clearly, organization and orderliness are needed to better discriminate between entities. Webster's International Dictionary defines nosology as the branch of medical science that deals with the orderly classification of diseases. My purpose is to propose such a system. This system will submit a priori that if a disease/disorder exists, there must also exist features which discriminate it from similar entities. It is clinically derived by expert opinion, categorical and multi-dimensional. Where the state of the art permits, discriminators have been empirically validated.

Microsoft word - kai 1_2015 final_en _kh-a he mrh tita2.docx

SERIAL PUBLICATION 1/2015 NATIONAL OTC MEDICINES PROGRAMME NATIONAL OTC MEDICINES Serial Publication Fimea Develops, Assesses and Informs 1/2015 © Finnish Medicines Agency Fimea 2015 Publisher Finnish Medicines Agency Fimea Postal address: P.O. Box 55, FI-00034 FIMEA Telephone: +358 29 522 3341 www.fimea.fi ISBN 978-952-5624-51-9 ISSN-L 1799-7135 ISSN 1799-7135 (printed) ISSN 1799-7143 (web)

naturesaide.com

Nature's Aide® Vitamins Nature's Aide® Vitamins Takes the Ache Out of Flu Season Every year it seems the common cold and the current year's flu bring a little more misery than the year before—racking coughs, drips, sniffles, sinuses that feel as if they've been hit with a blowtorch, aches in places most of us didn't know could ache—you've been there. We all have.

Jlemrh00249 1.13

Magnesium Research 2010; 23 (2): 1-13 Magnesium and cardiovascular system Leviev Heart Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomern and the Sackler Facultyof Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, IsraelCorrespondence: M.Shechter, MD, MA, FESC, FACC, FAHA, FACN, Director, Clinical Research Unit, Leviev Heart Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, 52621 Tel Hashomer, Israel

neuropathytreatmentgroup.com

Neuropathy Treatment Myths Revealed Millions of people suffer daily from the pain associated with peripheral neuropathy. If you or someone you know is looking for relief, then this important message might help change everything. What is Neuropathy?Think of the lack of sensation felt when touching something while wearing gloves, or

November node call agenda

Joining Organizations In Tackling SSIs SCPSF Collaborative Meeting "Learning from Each Other" Kathy Duncan, RN Faculty, Institute for Healthcare Improvement November 5, 2013 The Case for Improvement • 327,000 total hip (THA) and 676,000 total knee (TKA) arthroplasties are performed annually in the US

Microsoft word - bpnormalize_medscape.doc

BUPROPION NORMALIZES COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN PATIENTS WITH DEPRESSION C Thomas Gualtieri MD Lynda G Johnson, PhD North Carolina Neuropsychiatry Clinics 400 Franklin Square 1829 East Franklin St Chapel Hill, NC 27514 919-933-2830 fax tg@ncneuropsych.com Patients with mood disorders are known to have neurocognitive deficits in many, if not most, cognitive domains (1). In a recent paper, we showed that depressed patients on modern antidepressants had, in spite of successful treatment, residual deficits in tests of effortful attention, executive function and information processing speed (2). Although the cognitive impairments associated with depression are improved by effective antidepressant therapy, they do not tend to normalize (3,4,5,6).

Rainbow diary - insides.pmd

Copyright © John Malathronas, 2005 The right of John Malathronas to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. Condition of Sale This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated in any form of

Sab

A. Richtlinien für die Aufnahme Es ist anfragenden Ärzten immer anzuraten, alle Patienten mit Verdacht auf SAB oder gesicherter SAB sofort zuzuweisen, wenn dies der Zustand erlaubt. Von der Durchführung einer Angiographie im auswärtigen Krankenhaus ist abzuraten. Bei bewusstlosen Patienten neurochirurgische Notfallsituation, welche eine sofortige Einweisung erforderlich macht. Gleiches gilt für SAB-

ndci.org

Drug Court Practitioner Prepared by the National Association of Drug Court Professionals under subcontract to JBS International, Inc. (Contract No. HHSS2832007000031/HHSS28300002T) Extended-Release NaltrexoneBy Joshua D. Lee, M.D., M.Sc., Assistant Professor, NYU School of Medicine E xtended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX, aka VivitrolTM) is the newest FDA-approved

nationalauditprojects.org.uk

Drug errors and awake paralysis Jonathan H Mackay headline13.1. This chapter describes cases of brief awake paralysis reported to NAP5, as a result of drug errors that led to a neuromuscular drug being administered without prior anaesthesia. Although it can be argued that these cases are not technically ‘accidental awareness during general anaesthesia' the experiences and consequences for the patient

Using a multi-stakeholder approach to improve governance in pharmaceutical procurement

THE ZAMBIA CASE STUDY REPORT on Documented Evidence that Civil Society is Influencing Pharmaceutical Policies and Decisions Relating to Access to Medicines in SADC Countries. October 2013 Disclaimer: This document has been prepared for the UK Department for International Development. Re-Action Consulting (PTY) Ltd. and its sub-contracted partners in the Responsible Action Consortium accept no responsibility or liability for the consequences of this document being used in ways that are not responsible or for a purpose other than those for which it was commissioned. Any agreement, to indemnify Re-Action Consulting and its sub-contracted partners for all loss or damage that might result. The report should not be relied upon or used for any other project without an independent check being carried out as to its suitability and the prior written authority of the Responsible Action Consortium. We accept no responsibility or liability for this document to any party other than the entity by which it was commissioned. To the extent that this report is based on information supplied by other parties, we accept no liability for any loss or damage suffered by the client, whether contractual or tortuous, stemming from any conclusions based on data supplied by parties other than Re-Action Consulting (PTY) Ltd and used by the Responsible Action Consortium sub-contractors in preparing this report.

Microsoft word - 1. cover page

NIGERIAN COLLEGE OF AVIATION TECHNOLOGY, ZARIA FLYING SCHOOL SYLLABI (FSSYL 012) JUNE, 2012 NCAT FLYING SCHOOL SYLLABI TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents List of Effective Pages Amendment Procedures Record of Amendments Distribution List CHAPTER ONE:

nltc.com

New Leaf Treatment Center (NLTC) Lafayette, CA Outpatient Sedative-Hypnotic Detoxification: Symptom-guided Detoxification Using Replacement and Adjunctive Medications Alex Stalcup, M.D., Linda Hickman, R.N., B.S.N., M.A., Gantt P. Galloway, Pharm.D. Introduction: Addiction and dependency are a disease of the pleasure-producing chemistry of the brain. The principal mechanism of addictive disease is the brain's relentless neuroadaptation induced by over-exposure to psychoactive chemicals. A period of regular sedative-hypnotic substance use will produce these adaptive changes in the brain. As a result of this neuroadaptation, sedative-hypnotics are often used addictively and when prescribed patients all too easily fall into dependent use patterns. For dependent individuals, abrupt discontinuation of sedative-hypnotics can result in life-threatening or fatal withdrawal symptoms. The harmful effects of sedative-hypnotic dependency include impaired cognition (memory and concentration are challenged), emotional blunting (failure to process emotional experiences such as loss), weakness and poor coordination (increasing the risk of injury) and worsening anxiety as tolerance develops. Whether the dependency is the result self-administration practices or arises out of the all too common over-prescribing of benzodiazepine tranquilizers and addictive sleep aides, the fact remains that managing the appearance of side effects or withdrawal poses a difficult challenge to the user and the clinician. Withdrawal from any psychoactive drug results in mood and functional disturbance: dysphoria, anergia, anhedonia and craving for the drug. Cessation of sedative-hypnotic drug use (or tolerance unmet by the current dose) typically causes a cluster of withdrawal symptoms. These withdrawal symptoms tend to be the opposite of the symptoms the sedative-hypnotic drug was designed to control. As such, the hallmark of benzodiazepine withdrawal symptom is anxiety. Dependence produces withdrawal symptoms which range from tachycardia, hypertension, confusion, with delirium and seizures characterizing the most severe cases (see NLTC website for a copy of the Sedative-Hypnotic Symptom Assessment Key which provides a list of typical withdrawal symptoms and a method for scoring symptom severity). Dependent individuals begin to report withdrawal symptoms between doses because tolerance needs are not being met with the current dosing regimen The intensity and health risks of withdrawal symptoms will be influenced by many variables (e.g. which sedative-hypnotics have been used, dosage, duration of dependency, number of withdrawal experiences producing kindling effects and individual physiology). We note that it has long been known that chronic alcoholics are at risk for fatal seizures if alcohol is abruptly discontinued, yet all too often the same logic is not applied to abrupt discontinuation of other sedative-hypnotics when in fact the same risk exists. The protracted suffering and distress of withdrawal leaves the user dysfunctional and at high risk of relapse. Therefore, optimal treatment of any addiction or dependence ought to focus on minimizing, and

Nesoj layout vol-3, n-1.pmd

NJOG 2008 May-June; 3(1): 3 - 9 New concepts in pathogenesis and management of polycystic ovarian syndrome: Insulin resistance and role of insulin sensitizers Rashmi Prasad Yadav National Academy of Medical Sciences, Bir Hospital. AbstractPolycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is classically characterized by the clinical triad of androgen excess,anovulation infertility and obesity. Anovulation occurs due to functional ovarian and/or adrenalhyperandrogenism. The etiology and patho physiology of PCOS is unknown .Proposed theories includeexcess of gonadotropins; the effect of which is amplified by disturbances in intrinsic regulatory peptides, suchas inhibin or extrinsic regulatory peptides, such as insulin or insulin like growth factor ( IGF). For over 25years insulin resistance has been known to be associated with PCOS. Improvement in insulin resistance withthe use of insulin sensitizers, such as metformin and thiazoldinediones (TZDs) have been seen to be associatedwith better ovulation and reduced testosterone levels in patients with PCOS.

nebraska.edu

January 2015 Formulary Drug Removals Below is a list of medicines by drug class that have been removed from your plan's formulary. This list is effective January 1, 2015. If you continue using one of the drugs listed below and identified as a Formulary Drug Removal after this date, you may be required to pay the full cost. If you are currently using one of the formulary drug removals, ask your doctor to choose one of the generic or brand formulary consideration options listed below.

Minimally invasive calcaneus fracture treatment

Sinus Tarsi Approach to Financial Disclosure Calcaneus Fracture Evolution or Revolution Marc J. Michaud MD New Hampshire Orthopaedic Center January 24, 2014 Calcaneus Fractures Eric M. Bluman, MD, PhD Most common tarsal bone Assistant Professor Harvard Medical School 1-2% of all bone fractures Lew C. Schon, MD Typically from an axial load: Fall from height

Guidelines for gastroenteritis

GUIDELINES FOR PREVENTION & CONTROL OF ACUTE WATERY Updated: June 2014 Epidemic Investigation Cell Public Health Laboratories Division National Institute of Health, Islamabad Tel: 051- 9255237, 9255238, Fax: 051-9255575, 9255118, 9255099 Table of Contents Acute Watery Diarrhea Invasive (bloody) Diarrhea/Dysentery

neurotalk.psychcentral.com

Pain Physician 2007; 10:573-578 • ISSN 1533-3159 Case Report Treatment of CRPS with ECT Marie Wojcik Wolanin,MD, Vasko Gulevski, MD, and Robert J. Schwartzman, MD From: Drexel University College of Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a well-established treatment method for medically refractory depression. ECT has also been used in the treatment of pain for

nyhiv.com

POLICY COMMITTEE Adrian Guzman, JD, MPH and Matthew Lesieur, MA, Co-Chairs Village Care at 120 Broadway, Suite 2840 10:00 am – 12:00 pm Members Present: Yves Gebhardt, Adrian Guzman, Matthew Lesieur, Jason Lippman, Amanda Lugg, Jan Carl Park, Kimberleigh Smith Members Absent: Graham Harriman, Esther Lok, Paul Meissner, Carlos Rosario, Lyndel Urbano

Response to nwc review

Proactive Security Policy Enforcement: A Practical Approach September 2003 Contents Battling a constant barrage of worms, viruses and attacks on enterprise systems, IT and security administrators are seeking more efficient and effective ways to protect information assets. Worm-weary security professionals seem to be constantly

Microsoft word - tp cucumis melo 104-2.docx

CPVO-TP/104/2 Final Date: 21/03/2007 European Union Community Plant Variety Office PROTOCOL FOR DISTINCTNESS, UNIFORMITY AND STABILITY TESTS Cucumis melo L. UPOV Species Code: CUCUM_MEL Adopted on 21/03/2007 CPVO-TP/104/2 Final Date: 21/03/2007 SUBJECT OF THE PROTOCOL The protocol describes the technical procedures to be followed in order to meet the Council Regulation (EC) No. 2100/94 on Community Plant Variety Rights. The technical procedures have been agreed by the Administrative Council and are based on general UPOV Document TG/1/3 and UPOV Guideline TG/104/5 dated 05/04/2006 for the conduct of tests for Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability. This protocol applies for all varieties of Cucumis melo L.

nuthalapaty.net

Users' Guides to the Medical LiteratureXIX. Applying Clinical Trial ResultsA. How to Use an Article Measuring the Effectof an Intervention on Surrogate End Points Heiner C. Bucher, MD, MPH THE SEARCH dial infarction, and CD4 cell count for Gordon H. Guyatt, MD, MSc Using MEDLINE you identify a study acquired immunodeficiency syn-

Microsoft word - israel-for-16-to-27-march-2014.docx

ISRAEL  BIRD  REPORT  for  period  16  to  27  March  2014    By  Joan  and  Paddy  Heyland,  members  of  The  Northumberland  and  Tyneside  Bird  Club.    Objectives:    To  observe  raptor  and  passerine  migration  @  Eilat  To  observe  resident  birds.  To  increase  life  and  Western  Palearctic  Tick  Lists  

Rd09-frx-forrd41

Food Interactions with Prescription Drugs By Karen Lilyquist, RN, RD, PhD, LD Julie Stefanski, RDN, MEd, LDN, CDE Goal and Objectives The goal of this prescription drug-food interaction continuing education module is to inform dietitians, dietary managers, fitness professionals, health educators and occupational therapists regarding the adverse effects and effectiveness of prescription drugs caused by the intake of certain food, food substances and dietary supplements. After reading this module, the participant will be able to:

P1512013 levetiracetam os mg

Levetiracetam Oral Solution USP (lee'' va tye ra' se tam) Read this Medication Guide before you start taking levetiracetam oral solution and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This information does not take the place of talking to your healthcare provider about your medical condition or treatment. What is the most important information I should know about

Urinaryincontinence

Volume 23 No. 4 July/August 2006 Economic Burden and New Choices in Richard Levy, PhDSenior Research Consultant National Pharmaceutical Council Reston, VirginiaNancy MullerExecutive Director National Association For Continence Charleston, South Carolina ABSTRACTIn the year 2000, an estimated 17 million community-dwelling adults in the United

newlinemedical.com

Dysautonomias: Clinical Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous SystemModerator: David S. Goldstein, MD, PhD; Discussants: David Robertson, MD; Murray Esler, MD; Stephen E. Straus, MD;and Graeme Eisenhofer, PhD The term dysautonomia refers to a change in autonomic nervous sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine to its receptors in

nlinepqa.netonlinepqa.net

teacher's corner foods and melodies may vary. given What's the Big Idea? such diversity, teachers at the Jcc had to determine how we could draw from Making Cultural Practices Meaningful the lives of the children in a way that by Peretz Hirshbein would represent the broad spectrum of Jewish expression in the families we

Anuario05_06.qxd

LA CRISIS ESTÁ EN LOS SERES HUMANOS: DEBEMOS RECUPERAR EL EQUILIBRIODELIA STEINBERG GUZMÁN, PRESIDENTE INTERNACIONAL THE CRISIS IS IN HUMAN BEINGS:WE NEED TO RESTORE BALANCEINTERNATIONAL PRESIDENT, DELIA STEINBERG GUZMÁN OINA,ORGANIZACIÓN INTERNACIONAL NUEVA ACRÓPOLISINTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION NEW ACROPOLIS (IONA) LA OINA EN CIFRASIONA IN FIGURES ACTIVIDADES DE FILOSOFÍAPHILOSOPHY ACTIVITIES

Doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.09.018

Males and Females Respond Differently toControllability and Antidepressant TreatmentBenedetta Leuner, Sabrina Mendolia-Loffredo, and Tracey J. Shors Background: Women are much more likely to suffer from stress-related mental illness than men; yet few, if any, animal models forsuch sex differences exist. Previously, we reported that exposure to an acute stressor enhances learning in male rats yet severely impairslearning in female rats. Here, we tested whether these opposite effects in males versus females could be prevented by establishing controlover the stressor or by antidepressant treatment.Methods: Learning was assessed using the hippocampal-dependent task of trace eyeblink conditioning. In the first experiment, groupsof male and female rats were exposed to controllable or uncontrollable stress and trained. In a second experiment, they were exposedto an uncontrollable stressor after chronic treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine (Prozac). In a final experiment, females wereexposed to uncontrollable stress after acute treatment with fluoxetine.Results: Establishing control over the stressful experience eliminated the detrimental effect of stress on learning in females as well asthe enhancing effect of stress in males. Moreover, chronic but not acute treatment with fluoxetine prevented the learning deficit infemales after exposure to stress. Treatment with fluoxetine did not alter the male response to stress.Conclusions: These data indicate that males and females not only respond in opposite directions to the same stressful event but alsorespond differently to controllability and antidepressant treatments.

nolaacupuncture.com

3712 MacArthur Blvd. Ste 208. New Orleans, LA 70114 Tel. 504-362-8020 www.nolaacupuncture.com Treating Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with TCM Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among female in reproductive age. The name of the condition comes from the appearance of numerous small cysts along the outer edge of each ovary and enlarged ovaries. In PCOS, the eggs in these fol icles do not mature and are not released from the ovaries; instead, they can form very small cysts in the ovary.

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