Effects of the prebiotics immunoster and immunowall on growth performance of juvenile beluga (huso huso)
J. Appl. Ichthyol. 27 (2011), 796–798
Received: March 28, 2010
2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin
Accepted: December 18, 2010
Eﬀects of the prebiotics Immunoster and Immunowall on growth performance ofjuvenile beluga (Huso huso)
By R. TaÕati1, M. Soltani2, M. Bahmani3 and A. A. Zamini4
1Department of Fisheries, Islamic Azad University, Talesh Branch, Talesh, Iran; 2Department of Aquatic Animal Health, Faculty ofVeterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; 3International Sturgeon Research Institute, Rasht, Iran; 4Department ofFisheries, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan Branch, Lahijan, Iran
(Gibson and Roberfroid, 1995). Example of prebiotics includes
The objective of this study was to determine the eﬀects of the
mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) (White et al., 2002). Immu-
prebiotics Immunoster and Immunowall (two commercial
noster and Immunowall (commercial names) contain mannan
prebiotics) on growth performance of juvenile beluga (Huso
oligosaccharides (MOS) derived from the outer cell wall of a
huso). Prior to the feeding trials, ﬁsh were fed the basal diet to
speciﬁc strain of brewers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).
apparent satiation four times per day for a 4-week acclima-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a natural product from the
tization period. The basal diet contained 42% crude protein,
brewing industry that contains various immunostimulating
14.5% crude lipid, 10.06% ash and 6.1% moisture. Then, 450
compounds such as b-glucans, nucleic acids as well as mannan
beluga juveniles weighing 95.6 ± 9.4 g were randomly dis-
oligosaccharide (MOS), has been used as a diet additive for
tributed into 15 ﬁberglass tanks (2 · 2 · 0.53 m) in three
various animals (Ortuno et al., 2002). The most important
replicates and kept at a density of 30 ﬁsh per tank. Two levels
ingredients of two mentioned prebiotics are as follows: 19%
(1 and 3%) of Immunoster and two levels (1 and 3%) of
mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and 20% b-1,3 glucan for
Immunowall were added to the basal diet in place of cellulose.
Immunoster and 40% mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and
Diets were manufactured by extrusion processing. Juvenile
17% b-1,3 glucan for Immunowall. b-glucans are the most
belugas were fed four times daily at rates approximately
important structural polysaccharides in the cell walls of plants,
apparent to satiation for 8 weeks. Average Daily Growth
fungi, algae, yeast and bacteria. They show immunostimula-
(ADG), Body Weight Gain (BWG), Speciﬁc Growth Rate
tory properties and increase survival rate, disease resistance
(SGR), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Condition Factor (CF)
and modulate innate and acquired immunity responses in ﬁsh
and Hepatosomatic Index (HSI) were monitored and assessed.
(Dalmo and Bogwald, 2008).
Generally, ﬁsh fed Immunoster and Immunowall had better
The present study was conducted to determine the eﬀects of
growth characteristics during the 8-week feeding trial. Survival
graded levels of the two prebiotics, Immunoster and Immuno-
rate was 100% in all treatments. Final weight and ﬁnal length
wall on the growth performance of beluga sturgeon.
were signiﬁcantly aﬀected by Immunoster and Immunowall (atboth levels) in all experimental groups in comparison with the
Materials and methods
control group (P < 0.05). The highest and the lowest ﬁnalweight were observed in Immunowall 1% (241.6 ± 85 g) and
Beluga juveniles were obtained from Shahid Dr. Beheshti
control (199.2 ± 84.7 g), respectively. It can be declared that
Sturgeon Propagation and Rearing Center, Rasht, Iran, and
two mentioned prebiotics can improve growth performance of
transported to the culture system and fed the basal diet to
apparent satiation four times per day for a 4-week condition-ing period. The basal diet was formulated to contain 42%crude protein, 14.5% crude lipid, 10.06% ash and 6.1%
moisture. Fish were then graded by size and groups of 30 ﬁsh
Rapid growth and disease resistance are two objectives in
with mean body weight of 95.6 ± 9.4 g and with mean body
aquaculture. Traditionally, antibiotics have been added to
length of 30.8 ± 1.2 cm per group were stocked into 15 2000-L
aquafeeds to treat bacterial diseases (Rawles et al., 1997).
tanks (three replicates groups) (completely randomized de-
However, the use of antibiotics does pose threats such as the
sign). All groups were fed their respective diets at the same
development of resistance leading to unacceptable residues in
ﬁxed rate (initially 4% of body weight per day and gradually
cultured organisms (FAO, 2002). Antibiotic uses are strictly
reduced to 2%). During the trial, mean water temperature
regulated in most countries. These alterations in policy are a
and mean oxygen level were 20.55 ± 5.11C and 6.73 ±
step towards sustainable aquaculture using strategies for
0.35 mg L)1, respectively.
disease control through better farm hygiene. Beside vaccine
Two levels (1 and 3%) of Immunoster (Awill Company,
development, dietary supplements including probiotics, pre-
Dandenong South, Victoria, Australia) and two levels (1 and
3%) of Immunowall (The Old Mild Troy Inc., Vermont) were
Although primary attention should be clean husbandry
added to the basal diet in place of cellulose. Diets were
techniques that minimize diseases outbreaks.
manufactured by extrusion processing. Juvenile belugas were
The use of prebiotics, promoting certain bacteria in the
fed four times daily at rates approximately apparent to
intestinal tract, is a relatively new concept in aquaculture
satiation for 8 weeks.
U.S. Copyright Clearance Centre Code Statement: 0175–8659/2011/2702–0796$15.00/0
Eﬀects of the prebiotics Immunoster and Immunowall
All biometric data were taken only after feeding had been
as a potential replacement for ﬁsh meal (Oliva-Teles and
ceased for 24 h and all samples of each replicate were
Goncalves, 2001). Some of the products derived from
anaesthetized with clove oil. Average Daily Growth (ADG),
S. cerevisiae, like Immunoster and Immunowall are composed
Body Weight Gain (BWG), Speciﬁc Growth Rate (SGR),
of a fraction of its cell wall rich in mannan oligosaccharide
Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Condition Factor (CF) and
(MOS). The beneﬁts of this product have been reported in a
Hepatosomatic Index (HSI) were calculated.
broad number of poultry species, where it improves feed
eﬃciency and promotes growth (Iji et al., 2001). Oliva-Teles
and Goncalves (2001) have evaluated the nutritional value of
S. cerevisiae in sea bass by comparing growth performanceand feed eﬃciency.
Olsen et al. (2001) observed that a diet supplemented with
15% inulin caused harmful eﬀects to Arctic charr. Staykov
(2004) proved that common carp and rainbow trout growthand feed utilization were signiﬁcantly improved by feedingMOS supplemented diets. Li and Gatlin (2004) showed the
commercial prebiotic, Grobiotic AE (International Ingredi-
ent Corporation, St. Louis, MO, USA) (1 and 2%), signif-
(Wi, initial weight; Wt, ﬁnal weight; L, body length; WL, liver
icantly enhanced feed eﬃciency of hybrid striped bass.
weight and T, days of culture)
Mahious et al. (2006) studied the eﬀect of dietary inulin
Analysis of variance was employed, using one-way ANOVA
(2%) and oligosaccharides (2%) as prebiotics for weaning
and comparisons among treatment means were made by
turbot. They declared oilgofructose had a positive eﬀect on the
TukeyÕs test as a post hoc test by SPSS software (Version 15,
growth. In rainbow trout and hybrid tilapia, the body protein
SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA)
concentration has been reported to increase as the level of1 g kg)1 MOS was increased in the diet from 1.5 to 4.5 g kg)1(Genc et al., 2007 and Yilmaz et al., 2007). In contrast,
Grisdale-Helland et al. (2008) has been proved that supple-
Generally, ﬁsh fed the prebiotics Immunoster and Immuno-
menting the diet with 10 g kg)1 MOS resulted in a decrease in
wall had better growth performance during the 8-week feeding
the protein concentration in the body of the salmon.
trial. Survival rate was 100% in all treatments. Final weight
In conclusion, the commercial prebiotics, Immunoster and
and ﬁnal length were signiﬁcantly aﬀected by Immunoster and
Immunowall signiﬁcantly improved growth performance and
Immunowall (at both levels) in all experimental groups in
feed eﬃciency of beluga. Further studies are needed though, to
comparison with the control group (P < 0.05). The highest
determine the appropriate inclusion level and duration of use.
and the lowest ﬁnal weight were observed in Immunowall 1%
In addition, potential positive eﬀects of the prebiotics on
and control, respectively whereas the highest and the lowest
health should be determined using ﬁsh subjected to bacterial
ﬁnal length were seen in Immunoster 3% and control,
infections or other stressors.
respectively (Table 1).
There were no signiﬁcant diﬀerences in BWG, SGR and
ADG among all groups (P > 0.05). However, all three
mentioned factors in Immunoster 3% and Immunowall 1
The authors would like to appreciate staﬀ of Shahid Dr.
and 3% were higher than the control. The highest value of HSI
Beheshti Sturgeon Propagation and Rearing Center and Dr.
was observed in Immunowall 3%. The best feed conversion
Dadman International Sturgeon Research Institute. The
ratio (FCR) was recorded at the level of Immunoster 3%.
authors also express their sincere thanks to Dr. Mahmoud
Tukey test showed signiﬁcant diﬀerences in condition factor
Mohseni and Dr. Mohammad Ali Yazdani for their assistance.
among the various dietary treatments (Table 1).
Dalmo, R. A.; Bogwald, J., 2008: b-glucans as conductors of immune
Information on the eﬀects of prebiotics in aquatic organism is
symphonies. Fish Shellﬁsh Immunol. 25, 384–396.
FAO, 2002: Antibiotics residue in aquaculture products. The state of
limited. Brewers yeast has been recognized to have potential as
World Fisheries and Aquaculture. FAO, Rome, Italy, pp. 74–82.
a substitute for live food in the production of certain ﬁsh or
Table 1Growth performance of juvenile belu-
ga (Huso huso) reared for 8 weeks ondiets of two prebiotics. (Data represent
Initial weight (g)
95.1 ± 10.3a 96.3 ± 9.8a
95.6 ± 10.2a 94.9 ± 7.7a
means and standard deviation based
221 ± 73.7b 240.2 ± 92.4c 241.6 ± 85c
on three replicates (n = 3 · 30 = 90
specimens per treatment. C, control;
Final length (cm)
IS, Immunoster and IW, Immunowall)
35.7 ± 12.5a 34.7 ± 10.2a
38.8 ± 12.3a 39.6 ± 11.2a
ADG (g ⁄ ﬁsh per day)
Means in the same row with diﬀerent superscripts are signiﬁcantly diﬀerent (P < 0.05).
R. TaÕati et al.
Genc, M. A.; Yilmaz, E.; Genc, E.; Aktas, M., 2007: Eﬀects of dietary
Olsen, R. E.; Myklebust, R.; Kryvi, H.; Mayhew, T. M.; RingØ, E.,
mannan oligosaccharides on growth, body composition, and
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AuthorÕs address: Reza TaÕati, Department of Fisheries, Islamic Azad
Oliva-Teles, A.; Goncalves, P., 2001: Partial replacement of ﬁsh meal
University, Talesh Branch, PO Box 43717-95985,
by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in diets for sea bass Dicentrarchus
labrax juveniles. Aquaculture
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