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Effects of the prebiotics immunoster and immunowall on growth performance of juvenile beluga (huso huso)Journal of
J. Appl. Ichthyol. 27 (2011), 796–798 Received: March 28, 2010 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin Accepted: December 18, 2010 Eﬀects of the prebiotics Immunoster and Immunowall on growth performance ofjuvenile beluga (Huso huso) By R. TaÕati1, M. Soltani2, M. Bahmani3 and A. A. Zamini4 1Department of Fisheries, Islamic Azad University, Talesh Branch, Talesh, Iran; 2Department of Aquatic Animal Health, Faculty ofVeterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; 3International Sturgeon Research Institute, Rasht, Iran; 4Department ofFisheries, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan Branch, Lahijan, Iran (Gibson and Roberfroid, 1995). Example of prebiotics includes The objective of this study was to determine the eﬀects of the mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) (White et al., 2002). Immu- prebiotics Immunoster and Immunowall (two commercial noster and Immunowall (commercial names) contain mannan prebiotics) on growth performance of juvenile beluga (Huso oligosaccharides (MOS) derived from the outer cell wall of a huso). Prior to the feeding trials, ﬁsh were fed the basal diet to speciﬁc strain of brewers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).
apparent satiation four times per day for a 4-week acclima- Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a natural product from the tization period. The basal diet contained 42% crude protein, brewing industry that contains various immunostimulating 14.5% crude lipid, 10.06% ash and 6.1% moisture. Then, 450 compounds such as b-glucans, nucleic acids as well as mannan beluga juveniles weighing 95.6 ± 9.4 g were randomly dis- oligosaccharide (MOS), has been used as a diet additive for tributed into 15 ﬁberglass tanks (2 · 2 · 0.53 m) in three various animals (Ortuno et al., 2002). The most important replicates and kept at a density of 30 ﬁsh per tank. Two levels ingredients of two mentioned prebiotics are as follows: 19% (1 and 3%) of Immunoster and two levels (1 and 3%) of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and 20% b-1,3 glucan for Immunowall were added to the basal diet in place of cellulose.
Immunoster and 40% mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and Diets were manufactured by extrusion processing. Juvenile 17% b-1,3 glucan for Immunowall. b-glucans are the most belugas were fed four times daily at rates approximately important structural polysaccharides in the cell walls of plants, apparent to satiation for 8 weeks. Average Daily Growth fungi, algae, yeast and bacteria. They show immunostimula- (ADG), Body Weight Gain (BWG), Speciﬁc Growth Rate tory properties and increase survival rate, disease resistance (SGR), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Condition Factor (CF) and modulate innate and acquired immunity responses in ﬁsh and Hepatosomatic Index (HSI) were monitored and assessed.
(Dalmo and Bogwald, 2008).
Generally, ﬁsh fed Immunoster and Immunowall had better The present study was conducted to determine the eﬀects of growth characteristics during the 8-week feeding trial. Survival graded levels of the two prebiotics, Immunoster and Immuno- rate was 100% in all treatments. Final weight and ﬁnal length wall on the growth performance of beluga sturgeon.
were signiﬁcantly aﬀected by Immunoster and Immunowall (atboth levels) in all experimental groups in comparison with the Materials and methods control group (P < 0.05). The highest and the lowest ﬁnalweight were observed in Immunowall 1% (241.6 ± 85 g) and Beluga juveniles were obtained from Shahid Dr. Beheshti control (199.2 ± 84.7 g), respectively. It can be declared that Sturgeon Propagation and Rearing Center, Rasht, Iran, and two mentioned prebiotics can improve growth performance of transported to the culture system and fed the basal diet to beluga sturgeon.
apparent satiation four times per day for a 4-week condition-ing period. The basal diet was formulated to contain 42%crude protein, 14.5% crude lipid, 10.06% ash and 6.1% moisture. Fish were then graded by size and groups of 30 ﬁsh Rapid growth and disease resistance are two objectives in with mean body weight of 95.6 ± 9.4 g and with mean body aquaculture. Traditionally, antibiotics have been added to length of 30.8 ± 1.2 cm per group were stocked into 15 2000-L aquafeeds to treat bacterial diseases (Rawles et al., 1997).
tanks (three replicates groups) (completely randomized de- However, the use of antibiotics does pose threats such as the sign). All groups were fed their respective diets at the same development of resistance leading to unacceptable residues in ﬁxed rate (initially 4% of body weight per day and gradually cultured organisms (FAO, 2002). Antibiotic uses are strictly reduced to 2%). During the trial, mean water temperature regulated in most countries. These alterations in policy are a and mean oxygen level were 20.55 ± 5.11C and 6.73 ± step towards sustainable aquaculture using strategies for 0.35 mg L)1, respectively.
disease control through better farm hygiene. Beside vaccine Two levels (1 and 3%) of Immunoster (Awill Company, development, dietary supplements including probiotics, pre- Dandenong South, Victoria, Australia) and two levels (1 and 3%) of Immunowall (The Old Mild Troy Inc., Vermont) were Although primary attention should be clean husbandry added to the basal diet in place of cellulose. Diets were techniques that minimize diseases outbreaks.
manufactured by extrusion processing. Juvenile belugas were The use of prebiotics, promoting certain bacteria in the fed four times daily at rates approximately apparent to intestinal tract, is a relatively new concept in aquaculture satiation for 8 weeks.
U.S. Copyright Clearance Centre Code Statement: 0175–8659/2011/2702–0796$15.00/0 Eﬀects of the prebiotics Immunoster and Immunowall All biometric data were taken only after feeding had been as a potential replacement for ﬁsh meal (Oliva-Teles and ceased for 24 h and all samples of each replicate were Goncalves, 2001). Some of the products derived from anaesthetized with clove oil. Average Daily Growth (ADG), S. cerevisiae, like Immunoster and Immunowall are composed Body Weight Gain (BWG), Speciﬁc Growth Rate (SGR), of a fraction of its cell wall rich in mannan oligosaccharide Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Condition Factor (CF) and (MOS). The beneﬁts of this product have been reported in a Hepatosomatic Index (HSI) were calculated.
broad number of poultry species, where it improves feed eﬃciency and promotes growth (Iji et al., 2001). Oliva-Teles and Goncalves (2001) have evaluated the nutritional value of S. cerevisiae in sea bass by comparing growth performanceand feed eﬃciency.
Olsen et al. (2001) observed that a diet supplemented with 15% inulin caused harmful eﬀects to Arctic charr. Staykov (2004) proved that common carp and rainbow trout growthand feed utilization were signiﬁcantly improved by feedingMOS supplemented diets. Li and Gatlin (2004) showed the commercial prebiotic, Grobiotic AE (International Ingredi- ent Corporation, St. Louis, MO, USA) (1 and 2%), signif- (Wi, initial weight; Wt, ﬁnal weight; L, body length; WL, liver icantly enhanced feed eﬃciency of hybrid striped bass.
weight and T, days of culture) Mahious et al. (2006) studied the eﬀect of dietary inulin Analysis of variance was employed, using one-way ANOVA (2%) and oligosaccharides (2%) as prebiotics for weaning and comparisons among treatment means were made by turbot. They declared oilgofructose had a positive eﬀect on the TukeyÕs test as a post hoc test by SPSS software (Version 15, growth. In rainbow trout and hybrid tilapia, the body protein SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) concentration has been reported to increase as the level of1 g kg)1 MOS was increased in the diet from 1.5 to 4.5 g kg)1(Genc et al., 2007 and Yilmaz et al., 2007). In contrast, Grisdale-Helland et al. (2008) has been proved that supple- Generally, ﬁsh fed the prebiotics Immunoster and Immuno- menting the diet with 10 g kg)1 MOS resulted in a decrease in wall had better growth performance during the 8-week feeding the protein concentration in the body of the salmon.
trial. Survival rate was 100% in all treatments. Final weight In conclusion, the commercial prebiotics, Immunoster and and ﬁnal length were signiﬁcantly aﬀected by Immunoster and Immunowall signiﬁcantly improved growth performance and Immunowall (at both levels) in all experimental groups in feed eﬃciency of beluga. Further studies are needed though, to comparison with the control group (P < 0.05). The highest determine the appropriate inclusion level and duration of use.
and the lowest ﬁnal weight were observed in Immunowall 1% In addition, potential positive eﬀects of the prebiotics on and control, respectively whereas the highest and the lowest health should be determined using ﬁsh subjected to bacterial ﬁnal length were seen in Immunoster 3% and control, infections or other stressors.
respectively (Table 1).
There were no signiﬁcant diﬀerences in BWG, SGR and ADG among all groups (P > 0.05). However, all three mentioned factors in Immunoster 3% and Immunowall 1 The authors would like to appreciate staﬀ of Shahid Dr.
and 3% were higher than the control. The highest value of HSI Beheshti Sturgeon Propagation and Rearing Center and Dr.
was observed in Immunowall 3%. The best feed conversion Dadman International Sturgeon Research Institute. The ratio (FCR) was recorded at the level of Immunoster 3%.
authors also express their sincere thanks to Dr. Mahmoud Tukey test showed signiﬁcant diﬀerences in condition factor Mohseni and Dr. Mohammad Ali Yazdani for their assistance.
among the various dietary treatments (Table 1).
Dalmo, R. A.; Bogwald, J., 2008: b-glucans as conductors of immune Information on the eﬀects of prebiotics in aquatic organism is symphonies. Fish Shellﬁsh Immunol. 25, 384–396.
FAO, 2002: Antibiotics residue in aquaculture products. The state of limited. Brewers yeast has been recognized to have potential as World Fisheries and Aquaculture. FAO, Rome, Italy, pp. 74–82.
a substitute for live food in the production of certain ﬁsh or Table 1Growth performance of juvenile belu- ga (Huso huso) reared for 8 weeks ondiets of two prebiotics. (Data represent Initial weight (g) 95.1 ± 10.3a 96.3 ± 9.8a 95.6 ± 10.2a 94.9 ± 7.7a means and standard deviation based 221 ± 73.7b 240.2 ± 92.4c 241.6 ± 85c on three replicates (n = 3 · 30 = 90 Initial length(cm) specimens per treatment. C, control; Final length (cm) IS, Immunoster and IW, Immunowall) 35.7 ± 12.5a 34.7 ± 10.2a 38.8 ± 12.3a 39.6 ± 11.2a ADG (g ⁄ ﬁsh per day) Means in the same row with diﬀerent superscripts are signiﬁcantly diﬀerent (P < 0.05).
R. TaÕati et al.
Genc, M. A.; Yilmaz, E.; Genc, E.; Aktas, M., 2007: Eﬀects of dietary Olsen, R. E.; Myklebust, R.; Kryvi, H.; Mayhew, T. M.; RingØ, E., mannan oligosaccharides on growth, body composition, and 2001: Damaging eﬀect of dietary inulin on intestinal enterocytes in intestine and liver histology of the hybrid Tilapia (Oreochromis Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.). Aquac. Res. 32, 931–934.
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AuthorÕs address: Reza TaÕati, Department of Fisheries, Islamic Azad Oliva-Teles, A.; Goncalves, P., 2001: Partial replacement of ﬁsh meal University, Talesh Branch, PO Box 43717-95985, by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in diets for sea bass Dicentrarchus Talesh, Iran.
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Patient Insight: Patient journey reveals cost of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) Abstract Objective: The objective of the study was to quantify RLS misdiagnosis and delayed treatment in primary care and to examine the implications for the RLS patient journey and associated healthcare costs. Background: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) affects around 5-10% of adults in Western countries. However, awareness of the disease is relatively low: around 2 in 5 people in the UK have heard of it. Low awareness may be one reason it is misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. Late diagnosis and misdiagnosis has implications for the cost of the disorder to the health service. Method: An online questionnaire-based study of 157 adult patients with RLS from the UK was conducted in 2012. Results: The survey found it took an average of 7.53 visits for participants to receive an RLS diagnosis with some stating it took 20, 30 or more visits before a diagnosis was reached. For the majority (67%) it had taken over a year to be diagnosed with RLS. However, 23% of this group of respondents noted it had taken 10 years or more before they were diagnosed.