Value of License Agreements Maximizing The Value Of License AgreementsBy Louis P. Berneman, Todd C. Davis, D. Patrick O'Reilley and Matthew Raymond agreements appropriate ■ Louis P. Berneman, iopharmaceutical companies and not-for-profit to their commercial po- (academic) research institutions have become tential and inherent risks increasingly adept at structuring license and
Designacademy.nlthe loss of smell in a visual culture susana cámara leret the loss of smell in a visual culture susana cámara leret Fig. 1 smell can provide a new understanding of nature I would like to thank the following people for their support and guidance throughout the project: Rodrigo Camara Leret; Maria Luisa Leret Verdu from the Department of Physiology (Animal Physiology II) University Complutense of Madrid, Spain; Jan Frits Veldkamp PhD from the National Herbarium of the Netherlands; Frans Krens PhD and Maarten A. Jongsma PhD from Plant Breeding International, Wageningen University and Research Center, The Netherlands; Yehuda Shoenfeld, Head of Department of Medicine B and Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Aviv, Israel; Professor Fabrizio Benedetti from the Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin Medical School, Italy; Andrea Evers, Investigator Clinical Psychology at the Medisch Centrum Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Dirk Hermans from the Center for the Psychology of Learning and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Leuven, Belgium; Professor Berry M. Spruijt, Ethology and Welfare, Department of Biology, Faculty of Beta Sciences, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands. Fig. 2 Thymus vulgaris: Plants' scents have been traditionally employed for medicinal purposes InTroducTIon 1. The Loss oF smeLL i. an evolutionary perspective – 03ii. the sociocultural devaluation of smell – 04 2. man & naTure 3. The ImporTance oF smeLL – 13i. scent in nature: the chemical triggers – 13ii. the Primitive human sense of smell 4. The nocebo & pLacebo eFFecT concLusIon ILLusTraTIons endnoTes – 33 – ii – Fig. 3 We live in a predominantly visual culture Fig. 4 our sense of smell has been culturally undervalued The prevalence of a visual culture is our inheritance of a long ongoing biological and sociocultural process. As cultural and social ideologies evolved, so did our relationship and notion of our natural environment. By considering the interdependence of the binomial natural-artificial, and consequently nature-man, we are confronted with the question of how changes in one sphere can affect processes in the other, and vice versa. Smell has been undervalued throughout history, due to both biological and cultural motives. Humans have lost smell, possibly due to our development of trichromatic vision and our less dependency on our chemical sense for survival, yet we have also negated it culturally, and underestimated it in relation to our other senses. This has had its repercussions on our concept of nature and our gradual domestication of it. As a result, the chemical relationship we share with our natural environment has been overlooked and its potentials unexplored. Our sense of smell has unique functions which could be used to our advantage, whilst offering us new experiences. Nature possesses intricate chemical tools, which could aid in this endeavor. What would the design implications of this chemical relationship with our environment be? – 01 – Fig. 5 tests for vision prevail over tests for smell. Fig. 5 tests for vision prevail over tests for smell. The development of colour vision made our reliance on chemical signals unnecessary. Today tests for visual deficiencies, such as the Ishihara test for colour blindness, prevail over smell deficiency tests. Fig. 6 19th century illustration of brain function Fig. 6 19th century illustration of brain anatomyOur sense of smell and its functions are commonly overlooked. 1. the loSS of Smell
evoLuTIon – vIsIon – maTIng –
oLFacTory sysTem – mammaLs–
underesTImaTed – cuLTure – vaLue –
I. an evoLuTIonary perspecTIve Smell was probably relegated to a secondary role throughout evolution, due to our decreasing dependency on it. When our ancestors developed trichromatic vision, their need for chemical sensors decreased. Our spectral sensitivity provided us with further information about our environment, helping to detect the boundaries of objects and their distance in relation to us. For example, our ability to discern ripe fruit due to its contrast against the surrounding foliage, was not possible for dichromatic animals, with less sensitivity in the red, yellow and green regions of the visual spectrum.1 Because trichromacy is not universal in the animal kingdom, this evolutionary mutation could have meant an advantage in our ancestor's survival, thus favouring it genetically.
The development of colour vision also made the reliance on chemical signals in reproduction unnecessary. Insect mating for example, functions through the use of pheromones, yet the newly perceived visual signals (such as sexual swelling) were more explicit, and more easily detectable than air transmitted molecules. This could have lead to our replacement of a more chemical based system in our ancestor's social reproductive activities, for a "vision-based signaling sensory mechanism."2 Yet remnants of our previous abilities can still be found our vestigial vomeronasal organs found in our nasal cavities, which were once used to detect pheromones. Present aesthetic interventions on the human physiognomy such as nasal plastic surgery, might threaten its very future existence.3 This last point illustrates the extent to which our sense of smell and its functions are widely misunderstood and ignored.
The olfactory system has generated a large number of individual receptor genes, which constitute the largest gene super-family in the vertebrate genome. Humans have about 900 olfactory receptor genes, but around 63% of these are non-coding, called pseudo-genes, due to evolutionary mutations: "In common with other apes and Old World monkeys, humans have a degraded sense of – 03 – smell. About 60%* of the thousand or so mammalian olfactory receptor genes in people don't function or contribute to our sense of smell (.) However in mice and dogs, which lack a trichromatic vision but have a more sensitive nose, only 20% of olfactory genes don't work."4 Despite our high percentage of pseudo-genes, we still have 300 active olfactory receptor genes, whilst the visual system needs only two genes to detect the colour spectrum.5 According to Leslie Vosshall, Head of the Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior at Rockefeller University, the human nose can still detect about 10,000 different odours, in comparison to insects, which can only perceive those essential for their own survival. Could we maybe be undervaluing our sense of smell, unaware of its great potential and functions? II. The socIocuLTuraL devaLuaTIon oF smeLL Historically, speaking, this seems to be the case, since smell is not only a biologicalexperience and western culture has long since underestimated smell: "The current low status of smell in the West is a result of the revaluation of the senses byphilosophers and scientists of the 18th and 19th centuries (.) By the early 19th century, theuse of aromatics for medicinal purposes had been largely discredited by sceptical scientists,in favour of chemical medicaments (.) the influence of aromaphobic scientists, philosophersand moralists was widespread."6 Regarded as primitive, the sense of smell was of low esteem in relation to vision, which stood as a symbol of rationality and a civilised, scientific thinking. Often seen as a vehicle of contamination, smell ranks low in the hierarchy of the senses. So low that the best smell " is not a good smell but no smell at all."7As Michel de Montaigne observed: " The sweetness even of the purest breath has nothing more excellent about it than to be without any odour that offends us."8 Yet this aversion towards olfaction is not common to other non-Western cultures, where smell is highly valued. The Ongee of the Andaman islands, for example, organise their universe in relation to smell, their calendar being structured in relation to the odours of flowers, which bloom at different times of the year.9 Our discrimination of smell versus the other senses has had its consequences and its negative connotations have impeded a deeper understanding of the importance of chemical signalling. Little investigation has been done on the potentials of smell and we know less about it than our other senses. Whereas ants communicate and organise their complex societies with odours and pheromones we chose to live in a chemical haze, polluted by strong synthetic smells, which are often employed to mask natural scents.10 The predominance of a western visual culture has reinforced this situation. Market pulses thrive to enhance the visual image, This percentage varies in different sources between 60% and 63%.
– 04 – Fig. 7 smell is not only a biological experience – it is also cultural suppressing natural odors, which have in some cases even acquired negative connotations. This might be perhaps our inheritance of the18th century's puritanist mentality, and according to Freud: This "organic repression of man's pleasure in smell" might have resulted in "his susceptibility to nervous disease."11 – 06 – 1. the loss of smell body cream shampoo / soap bread with body cream something like very soapy washing powder armani privee farm manuer pig like / acid pencil /wood orange skin Fig. 8 results from smell identification test Fig. 8 results from smell identification testThese results from a pilot smell identification test show the extent to which smell lacks attention in our society. We are not used to the direct identification of odours, in the absence of sight. Fig. 9 olfaction needs training too Fig. 9 olfaction needs training tooStudies show that olfaction can improve with training. Such is the case for perfumers. Fig. 10 The great rose is an example of man's careful breeding of nature 2. man & nature
envIronmenT – arTIFacT – modIFIcaTIons –
breedIng – coLour – geneTIcs – rosa –
TuLIp manIa – vIrus – order –
preservaTIon – WILdness
man's domesTIcaTIon oF The naTuraL Few people know that butterflies are scented. Their fragrances can vary fromflower-like aromas like jasmine, to spices like lemon or cinnamon. They can smell ofvanilla or chocolate, yet also unpleasantly like vinegar or urine. Still, throughout historywe have persisted on collecting these insects for purely visual motives, when apparently it ispossible to smell them and release them unharmed. This fact goes to illustrate how ourinteraction with our natural environment has been greatly mediated by the visual realm.
Today, human manipulation of nature has resulted in a loss of attributes in some naturalspecies. When humans invented agriculture, approximately 10,000 years ago, by harvestingand cultivating specific plants to produce food, the selection criteria eventually played adetermining role in the evolution of those species.12 Could artificial selection be paramounttoday in deciding the fate of certain species in the plant world? The term alludes to ‘artifact: standing for a thing reflecting human will'. This could explain why our genetic manipulationof flowers has resulted in unpredicted gene silencing and paradoxically in the loss of scentof some of them.
The effects of our underestimation of smell can thus be seen, yet not smelled, in genomemodifications of certain plant species and cultivars. Plant breeders for example, might haveaccidentally damaged the genes encoding the enzymes that produce scent compounds, andgenetic changes have probably favoured the "pigment pathway at the expense of scent."13 AsJohn Dolan, a long-time rose breeder and consultant in California stated: "We have twenty-six different characteristics to consider in making a rose (.) Roses per bush, vase life, color, form, thorns and so on. In the marketplace, all these things trump scent."14 Today we find different methods employed in the breeding of flowers, from transgenic – 09 – 2. man & nature processes where foreign genes with a desired trait are inserted into a recipient plant, tocisgenesis, which employs genes from sexually compatible plants, and to breeding methods which do not fall under current GMO regulations. Yet what new scent phenotypes could result from a shift in our selection criteria? Presently, we find few records of scent-directed initiatives: "Colour is the most important determining trait in flowers. For many important ornamentalsnot the entire spectrum of colours is available (.) True blue is lacking in many importantspecies, such as rose, chrysanthemum, gerbera and carnation, but also bright yellow is notpresent in the variety range of many species (.) Genetic manipulation opens up possibilitiesfor the molecular breeder to expand the color range within a species or cultivar."15 According to Robert Raguso, a scent biologist from the University of South Carolina, thisis a human bias, due to which "scent is either ignored or treated as insolubly complex."16Even so, it is also important to note the influence the market holds in this scenario where thegreat rose is not only an example of man's careful breeding of nature but also of economic repercussions, with its loss of scent due to market demands. Since 1993, the EU imports of fresh cut flowers have been dominated by ‘Rosa' (the genus of roses). Between the years 2004 and 2008, imports of Rosa increased by 7.6% annually and today, the EU is the world's leading importer of flowers, with imports amounting to 3.5 billion euros in 2008. The Netherlands is the leading importer of cut flowers from outside the EU along with the main supplier to other EU member states.17 Perhaps we could trace the origins of present Dutch bulb trade, back to the tulip craze. This"tulip mania" which struck the country in the 17th century, further accounts for man'sinsistence on domesticating the natural. The unpredictable chromatic variations in the colour of tulips' petals' (as a result of the action of a virus which caused the pigment in its petalsto ‘break'), boomed the market prices of individuals containing such colour breaks.
Explanations for this phenomenon vary, yet a possible reason for this frenzy could lie in thefact that a tulip, amongst other flowers, stands for a visual delight, seemingly proper to theDutch Calvinist society of the time.
" (.) a tailored, somewhat austere blossom; inviting neither touch nor smell, the flower asksto admire it from a distance. The fact that [the tulip] has no detectable scent is fitting: this isan experience designed strictly for the delectation of the eye."18 A symbol of rationality, the visual symbiology of a tulip stands for order, as opposed toscented flowers, which excite our primitive senses: "To lean in and inhale the breath of a rose or peony is momentarily to leave our rationalselves behind, to be transported as only a haunting fragrance can transport us (.) Suchflowers propose a dream of abandon instead of form."19 Thoreau once wrote "In wildness is the preservation of the world" and a century laterWendell Berry wrote "In human culture is the preservation of wildness."20 But can a humanculture based on the discrimination of the senses and the negation of smell truly preservewildness? – 10 – 2. man & nature Fig 11 illustrations of semper augustus tulipsDuring the Tulip Mania, Semper Augustus individuals boomed market prices. Fig. 12 bee attracted to lavender Fig. 13 australian orchid Fig. 12 bee attracted to lavenderPlants share a chemical relationship with their environment, attracting potential pollinators through their scents to ensure reproduction. Fig. 13 australian orchidThe Australian Orchid releases a perfume similar to a female wasp's pheromone, luring the males into its pollination. Fig. 14 dead horse arum Fig. 14 dead horse arum The scent of the Dead Horse Arum resembles that of rotting flesh, attracting flies. 3. the Importance of Smell
naTure – chemIcaL compounds – odour & TIme –
communIcaTIon – poLLInaTIon – sIgnaL – WarnIng –
emoTIons – memory – experIence –
ILLness – subsTITuTe
I. scenT In naTure: The chemIcaL TrIggers. "What's in a name? That which we call a rose
by any other name would smell as sweet."21
- William Shakespeare
Odours are perceptions, not things in the world. The fact that a molecule of phenylethyl alcohol smells like a rose is a function of our brain. 22 But regardless of our sociocultural complexes, scent is of great importance in nature. In many species the chemical compounds released by plants work as a defense mechanism, or as an attraction mechanism for reproductive purposes. Floral scent initially evolved "by borrowing fragrances from other parts of the plant."23 Many of the scent compounds found in what we now regard as pleasant fragrances once started out as plant defences: ".compounds called terpenes that give juniper, oregano and basil foliage their characteristicodours drive herbivores away from the stems of some plants but attract pollinators to theflowers of others. Other terpenes that are antibacterial agents for trees also turn up inflowers – for example piney pinene in columbine and citrusy limonene in lavender (.) Innearly all plants salicylic acid turns on cellular defences against viruses. Add a methyl groupto it and you get wintergreen, part of the fragrance of jasmine."24 The chemical complexity of the scent depends on the species. Snapdragons and petunias can release blends of seven to ten compounds while some orchids might secrete scents with around one-hundred. Snapdragons even function around the clock, releasing most of their odour between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m., in synchrony with bees' work hours. This accounts for the intricate, chemical relationship established between plants and their environment: a chemical communication with their potential pollinators. Some flowers, such as the Australian orchid – 13 – 3. the importance of smell or the bumblebee orchid, release chemicals that are virtually equal to those released by female wasps and bees, in order to attract the males. The dead horse arum, goes as far as to mimic the putrid flesh of sea gulls, not only visually but also in its smell to attract pollinating flies. The biggest flower in the world, called the amorphophallus titanium, can reach a height of 2,74 meters and flowers once for three days, every three years, and interestingly enough, it possesses an intense smell of rotten fish.25 II. The prImITIve human sense oF smeLL smeLL as a recognITIon mechanIsm The word scent derives from the French ‘sentir' which in turn comes from the latin ‘sentire' and ultimately means to perceive or experience in relation to sentiments and thoughts. Thus, the etymology of the word acknowledges the primitive nature of smell, as a means of recognition and communication. Smell is a chemical sense, the other being taste, which is approximately 75% smell. But unlike taste, smell can "signal over long distances."26 Through our sense of smell, we sample our environment for information, though the majority of the time we might not be aware of it. ".the fatigue symptoms characteristic of sick-building syndrome are a survival reflex inherited from our evolutionary ancestors. This reflex causes us to feel tired, and therefore to avoid venturing out, when our olfactory receptors signal that the air is contaminated."27 We are constantly testing the quality of the air we breathe, for example, using smell as a warning mechanism to alert us of possible dangers (such as smoke, or other harmful agents). We use our sense of smell as a detection mechanism for food or the presence of other individuals. In this respect, smell has a recognition function since we all have our own unique smell and can recognise and be recognised by others.28 Our own smell derives from our apocrine glands, which secrete compounds that are odourless, but become scented through the action of bacteria. This is the reason why everyone has a unique smell, except for identical twins. Our sweat also secretes a chemical signal which can communicate emotion, which explains why we can smell fear. A study done by Karl Grammer in Vienna, showed that women are capable of detecting fear in the armpit secretions of people who had watched a terrifying film. Another study by Martha McClintock showed that we also secrete compounds that transmit information about our mood to others.
– 14 – 3. the importance of smell Fig. 15 except for identical twins, everyone has their own, unique smell smeLL and ITs reLaTIon To memory As our sense of smell is linked to our limbic system, its effects sometimes act on an unconscious level. The limbic system, situated beneath the cerebral cortex, deals with emotions, motivation and the association of emotions with memory. The olfactory system has more direct contact with our external environment than our other senses, since it directly projects into the brain through the olfactory bulb, while the auditory and visual information reach the orbitofrontal cortex after significant processing. This anatomical and functional proximity to the limbic system, in comparison with our other sensory modalities, explains why smell has a unique privilege to the subconscious. This is also why we respond in an involuntary way to smell.
"The limbic system is increasingly recognised to be crucial in determining and regulating the entire emotional ‘tone'. Excitation of this, by whatever means, produces heightened emotionalism and an intensification of the senses. It also has a lot to do with the formation of memories and this is the reason that smell and memory are so intimately linked."29 Odour-cued memories have been rated as more pleasant and their emotional potency is linked to the activation of the amygdala. Studies suggest that the amygdala-hippocampal complex may be involved in a particular olfactory memory system. And although we must first remember a smell before we can clearly identify it, smell memory is said to fade away less rapidly than other sensory related memories. Literature has long used this associative emotional power of smell as a tool for describing strong sentimental recollections. In The Remembrance of Things Past, Proust describes such an emotional upheaval, triggered by the taste and smell of a madeleine. He then notes that: "When nothing else subsists from the past (.) after the people are dead, after the things are broken and scattered (.) the smell and taste of things remain poised a long time, like souls (.) bearing resiliently, on tiny and almost impalpable drops of their essence, the immense edifice of memory."30 The so-called ‘Proust effect' is a reference to the evocative power of scent. This is why a long-forgotten odour can revive a specific memory or a past experienced moment. But with the loss of specific scents, we are also faced with the loss of memories and experiences. Avery Gilbert wonders about this entire ‘smellscape' which can "fade away with the changing of times and the closing of a beloved's place."31 Andy Warhol knew of this smell-memory effect. Apparently he would wear a cologne until he developed a strong emotional link with it, after which he would retire it to his personal smell museum, for his personal enjoyment.
This association between smell and memory means that smell can be linked to a particular experience. If we smell something before a negative experience, that smell will be linked to that particular experience. But the same is true for positive and pleasant experiences. This is probably why people have such an aversion towards the smell of hospitals, since unpleasant medical treatments, or surgery, can be associated with the pain or trauma. On the other hand, this associative power of smell could be used for positive, therapeutic practices, redefining the mind-body interdependency. – 16 – 3. the importance of smell time no. 1 time no. 2 general comments and observations 00: 00: 14: 57 00: 00: 59: 43 lotion described as shower gel, a clean smell: something fragrant yet neutral but artificial. opening second nostril did not allow to smell better."When you breathe out you smell it immediately.at a point it is not so noticeable." after a while subject remarked that although the odour was hard to distinguish he could still ‘feel' it 00: 00: 10: 52 00: 00: 20: 48 it was not wasier to detect the second smellonce they let go of the nostril. it was not difficult to detect the second smell after the first. only observation is that the smell diminished. mixture did not influence perception. coffee predominant smell. memories: lotion reminded of his mother. coffee reminded him of his kitchen in the 00: 01: 29: 93 00: 01: 30: 07 (subject had a cold and left nostril clogged) When the second smell was supplied subject remarked that the 1st smell was still in ‘there'."When you exhale it's still in the nose" 00: 00: 07: 65 00: 00: 11: 35 When released nostril you could smell the odour once again. not difficult to distinguish the second smell initially smell just faded. there was an initial mixture female 00: 01: 03: 98 00: 02: 19: 24 it feels like smell is around nose. "i have to really think if the smell is still there or if i just remember the smell". the second smell was mixed with the first. smelled coffee right away. easily detected the second smell can still be felt tickling the nose. nostrils feel different afterwards (olfactory irritation). Fig 16 results from olfactory adaptation testThis pilot test was done to test how we adapt to odours. Subjects were exposed to two different smells, first whilst pinching one nostril shut, and then to the second smell alone whilst smelling freely. "most of them are not strong" "i think i lost my smell" smells away to de-saturate. "i'm trying to get the smell out of me". i think i also lost my smell. as if it was just a blur.it was constantly in my nose . you have to get away." subject closed ears, smells away and blows. it was easier with four variations are hard to distinguish Fig. 17 results from smell discrimmination test Fig. 17 results from smell discrimmination testResults from a pilot smell discrimmination test which show how little we are accustomed to identifying variations in odour intensity. Fig. 18 We distinquish smells as strong or weak Fig. 18 We distinguish smells as strong or weak We have difficulties detecting nuances in odour intensity, and generally rate odours as strong or weak, pleasant or unpleasant. smeLL and ITs eFFecTs on mood and behavIour The human perception of odour is defined by the pleasantness-unpleasantness dimension.32 The effects of smell on mood and behaviour have been recorded in several studies33, where positive ‘hedonic' odours, have been shown to improve emotional and physical health, reducing stress and anxiety whilst increasing alertness. The anatomical overlap of the olfactory and limbic systems could account for this hedonic aspect of odour: "Amygdalar activity depends on the hedonic properties of odorants, and unpleasant odour increases rCBF (regional cortical blood flow) in the left amygdala. Thus distinct neurochemical changes in selected brain areas occur as a result of exposure to different odours."34 Studies have shown that smell can be put to therapeutic advantage, and deficits in our olfactory functions have even been proven as a sign of illness, such as in schizophrenia, depression, anxiety and extreme migraines. We smell different when we are ill and some illnesses can even be diagnosed by their associated smell (such as acetone and diabetes).35 Many interactions exist between the immune and the olfactory system, and when immunological function (autoimmunity) is impaired, olfaction can also be affected.36 Even so, the analysis of olfactory ability is not yet implemented by clinicians in both diagnosis and treatment, being overlooked by both patients and their clinicians.37 – 19 – 3. the importance of smell Fig. 19 smell can provide relevant information about ourselves and our environment Fig. 20 mapping out smell's relevance Fig. 21 drugs like Prozac could be replaced by placebos Fig. 21 drugs like Prozac could be replaced by placebosThe compound linalool found in the scents of certain plants such as Rosemarinus officinalis, Melissa officinalis and Lemon grass, reduces anxiety and aggressive behaviour in both mice and men. Fig. 22 our natural painkillers Fig. 22 our natural painkillers By using placebos the brain is triggered into releasing its own painkillers known as endorphins. 4. the nocebo & placebo effect
nocebo – experIence – odours
expecTaTIons – beLIeF sysTem –
seLF-heaLIng – anTIcIpaTIon –
endorphIns – subTracTIve
I. The nocebo eFFecT : beLIevIng Trumps smeLLIng Our experiences with odours can thus exert a significant influence on the way our brain processes them.38As Dr. Monique Smeets from Utrecht University points out, most odours acquire meaning by learning and thus through association odour becomes paired with memory.39 This is the case since our senses are manipulable and affected by our beliefs. Tests show that odours can elicit behaviour40 and implicit associations to certain smells can even cause physical illness41.Thus, odour aversions can be created through experiences, and smells associated with trauma can leave a strong imprint. Our brain shapes our perception of smell since the cerebellum monitors our sensory input (odor strength) in order to control a motor action (inhalation). This mental aspect in our perception of smells is linked to several olfactory phenomenons such as olfactory adaptation and olfactory suggestion. The first one alludes to the capability we have of adapting to odours, which is influenced by several factors such as time of exposure, odour strength an odour specificity. Long- term adaptation is the reason why some jobs are bearable by some people, such as pig-farming, with a constant exposure to strong and unpleasant odours. Adaptation also gives us the capabitlity of eventually detecting small nuances in smells, essential in the job of a perfumer. Olfactory suggestion, on the other hand, alludes to our mental expectancies of smells: "(.) just expecting a smell can trigger odor perception (.) Expectations alter the perception of actual odors (.) odors we think are benign fade from awareness, while hazardous ones hold our attention and stay strong."42 Both aspects of smell are related to the ‘sick building syndrome', because the nose and brain constanty reshape our olfactory awareness of the environment. Because of this, our perception of smells can have extreme physical consequences on the body's physical health and smells perceived as harmful can cause illness. This is the case of sufferers from Multiple – 23 – 4. the nocebo & Placebo effect rosemarinus melissa lemon officinalis officinalis Fig. 23 linalool has been proven to reduce anxiety Fig. 23 linalool has been proven to reduce anxietyThe compound linalool found in the scents of certain plants such as Rosemarinus officinalis, lemon = clean = i must behave clean Melissa officinalis and Lemon grass, reduces anxiety and aggressive behaviour in both mice Fig. 24 odours can influence behaviour Fig. 24 odours can influence behaviourA test done in Nijmegen University proved that our odour associations can elicit behaviour. Being exposed to the smell of lemon - considered as a clean scent - subjects cleaned more regularly after themselves, whilst eating crumbly crackers. 4. the nocebo & Placebo effect Fig. 25 What happens when we react in an extreme manner with our chemical self? – 25 – 4. the nocebo & Placebo effect Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) also known as Ideopathic Environmental Intolerance (IEI). MCS seems to be one of the only illness where the patient diagnoses their own condition. Our associatons to smells can thus have great consequences: if you tell someone that a smell is harmful, their perception of that smell will effectively change.43 "IEI (ideopathis environmental intolerance) sufferers are no more sensitive to odour than anyone else (.) a patient's brain intuits harm from a sensory message that causes no alarm in a healthy person (.) We sometimes create odour aversions in a misguided attempt to avoid truly bad smells (.) All it takes is a single episode of physical distress to turn an odour into a trigger for illness. Symptom learning works better with malodors than with pleasant, fresh scent."44 This nocebo* effect of smells can also spread from one odour to another, which is known as stimulus generalisation. The propagation to related odours can happen up to a week after the initial event. In the movie Safe by Todd Haynes45, this chain-reaction effect is clearly shown in the main character played by Julianne Moore when an initial exposure to car pollution triggers a series of consequent physical adversities to other odours. With the tag line: "In the 21st century. Nobody will be safe", what the movie illustrates, by depicting this ‘sociogenic illness', is how our perceptions and beliefs in relation to odours can eclipse the very act of smelling.
II. The pLacebo eFFecT: smeLL-memory The placebo effect works on the promise of treatment and the belief system of the recipient.
Expectations of pain and relief constitute a primary component, which then orchestrate thebrain and body's responses accordingly. Fabrizio Benedetti, from the University of Turinhas discovered many of the biochemical reactions involved in this mechanism, revealinga series of self-healing processes. The effect is found to be successful mainly in disorderswhich have in common their engagement in: " (.) higher cortical centers that generate beliefs and expectations, interpret social cues and anticipate rewards. So do chronic pain, sexual dysfunction, Parkinson's and many other ailments that respond robustly to placebo treatment."46 Michel de Montaigne, in an early allusion to placebos, wrote in 1572 that the mere sightof medicine could be operative.47 The potential of the brain's own "centralised networkfor healing," has even overtaken drugs like Prozac, and has revolutionised the practice ofpharmacology in the past decade: "From 2001 to 2006, the percentage of new products cut from development after Phase IIclinical trials, when drugs are first tested against placebo, rose by 20%. The failure rate inmore extensive Phase III trials increased by 11%, mainly due to surprisingly poor showingsagainst placebo."48 The placebo effect is caused by the physical reaction of the brain under a treatment which The opposite of the placebo effect. A psychological or psychosomatic factor that engenders or exacerbates an illness.
– 26 – 4. the nocebo & Placebo effect is believed to cure, releasing endorphins which are the body's own, natural painkillers. Ina study done by the University of Michigan, it was found that the participants: "showed a increase in the activation of their mu opioid endorphin system after they were told that the"medicine" was coming and the placebo was given. The most pronounced differences were seen in four areas of the brain known to be involved in complex responses to, and processing of, pain."49 In this respect, smells linked to experiences and memory can also exert a great influence in this self-healing processes. The potential of smell to work on another level from the verbal, the unconscious, could be used for therapeutic advantage in the treatment of illnesses. Its effects on mood and behaviour make smell reactions uncontrolable. Because it is an automatic process, we react in an emotional manner to odours. Clinical studies show proof of the healing potency of smell through its associational link to past experiences: "Insulin was injected into healthy male volunteers once a day for four days and their bloodglucose was measured ( it fell ). At the same time, they were exposed to smell. On the fifthday they were just given the smell, and, their blood glucose fell."50 Thus, by associating smell with a positive healing treatment and then reinforcing thisconnection, smell has been proven to be capable of substituting for the treatment. Thismeans that this smell-memory effect could possibly be thought of as a placebo. In this respect, smell could redefine medical experiences. Could we use smell as a placebo, replacing our ingestion of pills? – 27 – 4. the nocebo & Placebo effect This first half of the project aims to analyse the underlying processes which conform our chemical sense of smell, commonly eclipsed by the predominance of the visual in our society. The goal was not only to analyse cultural and social conventions in relation to smell, but also to explore the inner workings of our chemical sense, along with its relevance in nature. Surprisingly, smell's unique functions have been found at the core of a complex interdependancy with our immediate surroundings. Throughout this project, I found that the smell-memory effect could function as a placebo, and odours could be used to trigger physical reactions in the body. This means that smell not only affects our emotions, but also manages numerous cognitive processes and subsequent physical reactions in our bodies. It's intrinsic link to memory and its associative power, can be used to create new learning procedures, redefining the mind-body binome. This power of smell could change the way we address health as a whole, along with existing practices in clinical therapy.
By addressing smell and it's importance, I believe we also gain a different perception of our natural environment, which could eventually lead to a new interaction with it. Our present intervention with nature, is mostly aimed at a visual delectation. By proposing this chemical exchange with our surroundings, we can question our inherited perception of nature, and redefine our role amongst other species. A new dialogue is insinuated in this context, which brings into question what we have built around us. How can the shift from a visually-mediated cultural practice into a chemical one, change existing systems and processes? – 29 – Fig. 1 smell can provide a new understanding of nature collage by susana cámara leret, from Köhler's medizinal Pflanzen atlas, 1887 Thymus vulgaris: plants' scents have been traditionally employed for medicinal purposes collage by susana cámara leret, from Köhler's medizinal Pflanzen atlas, 1887 We live in a predominantly visual culture from the society of spectacle, guy debord Fig. 4 our sense of smell has been culturally undervalued collage by susana cámara leret Fig. 5 Tests for vision prevail over tests for smell collage by susana cámara leret 19th century illustration of brain function google images Fig. 7 smell is not only a biological experience – it is also cultural Fig. 8 results from smell Identification Test collage & graph by susana cámara leret Fig. 9 olfaction needs training too susana cámara leret Fig. 10 The great rose is an example of man's careful breeding of nature collage by susana cámara leret Fig. 11 Illustrations of semper augustus tulips Fig. 12 bee attracted to lavender collage by susana cámara leret – 31 – Fig. 13 australian orchid collage by susana cámara leret Fig. 14 dead horse arum collage by susana cámara leret Fig. 15 except for identical twins, everyone has their own, unique smell collage by susana cámara leret Fig. 16 results from smell adaptation Test collage & graph by susana cámara leret Fig. 17 results from smell discrimmination Test collage & graph by susana cámara leret Fig. 18 We distinguish smells as strong or weak susana cámara leret Fig. 19 smell can provide relevant information about ourselves and our environment sketch by susana cámara leret Fig. 20 mapping out smell's relevance infographic by susana cámara leret Fig. 21 drugs like prozac could be replaced by placebos collage by susana cámara leret Fig. 22 our natural painkillers flickr Fig. 23 Linalool has been proven to reduce anxiety collage by susana cámara leret Fig. 24 odours can influence behaviour collage by susana cámara leret Fig. 24 What happens when we react in an extreme manner with our chemical self? collage by susana cámara leret – 32 – 1 color vision: how our eyes reflect primate evolution gerald h. Jacobs & Jeremy nathans scientific american, march 16, 2009 2 evolutionary deterioration of the vomeronasal pheromone transduction pathway in catarrhine primates Jianzhi Zhang and david m. Webb 3 nose surgery and the vomeronasal organ José garcía-velasco and santiago garcía-casas What we gave up for colour vision Kurt Kleiner new scientist. 24, January 2004 5 olfaction -a window to the mind shaye Kivity, oscar d. ortega-hernandez and yehuda shoenfeld imaJ. vol. 11. april 2009 The smell report. an overview of facts and findings director: Kate fox social issues research centre The anatomy of disgust ian miller, William harvard university Press. 1997. u.s.a. 8 michel de montaigne of smells essays 228 The smell report. an overview of facts and findings director: Kate fox social issues research centre – 33 – 10 how we lost our sense of smell the guardian, 1st september 2001 11 how we lost our sense of smell the guardian, 1st september 2001 12 biotechnology provides new tools for plant breeding trevor v. suslow, bruce r. thomas & Kent J. bradford university of california, division of agriculture and natural resources, 2002 13 aroma therapy Jonathan Knight new scientist. 12, february 2000 14 aroma therapy Jonathan Knight new scientist. 12, february 2000 The name of the rose supervisors: frans Krens, Jan schaart the laboratory of Plant breeding, Wageningen university16 making scents of flowers: It's time for science to close its eyes and sniff susan millius science news. 27, July 2002 17 eu cut flower imports eurostat figures 01, october 2008 The botany of desire: a plant's eye–view of The World michael Pollan random house inc, new york, 2002 The botany of desire: a plant's eye–view of The World michael Pollan random house inc, new york, 2002 The botany of desire: a plant's eye–view of The World michael Pollan random house inc, new york, 2002 21 romeo & Juliet act.2 sc.2, 1.66 What the nose Knows: The science of scent in everyday Life avery gilbert crown Publishers: new york, 2008 – 34 – 23 aroma therapy Jonathan Knight new scientist. 12, february 2000 24 aroma therapy Jonathan Knight new scientist. 12, february 2000 The private Life of plants: a natural history of plant behaviour Princeton university Press. new Jersey, 1995 26 smell (olfaction): a tutorial on the sense of smell compiled by tim Jacob cardiff university, uK The smell report: an overview of facts and findings director: Kate fox social issues research centre 28 smell (olfaction): a tutorial on the sense of smell compiled by tim Jacob cardiff university, uK 29 smell (olfaction): a tutorial on the sense of smell compiled by tim Jacob cardiff university, uK The mystery of smell: The vivid World of odors maya Pines howard hughes medical institute. 2008 31 smell ya Later? not if that smell goes extinct Jennifer fisher Wilson the smart set from drexel university. 23 June 2008 32 autoimmune pathology accounts for common manifestations in a wide range of neuro-psychiatric disorders: The olfactory and immune system interrelationship samuel-datum moscavitch, martine szyper-Kravitz and yehuda shoenfeld clinical immunology, 2009 33 effect of pleasant odors on mood of males at midlife comparison of african-american and european men s.s. schiffman, m.s. suggs, e.a. sattely-miller brain res. bull. 36 (1995) 31-37) The effect of environmental odors emanating from commercial swine operations on the mood of nearby residents s.s. schiffman, e.a. miller, m.s. suggs, b.g. graham brain res. bull. 37 (1995) 369-375) – 35 – The effect of pleasant odors and hormone status on mood of women at midlife s.s. schiffman, e.a. miller, m.s. suggs, b.g. graham brain res. bull. 36 (1995) 19-29) 34 emotion, olfaction and the human amygdala: amygdala activation during aversive olfactory stimulation d.h. Zald, J.v. Pardo Proc. natl. acad. sci. u.s.a. 94 (1997) 4119-4124 35 smell (olfaction): a tutorial on the sense of smell compiled by tim Jacob cardiff university, uK 36 olfaction -a window to the mind shaye Kivity, oscar d. ortega-hernandez and yeguda shoenfeld imaJ. vol 11, april 2009 37 olfaction - a window to the mind shaye Kivity, oscar d. ortega-hernandez and yeguda shoenfeld imaJ. vol 11, april 2009 38 sick from smells, but not silly the netherlands organisation for scientific research (nWo) august 25, 2009 Interview with dr. monique smeets 10 /20202020 ??? . clinical Psychology -utrecht university, the netherlands Interview with dr. monique smeets 10 /20202020 ??? clinical Psychology -utrecht university, the netherlands Interview with patricia bulsing: The link between odours and illness: how health cognitions affect odour perception What the nose Knows: The science of scent in everyday life gilbert, avery crown Publishers. 2008. new york, u.s.a. Interview with patricia bulsing: The link between odours and illness: how health cognitions affect odour perception What the nose Knows: The science of scent in everyday life gilbert, avery crown Publishers. 2008. new york, u.s.a. todd haynes 46 real / fake: both can cure depression steve silberman Wired uK article, october 2009 – 36 – 47 a Question of faith Philip hunter embo reports. vol. 8. no. 2, 2007 48 real / fake: both can cure depression steve silberman Wired uK article, october 2009 49 brain's painkillers may cause ‘placebo effect', study Kara gavin medical news today, 25 august 2005 50 classical conditioning of Insulin effects in healthy humans ursula stockhorst, eva gritzmann, et. al the institute of medical Psychology (u.s., e.g., K.K., h.-J.s.), diabetes research institute (y.s.-n., a.h., f.a.g), and medical institute of environmental hygiene (h.-W.b.), heinrich-heine-university düsseldorf, düsseldorf, germany – 37 –
Guide to yourColonoscopy or Upper GI Endoscopy Pre-Admission Phone Interview Date & Time: (you will be given the time of your procedure on this call) Date of Procedure: _ Your Upcoming Colonoscopy or Upper GI Endoscopy At Grand Itasca, we want to make sure that your endoscopy is as pleasant as possible. This guide is designed to answer any questions