Effects of the prebiotics immunoster and immunowall on growth performance of juvenile beluga (huso huso)

Journal of
Applied Ichthyology
J. Appl. Ichthyol. 27 (2011), 796–798 Received: March 28, 2010  2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin Accepted: December 18, 2010 Effects of the prebiotics Immunoster and Immunowall on growth performance ofjuvenile beluga (Huso huso) By R. TaÕati1, M. Soltani2, M. Bahmani3 and A. A. Zamini4 1Department of Fisheries, Islamic Azad University, Talesh Branch, Talesh, Iran; 2Department of Aquatic Animal Health, Faculty ofVeterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; 3International Sturgeon Research Institute, Rasht, Iran; 4Department ofFisheries, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan Branch, Lahijan, Iran (Gibson and Roberfroid, 1995). Example of prebiotics includes The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) (White et al., 2002). Immu- prebiotics Immunoster and Immunowall (two commercial noster and Immunowall (commercial names) contain mannan prebiotics) on growth performance of juvenile beluga (Huso oligosaccharides (MOS) derived from the outer cell wall of a huso). Prior to the feeding trials, fish were fed the basal diet to specific strain of brewers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).
apparent satiation four times per day for a 4-week acclima- Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a natural product from the tization period. The basal diet contained 42% crude protein, brewing industry that contains various immunostimulating 14.5% crude lipid, 10.06% ash and 6.1% moisture. Then, 450 compounds such as b-glucans, nucleic acids as well as mannan beluga juveniles weighing 95.6 ± 9.4 g were randomly dis- oligosaccharide (MOS), has been used as a diet additive for tributed into 15 fiberglass tanks (2 · 2 · 0.53 m) in three various animals (Ortuno et al., 2002). The most important replicates and kept at a density of 30 fish per tank. Two levels ingredients of two mentioned prebiotics are as follows: 19% (1 and 3%) of Immunoster and two levels (1 and 3%) of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and 20% b-1,3 glucan for Immunowall were added to the basal diet in place of cellulose.
Immunoster and 40% mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and Diets were manufactured by extrusion processing. Juvenile 17% b-1,3 glucan for Immunowall. b-glucans are the most belugas were fed four times daily at rates approximately important structural polysaccharides in the cell walls of plants, apparent to satiation for 8 weeks. Average Daily Growth fungi, algae, yeast and bacteria. They show immunostimula- (ADG), Body Weight Gain (BWG), Specific Growth Rate tory properties and increase survival rate, disease resistance (SGR), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Condition Factor (CF) and modulate innate and acquired immunity responses in fish and Hepatosomatic Index (HSI) were monitored and assessed.
(Dalmo and Bogwald, 2008).
Generally, fish fed Immunoster and Immunowall had better The present study was conducted to determine the effects of growth characteristics during the 8-week feeding trial. Survival graded levels of the two prebiotics, Immunoster and Immuno- rate was 100% in all treatments. Final weight and final length wall on the growth performance of beluga sturgeon.
were significantly affected by Immunoster and Immunowall (atboth levels) in all experimental groups in comparison with the Materials and methods control group (P < 0.05). The highest and the lowest finalweight were observed in Immunowall 1% (241.6 ± 85 g) and Beluga juveniles were obtained from Shahid Dr. Beheshti control (199.2 ± 84.7 g), respectively. It can be declared that Sturgeon Propagation and Rearing Center, Rasht, Iran, and two mentioned prebiotics can improve growth performance of transported to the culture system and fed the basal diet to beluga sturgeon.
apparent satiation four times per day for a 4-week condition-ing period. The basal diet was formulated to contain 42%crude protein, 14.5% crude lipid, 10.06% ash and 6.1% moisture. Fish were then graded by size and groups of 30 fish Rapid growth and disease resistance are two objectives in with mean body weight of 95.6 ± 9.4 g and with mean body aquaculture. Traditionally, antibiotics have been added to length of 30.8 ± 1.2 cm per group were stocked into 15 2000-L aquafeeds to treat bacterial diseases (Rawles et al., 1997).
tanks (three replicates groups) (completely randomized de- However, the use of antibiotics does pose threats such as the sign). All groups were fed their respective diets at the same development of resistance leading to unacceptable residues in fixed rate (initially 4% of body weight per day and gradually cultured organisms (FAO, 2002). Antibiotic uses are strictly reduced to 2%). During the trial, mean water temperature regulated in most countries. These alterations in policy are a and mean oxygen level were 20.55 ± 5.11C and 6.73 ± step towards sustainable aquaculture using strategies for 0.35 mg L)1, respectively.
disease control through better farm hygiene. Beside vaccine Two levels (1 and 3%) of Immunoster (Awill Company, development, dietary supplements including probiotics, pre- Dandenong South, Victoria, Australia) and two levels (1 and 3%) of Immunowall (The Old Mild Troy Inc., Vermont) were Although primary attention should be clean husbandry added to the basal diet in place of cellulose. Diets were techniques that minimize diseases outbreaks.
manufactured by extrusion processing. Juvenile belugas were The use of prebiotics, promoting certain bacteria in the fed four times daily at rates approximately apparent to intestinal tract, is a relatively new concept in aquaculture satiation for 8 weeks.
U.S. Copyright Clearance Centre Code Statement: 0175–8659/2011/2702–0796$15.00/0 Effects of the prebiotics Immunoster and Immunowall All biometric data were taken only after feeding had been as a potential replacement for fish meal (Oliva-Teles and ceased for 24 h and all samples of each replicate were Goncalves, 2001). Some of the products derived from anaesthetized with clove oil. Average Daily Growth (ADG), S. cerevisiae, like Immunoster and Immunowall are composed Body Weight Gain (BWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), of a fraction of its cell wall rich in mannan oligosaccharide Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Condition Factor (CF) and (MOS). The benefits of this product have been reported in a Hepatosomatic Index (HSI) were calculated.
broad number of poultry species, where it improves feed efficiency and promotes growth (Iji et al., 2001). Oliva-Teles and Goncalves (2001) have evaluated the nutritional value of S. cerevisiae in sea bass by comparing growth performanceand feed efficiency.
Olsen et al. (2001) observed that a diet supplemented with 15% inulin caused harmful effects to Arctic charr. Staykov (2004) proved that common carp and rainbow trout growthand feed utilization were significantly improved by feedingMOS supplemented diets. Li and Gatlin (2004) showed the commercial prebiotic, Grobiotic AE (International Ingredi- ent Corporation, St. Louis, MO, USA) (1 and 2%), signif- (Wi, initial weight; Wt, final weight; L, body length; WL, liver icantly enhanced feed efficiency of hybrid striped bass.
weight and T, days of culture) Mahious et al. (2006) studied the effect of dietary inulin Analysis of variance was employed, using one-way ANOVA (2%) and oligosaccharides (2%) as prebiotics for weaning and comparisons among treatment means were made by turbot. They declared oilgofructose had a positive effect on the TukeyÕs test as a post hoc test by SPSS software (Version 15, growth. In rainbow trout and hybrid tilapia, the body protein SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) concentration has been reported to increase as the level of1 g kg)1 MOS was increased in the diet from 1.5 to 4.5 g kg)1(Genc et al., 2007 and Yilmaz et al., 2007). In contrast, Grisdale-Helland et al. (2008) has been proved that supple- Generally, fish fed the prebiotics Immunoster and Immuno- menting the diet with 10 g kg)1 MOS resulted in a decrease in wall had better growth performance during the 8-week feeding the protein concentration in the body of the salmon.
trial. Survival rate was 100% in all treatments. Final weight In conclusion, the commercial prebiotics, Immunoster and and final length were significantly affected by Immunoster and Immunowall significantly improved growth performance and Immunowall (at both levels) in all experimental groups in feed efficiency of beluga. Further studies are needed though, to comparison with the control group (P < 0.05). The highest determine the appropriate inclusion level and duration of use.
and the lowest final weight were observed in Immunowall 1% In addition, potential positive effects of the prebiotics on and control, respectively whereas the highest and the lowest health should be determined using fish subjected to bacterial final length were seen in Immunoster 3% and control, infections or other stressors.
respectively (Table 1).
There were no significant differences in BWG, SGR and ADG among all groups (P > 0.05). However, all three mentioned factors in Immunoster 3% and Immunowall 1 The authors would like to appreciate staff of Shahid Dr.
and 3% were higher than the control. The highest value of HSI Beheshti Sturgeon Propagation and Rearing Center and Dr.
was observed in Immunowall 3%. The best feed conversion Dadman International Sturgeon Research Institute. The ratio (FCR) was recorded at the level of Immunoster 3%.
authors also express their sincere thanks to Dr. Mahmoud Tukey test showed significant differences in condition factor Mohseni and Dr. Mohammad Ali Yazdani for their assistance.
among the various dietary treatments (Table 1).
Dalmo, R. A.; Bogwald, J., 2008: b-glucans as conductors of immune Information on the effects of prebiotics in aquatic organism is symphonies. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 25, 384–396.
FAO, 2002: Antibiotics residue in aquaculture products. The state of limited. Brewers yeast has been recognized to have potential as World Fisheries and Aquaculture. FAO, Rome, Italy, pp. 74–82.
a substitute for live food in the production of certain fish or Table 1Growth performance of juvenile belu- ga (Huso huso) reared for 8 weeks ondiets of two prebiotics. (Data represent Initial weight (g) 95.1 ± 10.3a 96.3 ± 9.8a 95.6 ± 10.2a 94.9 ± 7.7a means and standard deviation based 221 ± 73.7b 240.2 ± 92.4c 241.6 ± 85c on three replicates (n = 3 · 30 = 90 Initial length(cm) specimens per treatment. C, control; Final length (cm) IS, Immunoster and IW, Immunowall) 35.7 ± 12.5a 34.7 ± 10.2a 38.8 ± 12.3a 39.6 ± 11.2a ADG (g ⁄ fish per day) Means in the same row with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05).
R. TaÕati et al.
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AuthorÕs address: Reza TaÕati, Department of Fisheries, Islamic Azad Oliva-Teles, A.; Goncalves, P., 2001: Partial replacement of fish meal University, Talesh Branch, PO Box 43717-95985, by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in diets for sea bass Dicentrarchus Talesh, Iran.
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