WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on BIOLOGY Satish G. Pingale, Madhukar A. Badgujar, Kiran V. Mangaonkar, Nikos E. Mastorakis Determination of amoxicillin in human plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a bioequivalence study SATISH G. PINGALE1, MADHUKARA. BADGUJAR1, KIRAN V. MANGAONKAR1, NIKOS E. MASTORAKIS2 1 Analytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Mithibai College
Trental (pentoxifylline)PRODUCT MONOGRAPH
(pentoxifylline sustained release tablets, 400 mg Mfr. Std.) Vasoactive agent ATC Code : C04AD03 2150 St. Elzear Blvd. West Laval, Quebec H7L 4A8 Submission Control No.: 142355 s-a 4.0 Version dated March 30, 2011 Page 1 of 21 Table of Contents
PART I: HEALTH PROFESSIONAL INFORMATION. 3
SUMMARY PRODUCT INFORMATION. 3 INDICATIONS AND CLINICAL USE . 3 CONTRAINDICATIONS . 3 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS . 4 ADVERSE REACTIONS. 5 DRUG INTERACTIONS . 7 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION . 8 OVERDOSAGE . 8 ACTION AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY. 9 STORAGE AND STABILITY . 9 DOSAGE FORMS, COMPOSITION AND PACKAGING . 10 PART II: SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION . 11
PHARMACEUTICAL INFORMATION. 11 DETAILED PHARMACOLOGY . 12 TOXICOLOGY . 14 REFERENCES . 18 PART III: CONSUMER INFORMATION. 20
Page 2 of 21 PrTRENTAL®
(Pentoxifylline) PART I: HEALTH PROFESSIONAL INFORMATION
SUMMARY PRODUCT INFORMATION
Dosage Form /
benzyl alcohol, FD&C red no.3, hydoxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol 8000, povidone, talc, titanium dioxide. INDICATIONS AND CLINICAL USE
Trental® (pentoxifylline) is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of: • patients with chronic occlusive peripheral vascular disorders of the extremities; In such patients Trental may give relief of signs and symptoms of impaired blood flow, such as intermittent claudication or trophic ulcers. The use of Trental (pentoxifylline) is contraindicated in: • Patients who are hypersensitive to pentoxifylline or other xanthines such as caffeine, theophylline and theobromine or to any ingredient in the formulation or component of the container (see DOSAGE FORMS, COMPOSITION AND PACKAGING). • Patients with acute myocardial infraction; • Patients with severe coronary artery disease when, in the physician's judgement, myocardial stimulation might prove harmful; • Patients with hemorrhage (e.g. extensive retinal bleeding) or at risk of increased bleeding; • Patients with peptic ulcers or recent history thereof. Page 3 of 21 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
At the first signs of an anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction, Trental must be discontinued and a
physician must be informed.
Patients with hepatic impairment should be closely monitored during Trental therapy and may
require lower doses. Since Trental (pentoxifylline) is extensively metabolized in the liver, the use
of this drug is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment of liver function
(Child-Pugh class C, score > 9).
Patients with renal impairment (creatinine clearance below 80 mL/min) should be closely
monitored during Trental therapy and may require lower doses. Since Trental (pentoxifylline) is
eliminated through the kidneys, the use of this drug is not recommended in patients with severe
renal impairment (creatinine clearance below 30 mL/min).
Low, labile blood pressure: Caution should be exercised when administering Trental
(pentoxifylline) to patients with low or labile blood pressure. In such patients any dose increase
should be done gradually and careful monitoring is required.
Patients with severe cardiac arrhythmias should be closely monitored during Trental therapy.
The administration of Trental has been associated with bleeding and/or prolonged prothrombin
time (see DRUG INTERACTIONS). The risk of bleeding may be increased by combined
treatment with anticoagulant agents or use in coagulation disorders. Therefore, in patients with
coagulation disorders or being treated with anticoagulant therapy, Trental should be used with
caution and only, when in the physician's judgement, the potential benefit outweighs the risk.
Careful monitoring is required.
Page 4 of 21
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats, mice and rabbits at doses up 23, 2 and 11
times the maximum recommended daily human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired
fertility or harm to the fetus due to pentoxifylline. The drug has been shown to cross the blood-
placenta barrier in mice. There is no adequate experience in pregnant women. Therefore, Trental
is not recommended for women who are, or may become, pregnant unless the expected benefits
for the mothers outweigh the potential risk to the fetus.
Pentoxifylline and its major metabolites are excreted in human milk, following a 400 mg single
oral dose of Trental. The patient should be advised to discontinue nursing or to discontinue
taking the drug depending on the importance of the drug to the mother.
The use of Trental in patients below the age of 18 years is not recommended as safety and
effectiveness have not been established in this age group.
Trental should be used with caution in elderly patients as peak plasma levels of pentoxifylline
and its metabolites are moderately higher in this age group. Elderly patients had a slight increase
in the incidence of some adverse effects. Careful dose adjustment is therefore recommended.
Clinical Trial Adverse Drug Reactions
Because clinical trials are conducted under very specific conditions the adverse reaction rates
observed in the clinical trials may not reflect the rates observed in practice and should not be
compared to the rates in the clinical trials of another drug. Adverse drug reaction information
from clinical trials is useful for identifying drug-related adverse events and for approximating
The most frequent adverse event reported with Trental (pentoxifylline) is nausea (14%).
Individual signs/symptoms listed in the table below occurred at an incidence between 1 and 3%,
except when stated otherwise.
Page 5 of 21 Symptoms
Body as a whole
Central nervous system
Dizziness/light-headedness (9.4%), headache (4.9 %) Gastrointestinal system
Nausea (14%), vomiting (3.4%), abdominal discomfort, bloating, diarrhea, dyspepsia
Less Common Clinical Trial Adverse Drug Reactions (<1%)
Body as a whole: Muscle aches/spasm, weight change, backache, bad taste in mouth, leg
cramps, fever, weakness, sweating.
Cardiovascular: Chest pain, arrhythmia, hypertension, dyspnea, edema, hypotension, angina,
Central nervous system: Drowsiness/sleepiness, tremor, agitation anxiety, confusion, insomnia,
Gastrointestinal: Abdominal burning, abdominal pain, anorexia flatus, constipation,
haemorrhage, heartburn, salivation, dry mouth/throat, hepatitis, jaundice, increased liver
Hemic and lymphatic: Decreased serum fibrinogen, pancytopenia, purpura, thrombocytopenia,
leucopenia, anemia, aplastic anemia.
Hypersensitivity reactions: Pruritis, rash, urticaria, angioedema.
Organs of special sense: Blurred vision, scotoma, lacrimation, epistaxis.
Post-Market Adverse Drug Reactions
Hepatobiliary disorders: Intrahepatic cholestasis.
Immune system disorders: Severe anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction with, for example,
angioneurotic edema, bronchospasms, sometimes shock.
Infections and infestations: Aseptic meningitis.
Investigations: Transaminase elevation.
Psychiatric: Sleep disturbances.
Page 6 of 21 Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Reddening of skin.
Vascular disorder: Haemorrhage
Antacids: In patients with digestive side effects, antacids may be administered with Trental. In
comparative bioavailability study, no interference with absorption of Trental by antacids was
Antihypertensive agents: Trental (pentoxifylline) may potentiate the action of antihypertensive
agents. Patients receiving these agents require blood pressure monitoring and possibly a dose
reduction of the antihypertensive agents.
Anticoagulants: There have been reports of bleeding and/or prolonged prothrombin time in
patients treated with Trental with and without anticoagulants, including vitamin K antagonists, or
platelet aggregation inhibitors. Monitoring of anti-coagulant activity in these patients is
recommended when pentoxifylline is introduced or the dose is changed.
Patients on warfarin should have more frequent monitoring of prothrombin time, while patients
with other risk factors complicated by hemorrhage (e.g. recent surgery) should have periodic
examinations for signs of bleeding, including hematocrit and haemoglobin.
Cimetidine: During concurrent use of cimetidine and pentoxifylline, cimetidine has been shown
to significantly increase the steady-state plasma concentration of pentoxifylline, which may
enhance the possibility of adverse effects.
Erythromycin: No data are available on the possible interaction of Trental and erythromycin.
However concurrent administration of erythromycin and theomycin has resulted in significant
elevation of serum theophylline levels with toxic reactions.
Hypoglycemic agents: The blood-sugar lowering effect of insulin or oral antidiabetic agents
may be potentiated. In patients treated with hypoglycemic agents, a moderate adjustment in the
dose of these agents may be required when Trental is prescribed. Therefore it is recommended
that patients under medication for diabetes mellitus be carefully monitored
Sympathomimetics: Combined use with other xanthines or with sympathomimetics may cause
excessive CNS stimulation.
Theophylline: Although causality has not been established, concurrent use of pentoxifylline
with theophylline has resulted in elevated theophylline plasma levels, which may enhance the
possibility of adverse effects.
Page 7 of 21 Drug-Food Interactions
Interactions with food have not been established.
Interactions with herbal product have not been established.
Interactions with laboratory tests have not been established.
Interactions with lifestyles have not been established.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Recommended Dose and Dosage Adjustment
The recommended starting dosage of Trental (pentoxifylline) is 400 mg twice daily after meals.
The usual dose is 400 mg twice or three times daily. A maximum of 400 mg three times daily
should not be exceeded.
It may take up to two months to obtain full results.
Trental 400 mg sustained release tablets must be swallowed whole.
Overdosage with Trental (pentoxifylline) has been reported in children and adults. Symptoms appear to be dose related and usually occurred 4-5 hours after ingestion and lasted about 12 hours. Initial manifestations of acute overdose with pentoxifylline may be nausea, dizziness, tachycardia, fever, gastrointestinal bleeding – coffee-ground vomiting and areflexia. The highest amount ingested was 80 mg/kg with which flushing, hypotension, convulsions, somnolence, loss of consciousness, fever, and agitation have been observed. All patients recovered. No specific antidote is known. In addition to symptomatic treatment and gastric lavage, special attention must be given to supporting respiration, maintaining systemic blood pressure, and controlling convulsions with intravenous diazepam. Activated charcoal has been used to absorb pentoxifylline in patients who have overdosed. For management of a suspected drug overdose, contact your regional Poison Control Centre. Page 8 of 21 ACTION AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
Mechanism of Action
Trental (pentoxifylline) is a xanthine derivative. It belongs to a group of vasoactive drugs which
improve peripheral blood flow and thus enhance peripheral tissue oxygenation. The mechanism
by which Trental achieves this effect has not been determined, but it is likely that the following
factors are involved:
• Trental, as with other xanthine derivatives, relaxes certain smooth muscles including those of the peripheral vessels, thus causing vasodilatation or preventing spasm. This action, however, may have a limited role in patients with chronic obstructive arterial disease when peripheral vessels are already maximally dilated. • Trental improves flexibility of red blood cells. This increase in the flexibility of red blood cells probably contributes to the improvement of the ability of blood to flow through peripheral vessels (haemorheologic action). This property was seen during in vitro and in vivo experiments with Trental but the correlation between it and the clinical improvement of patients with peripheral vascular diseases has not been determined. • Trental promotes platelet deaggregation.
Improvement of red blood cell flexibility and platelet deaggregation contribute to the decrease in
Pentoxifylline is almost completely absorbed after oral administration. The Trental 400 mg
sustained release tablet showed an initial peak plasma pentoxifylline concentration 2 to 3 hours
post-administration. The drug is extensively metabolized. The active main metabolite 1-(5-
hydroxyhexyl)-3,7-dimethyl-xanthine (metabolite I) is measurable in twice the concentration in
plasma of that of its parent substance. Biotransformation products are almost exclusively
eliminated by the kidneys.
Food intake before the administration of Trental delayed the absorption but did not decrease it.
STORAGE AND STABILITY
Store at room temperature (15 to 30 °C). Protect from light. Protect from moisture and excessive heat. Page 9 of 21 DOSAGE FORMS, COMPOSITION AND PACKAGING
Trental sustained release tablets 400 mg contain 400 mg medicinal ingredient, pentoxifylline.
The qualitative formulation of Trental tablets is: pentoxifylline, benzyl alcohol, FD&C red no.3,
hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol
8000, povidone, talc, titanium dioxide.
Trental (pentoxifylline) is available as 400 mg, pink, oblong, film-coated, sustained release
tablets, packed in Unit Pack boxes of 60 [4x15 clear PVC film and aluminium foil blister-
packed] tablets. One face is debossed with "Trental", the other face is plain.
Page 10 of 21 PART II: SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
name: pentoxifylline Pentoxifylline is a white to creamy white, crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in chloroform and methanol, soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol and slightly soluble in ether. It has a melting point of 104°C to 107°C, within a 3°C range. Page 11 of 21 DETAILED PHARMACOLOGY
In vitro and in vivo Animal Data
In dogs, 10mg/kg/i.v pentoxifylline produced a short but significant drop in BP. 5-15 mg/kg/i.v.
pentoxifylline produced a dose related increase in heart rate and decrease in peripheral resistance
for 30-60 minutes. In dogs, cats, and rats, after 1-3 mg/kg pentoxifylline i.v. the blood pressure,
heart rate and respiration remained practically unchanged whereas higher doses of pentoxifylline
(14-25 mg/kg/i.v.) caused a transient decrease in blood pressure and an increase in heart rate. In
rabbits pentoxifylline (2-10 mg/kg/i.v.) produced a dose related fall in BP. In rabbits, cats and
dogs the respiration was slightly stimulated. The blood pressure response in cats and rabbits after
epinephrine was slightly inhibited by pentoxifylline. The i.v. administration of pentoxifylline or
aminophylline in doses of 3-10 mg/kg to cats resulted in a 20 and 35 % increase on dp/dt
Femoral musculature circulation in cat, measured indirectly by heat-conduction probe, was
increased by pentoxifylline (10-50 mg/kg/p.o. and 1-20 mg/kg/i.v.) and papaverine (1 mg/kg/i.v)
while aminophylline (1-10 mg/kg/i.v) was without effect. In hepatic circulation in cat,
pentoxifylline (2 mg/kg/i.v) was as effective as papaverine (1 mg/kg/i.v.) in increasing blood
In carotid artery blood of anaesthetized cat, pentoxifylline (5 mg/kg/i.v.) produced a 5.8 mmHg
increase in PO2 whereas papaverine, (1 mg/kg/i.v) produced a 4.0 mmHg increase,
aminophylline 3 mg/kg/i.v. produced a 1 mmHg increase in PO2 and 5 mg/kg/i.v. reduce O2 tension 1mmHg. Reserpine pre-treatment did not influence the positive chronotropic effect of pentoxifylline in rats. On isolated rabbit hind limb, pentoxifylline-induced vasodilatation was comparable to acetylcholine-induced vasodilatation at equal doses. In isolated guinea pig heart preparation, pentoxifylline (30-600 μg) produced no significant effect on contractility or heart rate and small increase in coronary flow while aminophylline (30-808 μg) produced a biphasic effect on coronary flow, slight negative inotropism and no rate alteration. The activity of pentoxifylline on coronary flow was not influenced by propanolol (7.5 μg). In isolated guinea pig tracheal chain, the bronchodilator activity of pentoxifylline, was significantly greater than aminophylline. The presence of propanolol 10-6 g/mL did not affect results. Contractions induced in isolated guinea pig seminal vesicle by epinephrine were reduced by pentoxifylline and by aminophylline in the same concentration range. Page 12 of 21 Bronchospasm induced by i.v. acetylcholine in guinea pigs was inhibited by 97%, and that induced by i.v. histamine inhibited by 100%, at pentoxifylline doses of 50 mg/kg/i.v. and 20 mg/kg/i.v. respectively. On rabbit aorta strip preparation both pentoxifylline and aminophylline inhibited the NE-induced contraction. The histamine-induced increase of capillary permeability in rats was not influenced by 10 or 25 mg/kg pentoxifylline i.p. Pentoxifylline given orally (25-100 mg/kg) to rats had no influence on blood sugar while in rabbits given i.v. (10-50 mg/kg) the higher dose pentoxifylline increased blood sugar from 100 to 187 mg% at 1 hour post-dosing. In comparison to aminophylline, the central stimulatory effect of pentoxifylline in rats was significantly milder. Pentoxifylline (40 and 200 mg/kg/p.o.) did not prevent convulsions induced by nicotine in mice. Pentoxifylline does not influence significantly the motility of mice and rats, food consumption of rats, sleeping time after hexobarbital in rats and mice, ptosis, sedation and hypothermia of mice caused by reserpine, catalepsy in rats induced by perphenazine of fighting behaviour in mice. It has no anticonvulsive, anti-inflammatory and local anaesthetic activity and exhibits only a slight analgesic, cholorectic, diuretic and antitussive effect. The results of in vitro studies in which pentoxifylline was added to blood from human volunteers, and in vivo studies in which pentoxifylline was given orally or intravenously to patients with peripheral vascular disease indicate that pentoxifylline can improve impaired erythrocyte flexibility. The possible mechanism involved in this effect are most likely related to intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) inasmuch as ATP depleted cells have reduced flexibility and vice versa. Pentoxifylline raises erythrocytes intracellular ATP concentrations. In another in vitro study using rat erythrocytes, pentoxifylline has been shown to decrease intracellular Ca++ concentrations and increase phosphorylation of the proteins in the erythrocytes membrane by facilitating Mg++ dependent phosphoprotein phosphatase and transglutaminase activity. This results in an increased membrane phosphoprotein concentration, which is believed to increase red blood cell flexibility. In an in vivo rat study designed to test platelet deaggregation properties of drugs, pentoxifylline at doses of 3,6 and 12 mg/kg/i.v. reduced platelet aggregation to "sticky" cancer cells (Walker 256 carcinosarcoma) and inhibited their attachment to endothelium. Monkeys given pentoxifylline 6, 12, 18 and 24 mg/kg/i.v. exhibited dose related reduction in platelet aggregation index. In human pentoxifylline inhibits ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation as measured by the Born method. Epinephrine-induced lipolysis (rat epididymal adipose tissue) was increased by pentoxifylline and aminophylline at 10-3 and 10-4 M in vitro. In vivo, epinephrine-induced glycerine production (same tissue) was significantly inhibited by both compounds (10 mg/kg/i.v.) and FFA was Page 13 of 21 Beagle dogs were given 3.0 mg/kg/p.o pentoxifylline-14C and radioactivity measured in plasma and body tissues. Mean maximal blood levels (2.1 μg/mL) were reached 1 hour post-dosing. Plasma concentration/time curve displayed a biphasic elimination profile with t 1/2 0.8 hours and 30 hours. Over 80% of the radioactivity was found in urine within 24 hours. At maximal blood levels time, highest concentration was found in gallbladder (110.0 μg/g), kidney, liver and bladder (4.8 μg/g): lowest concentrations were found in brain (0.40 μg/g), fat, heart and gonads (1.3 μg/g). TOXICOLOGY
ACUTE TOXICITY (LD50) OF PENTOXIFYLLINE
Toxicity was characterized by hypersalivation in orally dosed animals, increased or irregular
respiration, tonic-clonic convulsions and paresis.
Rabbits survived 50 mg i.v; signs and symptoms of toxicity were similar to those seen in rats.
Dogs survived 160 mg i.v and 320 mg p.o. They showed aggression and ataxia after oral dosing
and aggression, fear, vomiting, diarrhea after i.v dosing.
Subacute and Chronic Toxicity
Mouse i.v., 14 days:
Groups of 8 female 12 week old mice were given daily doses of 0, 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg of
pentoxifylline. One mouse of the highest dosage group died after 6 days. Death was preceded by
dyspnea and clonic convulsions. The other animals of this group showed a decrease in
spontaneous activity and had their eyes closed.
Page 14 of 21 Mouse, p.o., 78 weeks:
Four groups of 20 males and females were given pentoxifylline in diet at 0, 50, 150 or 450
mg/kg/day. Five animals per sex per group were killed after 26 weeks and another 5 at 52 weeks.
After 78 weeks the remaining animals were observed for 13 weeks, without exposure to the
compound. High dose males showed a greater frequency of bronchiectasis, renal cysts, testicular
atrophy, urinary bladder dilatation and bone marrow hyperplasia than controls. High dose
females showed a greater frequency of bronchiectasis, fatty degeneration of the liver, fatty
degeneration/amyloidosis in the kidneys, splenic hyperplasia, hyperplasia and fibrosis of bone
marrow and osteoporosis than controls.
There was an increased incidence of benign ovarian and uterine tumours, and angiosarcoma of
the liver was observed in 1 animal of each sex in the high dose group.
Rat, i.v., 14 days:
Groups of 10 females were given pentoxifylline at daily doses of 0, 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg.
Four of the 10 rats given 100 mg/kg showed depressed spontaneous activity, staggering gait,
closed eyelids, salivation and clonic and tonic convulsions and died. There were pulmonary
hemorrhages in these 4 rats.
Rat, i.v, 30 days:
Groups of 10 males and 10 females were given pentoxifylline in doses of 0, 10, 25 or 50
mg/kg/day. There was a slight decrease in cholesterol and esterified cholesterol in the 25 and 50
mg/kg male groups and a slight increase in the mean blood glucose level in the 25 and 50 mg/kg
female groups. Perilobular hyaline droplet degeneration of the liver occurred in all groups, but
appeared to be more severe in the male rats of the two highest dosage groups. Females on the top
dose displayed increased incidence of renal tubule calcification.
Rat, p.o., 78 weeks:
Groups of 70 males and 70 females were given pentoxifylline in their diet 0, 50, 150 or 450
mg/kg/day. Five animals per sex per group were killed at 52 weeks and another 5 at 78 weeks.
After 78 weeks the remaining animals were observed for 26 weeks without additional exposure
to pentoxifylline. In the middle-dose group the body weight gain was significantly decreased; at
the end of the 6 months follow-up period the body weight were normal. In the high-dosage group
the body weight gain was decreased. At the end of the 6 months follow-up period the female
weight had returned to normal but the males had not. The mortality rate was significantly
increased for the males in the high-dose group. The cause of death was similar in treated and
untreated animals, but in the treated animals there was an increase in congestive streaks of the
liver, cadiosclerosis and scars in the heart, dilatation of the uterus, and thyroid atrophy (females
only). There were more interstitial cell tumours of the testicles in the high dosage group but the
difference was not significant. There was a significant increase in fibroadenomas of the
mammary gland (females) in the high dose group.
Page 15 of 21
Dog, i.v., 30 days:
Groups of 3 male and 3 female Beagles were given pentoxifylline in doses of 0, 10, 25 and 63
mg/kg 5days/week for 6 weeks. There was licking of the lips, vomiting, incoordination,
uneasiness and dose-related heart rate increase following the injection. Some tubular renal
degeneration occurred at 25 and 63 mg/kg. There was also congestion of liver at these doses and
congestion of spleen at the highest dose.
Dog, p.o., 1 year:
Groups of 3 male and 3 female Beagles were given pentoxifylline in doses of 0, 32, 100, 320 or
400 mg/kg/day. There was incoordination, salivation and altered temperament following drug
administration. Deaths occurred at doses of 320 and 400 mg/kg due to extensive or focal
pulmonary oedema and hemorrhages, and marked congestion in mucosa of the intestinal tract.
Acetone was detected in urine at 2 weeks to 26 weeks in some dogs of the 3 highest dose groups.
At 52 weeks acetone was no longer detected. Giant cell formation in the testicles was observed
in 2 dogs, which died in the 320 mg/kg group. Granuloma in the lymph nodes occurred in 1 dog
in the control group, and 2 in the 320 mg/kg group.
Reproduction and Teratology
Mice were given 0, 12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg pentoxifylline from day 15 of gestation through day 21
of lactation. Between days 21 and 23 all the animals were killed. Some of the F1 offspring were
reared and mated. The females and F2 offspring were raised to weaning, and then killed. All other F1 offspring were killed at 10 weeks. There was no significant effect on pregnancy and on the fetal development.
Groups of 10 males and 20 females were given 0, 57, 170 or 570 mg/kg/day pentoxifylline for 10
weeks before mating and then continuously through gestation and lactation. Fifty percent of the
females were killed on the 13th day of gestation and the remaining animals were allowed to raise
their young to weaning.
The number of resorptions, particularly early resorption, was greater in the high dose group. The
number of young reared to weaning was lower for the high dose group.
Rat, p.o. and i.v.:
Groups of 20 females were given pentoxifylline 0, 57, 100 or 570 mg/kg orally or 0.8, 3.2 or
12.5 mg/kg i.v. from the 6th or 7th day to the 16th day of gestation. Two control groups were used
in the i.v. study. One group was given a volume of physiological NaCl similar to the treatment
Page 16 of 21 groups and the other group was not treated at all. On the 20th day of pregnancy the fetuses were
removed by Caesarean section. There was a significant reduction in the number of fetuses in the
highest oral dosage group and the number of resorption sites was increased. There were no fetal
abnormalities. The highest i.v. dose caused a slight reduction in number of fetuses and increase
Groups of 20-24 pregnant animals were given pentoxifylline 0, 57, 170 or 570mg/kg by stomach
tube from day 17 of gestation to day 21 postpartum. Between days 21 and 23 all animals were
killed. There were no drug effects.
Rabbit, i.v. and p.o.:
Groups of 10 pregnant females were given pentoxifylline at 0, 26.5, 80 or 265 mg/kg/day orally
or 1, 3.2, 0r 10 mg/kg/i.v./day. There were no drug effects.
Page 17 of 21 REFERENCES
Angelkort B: Influence of pentoxifylline (Trental 400) on microcirculation, poststenotic blood pressure and walking capacity in patients with chronic occlusive arterial disease. IRCS Med Sci 1977; 5: 370. Angelkort B: Platelet function, plasma coagulation and fibrinolysis in chronic arterial occlusive disease. Med Welt 1979; 30: 1239. Angelkort B: Influence of pentoxifylline on erythrocyte deformability in peripheral occlusive arterial disease. Curr Med Res Opin 1979; 6: 255. Bauman JC: Doppler ultrasonic blood pressure measurements in limbs with occlusive arterial disease in normal lower extremities under treatment with pentoxifylline. IRCS Med Sci 1976; 4: 93. Bollinger A, Frei C: Double-blind study of pentoxifylline against placebo in patients with intermittent claudication. Pharmacotherapy 1977; 2: 557- 562. Dettori AG, et al.: Acenocoumarol and pentoxifylline in intermittent claudication. A controlled clinical study. Angiology 1989; 40(4), Part I: 237-248. Ehrly AM: The effect of pentoxifylline on the flow properties of human blood. Curr Med Res Opin 1978; 5: 608-613. Ehrly AM, Saeger-Lorenz K: Increased capillary flow rate of erythrocyte in hyperosmolar human blood by the addition of pentoxifylline. In Microcirculation, Vol. 1. Eds. Graysorl J, Zingg W. Plenum Press, New York and London 1976; 165-166. Gastpar H, Ambrus JL, Ambrus CM, et al: Study of platelet aggregation in-vivo III. Effect of pentoxifylline. J Med 1977; 8: 191. 10. Heidrich H, Schlichting K, Ott M: Change in blood viscosity due to pentoxifylline. IRCS Med Sci 1976; 4: 368. 11. Porter JM, Cutler BS, Lee BY, et al: Pentoxifylline in the treatment of intermittent claudication: a double-blind trial with objective assess ment. Am Heart J 1982; 104(1): 66-72. 12. Schindler H: The clinical use of pentoxifylline. Pharmacotherapy 1977; 2(1): 66-73. 13. Schubotz R: Double-blind trial of pentoxifylline in diabetics with peripheral vascular disorders. Pharmacotherapy 1976; 1: 172-179. Page 18 of 21 14. Stefanovich V: The biochemical mechanism of action of pentoxifylline. Pharmacotherapy 1978; 2(1): 5-16. 15. Stefanovich V: Effect of pentoxifylline on energy rich phosphates in rat's erythrocytes. Res Comm Chem Path Pharmacol 1975; 10: 747. 16. Stefanovich V: Concerning specificity of the influence of pentoxifylline on various cyclic AmP phosphodiesterases. Res Comm Chem Path Pharmacol 1974; 8: 673. 17. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. USP DI, 13th edition 1993; 1: 2203. 18. Usvatova LJ, Koschkin VM, Musin II, et al: The haemodynamic and metabolic effects of pentoxifylline and papaverine in peripheral arterial disease. Pharmacotherapy 1978; 2(1): 51-57. 19. Weed RI, LaCelle PL, Merrill EW: Metabolic dependence of red cell deformability. J Clin Invest 1969; 48: 795. 20. Weithmann KV: Pentoxifylline, its influence on interaction between blood vessel wall and platelets. IRCS Med Sci 1980; 8: 293. Page 19 of 21 IMPORTANT: PLEASE READ
• You have coagulation disorder PART III: CONSUMER INFORMATION
• You are pregnant • You are a nursing mother Pr TRENTAL®
• You have low or labile blood pressure Pentoxifylline Sustained Release Tablets
• You have severe cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heart This leaflet is part III of a three-part "Product
Monograph" published for Trental® and is designed
• You have diabetes specifically for Consumers. This leaflet is a summary and
will not tell you everything about Trental. Contact your
Almost all patients can drive or operate machinery while doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions about the
taking Trental, but you should not perform these tasks, which may require attention, until you know how you tolerate your medicine. ABOUT THIS MEDICATION
INTERACTIONS WITH THIS MEDICATION
What the medication is used for:
Trental has been prescribed to you by your health provider Sometimes drugs can interact with other drugs, so tell your to treat your chronic vascular (blood flow) disorders in your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking any other medications, extremities (legs and arms). including prescription, non-prescription and natural health products. In particular, tell your doctor if you are taking any What it does:
of the following: Trental belongs to a group of medicines known as vasoactive drugs which improve peripheral blood flow and thus • Drugs to reduce blood pressure (eg. ACE inhibitors, enhances peripheral tissue oxygenation. angiotensin II receptor antagonist) • Sympathomimetics (eg amphetamines) When it should not be used:
• Medication for asthma (eg. theophylline) • Medication for diabetes Do not use Trental if: Anticoagulants (eg. heparin, warfarin) You are allergic to it or other xanthine such as caffeine, theophylline and theobromine and to any of Erythromycin (an antibiotic) the components of its formulation. Medication to treat ulcers (eg. cimetidine) You have any heart disease PROPER USE OF THIS MEDICATION
You have uncontrolled bleeding or are at risk of such You have peptic (stomach) ulcers This drug is specifically prescribed for you. Do not give it to others, even if they have the same symptoms, and you What the medicinal ingredient is:
yourself must not use it for any condition other than the one for which it was prescribed. What the nonmedicinal ingredients are:
It is important that you take Trental as prescribed by your Benzyl alcohol, FD&C red no.3 (colouring agent), hydoxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol 8000, povidone, talc, titanium dioxide. Usual dose:
Usually your doctor will prescribe Trental tablets at a dose
of 400 mg twice or three times daily, which will be What dosage forms it comes in:
individualized based on your condition. Sustained released tablets of 400 mg A maximum of 400 mg three times daily should not be WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
BEFORE you use Trental talk to your health provider if: Swallow the tablets whole with a glass of water after meals. You should always respect the prescribed interval between • You have liver disease or disorder the doses. Never change the dose of Trental you are taking • You have kidney disease or disorder unless your doctor tells you to. Page 20 of 21 IMPORTANT: PLEASE READ
Return any leftover tablets to the pharmacist, unless the Overdose:
doctor tells you to keep them at home. As with all medicines, keep Trental out of reach of children. In case of drug overdose, contact a health
professional, hospital emergency department or
REPORTING SUSPECTED SIDE EFFECTS
regional Poison Control Centre immediately, even
You can report any suspected adverse reactions if there are no symptoms.
associated with the use of health products to the Canada Vigilance Program by one of the following 3 If you go to the doctor or the hospital, take the Trental container with you. • Report online at: www.healthcanada.gc.ca/medeffect SIDE EFFECTS AND WHAT TO DO ABOUT THEM
• Call toll-free at 1-866-234-2345 • Complete a Canada Vigilance Reporting Form Along with its beneficial effects, Trental like all other drugs, may sometimes cause undesirable effects. The most frequent - Fax toll-free to 1-866-678-6789, or • nausea, vomiting, • headache, dizziness (light-headedness), • abdominal discomfort, Postage paid labels, Canada Vigilance Reporting Form and the adverse reaction reporting guidelines dyspepsia (heart burns) and are available on the MedEffect™ Canada Web site at www.healthcanada.gc.ca/medeffect . NOTE: Should you require information related to the SERIOUS SIDE EFFECTS, HOW OFTEN THEY
management of side effects, contact your health HAPPEN AND WHAT TO DO ABOUT THEM
professional. The Canada Vigilance Program does not provide medical advice. Symptom / effect drug and call your MORE INFORMATION
Allergic reaction or This document plus the full product monograph, prepared skin reaction (itching, for health professionals, can be found at www.sanofi- swelling, red spots and aventis.ca or by contacting the sponsor, sanofi-aventis Canada Inc., at: 1-800-265-7927 Uncommon Difficulty Abnormal bleeding This leaflet was prepared by sanofi-aventis Canada Inc. (bleeding around your eyes or blood in your Last revised: March 30, 2011 This is not a complete list of side effects. For any unexpected effects while taking Trental, contact your doctor or pharmacist. HOW TO STORE IT
Store your tablets at room temperature (15° – 30°C). Protect from light. Protect from moisture and excessive heat. There is an expiration date on the label. Do not use the medicine after this date. Page 21 of 21
Islamic Governance and Democracy Intersection and Separation During the Iraq War in 2003, the U.S. administration of George W. Bush advocated "democratization of the Middle East region." Also, with the establishment, in Iran, of the Khatamī administration in 1997, lively discussions began on the relationship between the Islamic governance of Iran and democracy. Th