2014–2015 Student Injury and Sickness Insurance Plan for Northern Michigan University Who is eligible to enroll? All eligible registered students taking credit hours are required to enroll in the plan on a Hard Waiver basis. Eligible Dependents of students enrolled in the Student Health Insurance plan may participate in the plan on a voluntary basis. Eligible Dependents are the student's spouse and dependent children under 26 years of age.
Microsoft word - eaaf_sis111_roebuck_bayRoebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
Information Sheet on Flyway Network Sites
Available for download from http://www.eaaflyway.net/information-sites-maps.php Categories approved by Second Meeting of the Partners Partnership for the East Asian- Australasian Flyway Beijing, China 13-14 November 2007 Report (Minutes) Agenda Item 3.13 Notes for compilers:
1. The management body intending to nominate a site for inclusion in the East Asian - Australasian Flyway Site Network is requested to complete a Site Information Sheet. The Site Information Sheet will provide the basic information of the site and detail how the site meets the criteria for inclusion in the Flyway Site Network. 2. The Site Information Sheet has been divided into two sections. Part 1 (Section 1-14) seeks basic information on the site and it is essential that it be completed. Part 2 seeks additional information and is optional. 3. The Site Information Sheet is based on the Ramsar Information Sheet. If the site proposed for the Flyway Site Network is an existing Ramsar site then the documentation process can be simplified. In this case the National Government Partner need only send a copy of the existing sheets with additional details on Question 1 and 10 of the Flyway Site Information Sheet. 4. Once completed, the Site Information Sheet (and accompanying map(s)) should be submitted to the Flyway Partnership Secretariat. Compilers should provide an electronic (MS Word) copy of the Information Sheet and, where possible, digital copies of all maps.
Part 1: Essential Information
1. Name and contact details of the compiler of this form:
Assistant Director Migratory Species, Marine Division Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities GPO Box 787, Canberra, ACT, 2601 Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
TEL: +61 2 6275 9319 EMAIL: [email protected] Migratory Species, Marine Division Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities GPO Box 787, Canberra, ACT, 2601 TEL: +61 2 6102 7391 EMAIL: [email protected] Dr Michael Coote Principal Coordinator, Wetlands Section Species and Communities Branch Department of Environment and Conservation 17 Dick Perry Avenue, Kensington, Western Australia TEL: (08) 9219 8103 EMAIL: [email protected] 2. Date this sheet was completed:
13th January 2013
4. Name of the Flyway Network site:
Roebuck Bay, Western Australia 5. Map of site:
Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
6. Geographical coordinates (latitude/longitude, in decimal degrees):
Latitude: (approx.) 17° 58' S to 18° 16' S; Longitude: (approx.) 122° 08' E to 122° 27' E 7. Elevation:
Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
9. General overview of the site:
Roebuck Bay is located in the Shire of Broome (local authority) in the State of Western Australia (population ca. 1.95 million in 2003), Australia. Roebuck Bay extends from Fisherman's Bend, immediately east of the town of Broome (population ca. 11,547 in 2006), to south of Sandy Point (see map attached). The site is one of the most important migration stopover and non-breeding areas for shorebirds in Australia and globally. Roebuck Bay is the arrival and departure point for large proportions of the Australian populations of several shorebird species (notably Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica), some of which fly non-stop between continental East Asia and Australia. Roebuck Bay is a rich shorebird feeding ground, supporting an exceptionally high (globally) macro-invertebrate biomass, including many species believed new to science (G. Pearson, pers. comm.). The Bay is also a major nursery area for marine fishes and crustaceans. Plant structural formations: Low closed- forest to open-scrub (mangrove) in periform arrangement in the east and south of the Bay; low shrubland (samphire) inland of the mangroves. Surrounding areas support low open-woodland (pindan) over grassland. 10. Justification of Flyway Site Network criteria:
North-western Australia is the most important region for migratory shorebirds on the continent, regularly supporting over 500 000 birds, with up to 850 000 birds using it annually. This region is considered to be the arrival and departure point for large proportions of the Australian populations of several migratory shorebird species. The major sites in the region are Eighty Mile Beach (also a Ramsar Site) and Roebuck Bay. Roebuck Bay is a tropical marine embayment with extensive, highly biologically diverse, intertidal mudflats. The site is internationally important for at least 20 species of migratory shorebirds with total numbers of shorebirds using the site each year in many years estimated at over 100,000. Roebuck Bay remains one of the most important sites for shorebird conservation in the East Asian- Australasian Flyway. Criterion 5: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it regularly supports
20,000 or more waterbirds.
Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
The Site regularly supports over 100,000 waterbirds. The highest number of shorebirds counted at the site was 170,900 in October 1983 and allowing for turnover, the total number of shorebirds using the site may exceed 300,000 annually. It is the fourth most important site for shorebirds in Australia in terms of absolute numbers and the most important in terms of the number of species it supports in internationally significant numbers. A total of 40,577 shorebirds were counted at the site during the summer of 2009-2010 (Shorebirds 2020 database), Shorebird numbers are highest in the Austral spring when Palaearctic migrants stop here to feed on their southward migration. The area also often supports about 30,000 birds during winter, at a time of year when few adults of breeding age remain in Australia, and considerably larger numbers over summer, because many migrating birds remain in northern Australia rather than continuing south. Fewer birds stop on the north-western coast to feed on the northwards migration but, nevertheless, numbers in autumn are very high. Criterion 6: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it regularly supports
1% of the individuals in a population of one species or subspecies of waterbird.
Roebuck Bay supports internationally significant numbers of at least 21 shorebird species (19 migratory and 2 resident species), all of which occur in numbers well in excess of 1% of the flyway population (or Australian population, in the case of resident species). Highest counts for these species are: Highest Count
EAAF 1% threshold
Greater Sand Plover Bamford et. al. 2008 Charadrius leschenaultia Oriental Plover Bamford et. al. 2008 C. veredus Lesser Sand Plover C. mongolus mongolus Red-capped Plover Rogers et al. 2011 C. ruficapillus (resident) Grey Plover Bamford et. al. 2008 Pluvialis squatarola Bar-tailed Godwit Bamford et. al. 2008 Limosa lapponica Black-tailed Godwit Bamford et. al. 2008 Limosa limosa Red Knot Bamford et. al. 2008 Calidris canutus Great Knot Rogers et al. 2011 C. tenuirostris Red-necked Stint Bamford et. al. 2008 C. ruficollis Curlew Sandpiper Bamford et. al. 2008 C. ferruginea Sanderling Rogers et al. 2011 Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
Bamford et. al. 2008 Numenius madagascariensis Little Curlew Bamford et. al. 2008 N. minutus Whimbrel Rogers et al. 2011 Numenius phaeopus variegatus Common Greenshank Bamford et. al. 2008 Tringa nebularia Grey-tailed Tattler Bamford et. al. 2008 T. brevipes Terek Sandpiper Bamford et. al. 2008 Xenus cinereus Ruddy Turnstone Bamford et. al. 2008 Arenaria interpres Asian Dowitcher Bamford et. al. 2008 Limnodromus semipalmatus Pied Oystercatcher Rogers et al. 2011 Haematopus longirostris (Resident) In the austral summer of 2009-2010, eight migratory shorebird species were recorded in numbers above the 1% criterion level during; 5,595 Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, 1,187 Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus, 634 Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus, 2,332 Grey-tailed Tattler Tringa brevipes, 19,762 Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris, 3,076 Red Knot Calidris canutus, 1,238 Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii, and 898 Oriental Plover Charadrius veredus (Shorebirds 2020 database). 11. Wetland Types:
Marine subtidal aquatic beds; includes kelp beds, sea-grass beds, and tropical marine
Intertidal mud, sand or salt flats.
Intertidal forested wetlands; includes mangrove swamps, nipah swamps and tidal freshwater
Government of Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation 13. Management authority:
Several State Government agencies are involved in management of the site. The key agency is the Department of Environment and Conservation, because of the Ramsar Listing of the site. Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
The contact details for the management office are: Department of Environment and Conservation Broome WESTERN AUSTRALIA, 6725 14. Bibliographical references:
Australian Nature Conservation Agency. 1996. A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia (Second Edition). Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra. [Current version on-line Bamford M, Watkins D and Bancroft W. 2008. Migratory shorebirds of the East Asian – Australasian Flyway; Population Estimates and Important Sites. Wetlands International Global Series and International Wader Studies Series. Battley, P. 2000. Behavioural ecophysiology of migrating Great Knots. PhD Thesis prepared for the Australian School of Environmental Studies, Griffith University, Brisbane. Burbidge, A., McKenzie, N., and Kenneally, K. 1991. Nature Conservation Reserves in the Kimberley, Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Chalmers, C. and Woods, P. 1987. Broome Coastal Management Plan. Environmental Protection Authority Bulletin 252. Churchill, S. 1998. Australian Bats. New Holland Publishers (Australia) Pty Ltd, Sydney. Collins, P. 1995. The Birds of Broome - An Annotated List. Broome Bird Observatory. Collins, P., Boyle, A., Minton, C. and Jessop, R. 2001. The importance of inland claypans for waders in Roebuck Bay, Broome, NW Australia. Stilt 38, 4-8. Collins, P. and Jessop, R. 1997. Little Terns Sterna albifrons in the West Kimberley Division of Western Australia. Stilt 30, 26-31. Collins, P. and Jessop, R. 2001. Arrival and departure dates and habitat of Little Curlew Numenius minutus at Broome, North-Western Australia. Stilt 39, 10-12. Cummings, B. and Hardy, A. 2000. Revision of the Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia (IBRA) and Development of Version 5.1 – Summary Report. Environment Australia, Canberra. (Also available online at http://www.ea.gov.au/parks/nrs/ibra/version5-1/summary- report/index.html. DCLM. 1994. A Representative Marine Reserve System for Western Australia. Report of the Marine Parks and Reserves Selection Working Group, Part 3, 18-22 and Map 3 –2. Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
George, R. and Jones, D. 1982. A revision of the fiddler crabs of Australia (Ocypodinae: Uca). Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement 14. Government of Western Australia 1990. Wetlands Nominated by the Government of Western Australia for Inclusion of the List of Wetlands of International Importance, Ramsar Convention. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. Hassell, C. 2000. Migration Report April 2000. Unpublished Report for Broome International Hickey, R, Carew, R., Watkins, R, Piersma, T. and Pearson, G. 1998. Integrated GIS, Database Management, and Environmental Visualisation at Roebuck Bay, Western Australia. In: Adding a Spatial Dimension to Business, National conference, Fremantle WA, 353-362. Mapping Sciences Institute, Canberra. IMCRA Technical Group. 1998. Interim Marine and Coastal Regionalisation for Australia: An ecosystem-based classification for marine and coastal environments. Version 3.3. Environment Australia, Commonwealth Department of the Environment, Canberra. Jessop, R. and Minton, C. 1995. Sightings of leg-flagged waders banded in NW Australia. Stilt 26, Jessop, R. and Minton, C. 1995. Sightings of leg-flagged waders banded at other locations and seen in NW Australia. Stilt 26, 39. Jessop, R. and Collins, P. 1999. Observations of feeding and roosting behaviour of Little Curlew Numenius minutus overwintering in the North-west of Australia. Stilt 35, 62-63. Jessop, R. and Collins, P. 2000. The effects of cyclonic weather conditions on the bird life around Broome, Western Australia. Stilt 36, 11-15. Johnstone, R. 1990. Mangroves and mangrove birds of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 32, 1-120. Kenneally, K., Edinger, D. and Willing, T. 1996. Broome and Beyond: Plants and people of the Dampier Peninsula, Kimberley, Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Como, Western Australia. Lands, M. and Mann, M. 1990. Yawuru Seasons Kit. Unpublished Resource Manual for Aboriginal Studies Curriculum, Nulungu College, Broome, 1-169. Lane, B. and Jessop, A. 1985. Tracking of migrating waders in north-western Australia using meteorological radar. Stilt 6, 17-28. McKenzie, N. and Rolfe, J. 1986. Structure of bat guilds in the Kimberley mangroves, Australia. Journal of Animal Ecology 55, 401-420. Minton, C. and Jessop, R. 1994. The 1994 Northwest Australia Wader Expedition. Stilt 25, 8-11. Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
Minton, C. and Jessop, R. 1995. Sightings of waders leg-flagged in NW Australia – List No. 2. Stilt Minton, C. and Jessop, R. 1996. Further sightings of waders leg-flagged (Yellow) in North West Australia; List Number 3 – July 1996. Stilt 29, 51-52. Minton, C. and Jessop, R. 1997. Sightings of waders leg-flagged (Yellow) in North-West Australia: List Number 4 – August 1997. Stilt 31, 50-53. Minton, C. and Jessop, R. 1999. Sightings of leg-flagged waders from NW Australia: Report Number 5. Stilt 34, 41-45. Minton, C. and Jessop, R. 1999. Sightings of waders and terns leg-flagged in North-Western Australia: Report Number 6. Stilt 35, 52-58. Minton, C. and Jessop, R. 2000. Corrections to sightings of waders leg-flagged in North-Western Australia: Report Number 6. Stilt 36, 39-41. Minton, C., Jessop, R., and Collins, P. In press. A summary of the results of the North-west Australian wader and tern expedition from 28 June to 19 July 2003. Stilt. Minton, C., Jessop, R., Collins, P., Fallaw, J., Hayward, B., Sparrow, J. and Hassell, C. 2000. Visible departures of waders on northward migration from NW Australia. Stilt 37, 51. Minton, C., Sitters, H., and Jessop, R. 1997. Report on the 1996 North West Australia wader Study Expedition, 2 March - 20 April. Stilt 30, 56-65. Pepping, M., Piersma, T., Pearson, G. and Lavaleye, M. (eds) 1999. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia. Netherlands Institute for Sea Research Report 3, Texel, Netherlands, 1-214. Pearson, G., Personal Communications, Woodvale Research Centre Manager, Science Division, Department of Conservation and Land Management. Piersma, T., Pearson, G., Hickey, B., Lavaleye, M. and Rogers, D. 2002. Southern Roebuck Bay Invertebrate and Bird Mapping 2002: SROEBIM-02. Unpublished preliminary research report prepared for the Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth. Piersma, T., Pearson, G. and Lavaleye, M. 1998. The teeming mud of Roebuck Bay. Landscope 13(4), 16-22. Pook, J. 1992. Banding round-up complete list. Australian Bird and Bat Banding Scheme. Stilt 11: Prince, R. 1986. Dugong in northern waters of Western Australia. Technical Report no.7. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. Rogers, D. 1999a. What determines shorebird feeding distribution in Roebuck Bay? In Pepping et.al. (Op. cit.), chapter 9, 145-174. Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
Rogers, D. 1999b. Roost choice in the waders of Roebuck Bay: is avoiding heat stress their main consideration? Stilt 35, 65. Rogers, D. 2000. Age-related variation in foraging ecology of Great Knots and Red Knots in Roebuck Bay, North-Western Australia. Stilt 37, 51-52. Rogers, D., Boyle, A. and Hassell, C. 2001. Wader counts on Kidneybean Claypan and adjacent Roebuck Plains, Northwestern Australia. Stilt 38, 57-63. Rogers, DI., Hassell, CJ., Boyle, A., Gosbell, K., Minton, C., Rogers, KG., Clarke, RH. 2011. Shorebirds of the Kimberley Coast – Populations, key sites, trends and threats. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia. 94, 377-391. Rogers, D., Personal Communications, Doctorate student, Charles Sturt University, Victoria Semeniuk, V., Kenneally, K. and Wilson, P. 1978. Mangroves of Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalists' Club, Perth. Handbook No.12, 1-92. Tulp, I. and de Goeij, P. 1994. Evaluating waders habitats in Roebuck Bay (North-western Australia) as a springboard for northbound migration in waders, with a focus on Great Knots. Emu 94, 78-95. Tulp, I., McChesney, S. and de Goeij, P. 1994. Migratory departures of waders from North-western Australia : behaviour, timing and possible migration routes. Ardea 82, 201-221. Watkins, D. 1993a. A National Plan for Shorebird Conservation in Australia. Australasian Wader Study Group, World Wide Fund for Nature and the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union. RAOU Report No. 90. Watkins, D. 1993b. Roebuck Bay (Western Australia): Background Information for the Conservation of a Wetland of International Importance. Unpublished report to the Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth. Watkins, D., Brennan, K., Lange, C, Jaensch, R. and Finlayson, M. 1997. Management planning for Ramsar Sites in the Kimberley Region of Western Australia. Wetlands International – Oceania. Canberra. Report to the Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia, 1-192 Willing, T., Personal Communications, District Program Leader Nature Conservation, Broome District, Department of Conservation and Land Management Worms, E. 1944. Aboriginal place names in Kimberley, Western Australia: an etymological and mythological study. Oceania 14 (4), 284-310. Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
Part 2 – Optional
From the Ramsar Information Sheet (RIS) for Roebuck Bay
15. Physical features of the site:
Roebuck Bay is a megascale irregular-curved embayment, mostly occupied by intertidal mudflats and indented in the east by microscale linear tidal creeks. The Bay is bounded to the north-west and far south-east by low sand ridges (e.g. Bush and Sandy Points), and to the east and far north by coastal flat of Holocene marine sediment. A long red cliff, 2-6 m in height, of pindan soil with occasional patches of brown lateritic gravel, overlying yellowish-red Broome Sandstone of Cretaceous age dominates the northern shore of the Bay. At the base of the cliff, occasional dinosaur footprints are preserved in sandstone. Roebuck Bay has a very large tidal range which exposes around 160 square kilometres of mudflat, approximately 45% of the total bay area, with tides travelling at up to 20cm/sec mid cycle (Hickey et al. 1998; Piersma et al. 2002). Most of the mudflat area is inundated by each high tide and at times, spring tides and/or cyclones may cause the adjoining coastal flats to become inundated. The tidal system is semi-diurnal with average tidal amplitude of 5.7m. Tidal range varies from c. 1 m on neap tides to 10.5 m on the highest spring tides (Rogers pers comms. 2002). These factors dominate the intertidal ecology. Median and mean annual rainfall at Broome are 510 mm and 561 mm respectively, mostly falling in December-March; annual evaporation is c. 3050 mm. Eleven cyclones have passed within 50 km of Broome in the past 70 years. On 20 April 2000, Cyclone Rosita crossed the coast over Thangoo Station, causing catastrophic damage to vegetation along the southern coast of Roebuck Bay and to buildings at Ecobeach Resort, near Cape Villaret (Willing pers comms. 2002). 16. Physical features of the catchment area:
17. Hydrological values:
18. General ecological features:
The site is one of the most important migration stopover and non-breeding areas for shorebirds in Australia and globally. Roebuck Bay is the arrival and departure point for large proportions of the Australian populations of several shorebird species (notably Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica), Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
some of which fly non-stop between continental East Asia and Australia. Roebuck Bay is a rich shorebird feeding ground, supporting an exceptionally high (globally) macro-invertebrate biomass, including many species believed new to science (G. Pearson, pers. comm.). The Bay is also a major nursery area for marine fishes and crustaceans. Plant structural formations: Low closed- forest to open-scrub (mangrove) in periform arrangement in the east and south of the Bay; low shrubland (samphire) inland of the mangroves. Surrounding areas support low open-woodland (pindan) over grassland. North-western Australia is the most important region for migratory shorebirds on the continent, regularly supporting over 500 000 birds, with up to 850 000 birds using it annually. This region is considered to be the arrival and departure point for large proportions of the Australian populations of several migratory shorebird species. The major sites in the region are Eighty Mile Beach (also a Ramsar Site) and Roebuck Bay. The largest number of shorebirds counted at Roebuck Bay is 170 000 in October 1983 and it regularly supports over 100 000 birds. Based on this data, it is the fourth most important shorebird site in Australia in terms of absolute numbers and the most important in terms of the number of species it supports in internationally significant numbers (Rogers per comms. 2002). Shorebird numbers are highest in the austral spring when Palaearctic migrants stop here to feed on their southward migration. The area also supports about 30 000 birds during winter, at a time of year when few adults of breeding age remain in Australia, and considerably larger numbers over summer, because many migrating birds remain in northern Australia rather than continuing south (Minton et al. In press). Fewer birds stop on the north-western coast to feed on the northwards migration but, nevertheless, numbers in autumn are very high. 19. Noteworthy flora:
Seagrass Beds: Extensive seagrass beds occur in Roebuck Bay and are dominated by Halophila ovalis and Halodule uninervis (Prince 1986). The most vigorous stands grow in areas that are exposed for less than two hours at low tide. These meadows are important feeding grounds for Dugong and Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas). Mangroves: Broome is situated in the south-west Kimberley mangrove region (Johnstone 1990). This region runs from Cape Leveque, near the northern tip of the Dampier Peninsula, south to Whistle Creek, at the northern end of Eighty Mile Beach. Eleven mangrove species are known to occur in Roebuck Bay (Semeniuk et al. 1978). Within Roebuck Bay, Johnstone (1990) divides the mangroves into a northern and southern section. Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
The northern section is estimated to cover 640 ha and consists of a low open to closed forest of Avicennia marina, Aegiceras corniculatum, Camptostemon schultzii and Rhizophora stylosa with some Aegialitis annulata understorey. The common species on the landward and seaward edge of the mangroves is Avicennia marina. Scattered shrubs and trees of Excoecaria agallocha occur on the outer fringe. The 200 ha Thangoo section is described as mixed woodland (to 5 m) of Avicennia marina, Bruguiera exaristata, Osbornia octodonta and Camptostemon schultzii. Ceriops tagal occurs as closed thickets on the landward zone with some Excoecaria agallocha (Johnstone 1990). The mangroves have highest species diversity and tallest trees in Dampier and Crab Creeks and in Yardoogarra Creek, the inlet between Bush Point and Sandy Point. In these areas there is distinct zonation of the mangroves. The typical sequence of species in landward direction is Avicennia, Rhizophora, Ceriops and samphire or salt flats (Chalmers and Woods 1987). Landward of the mangroves are areas of bare flats that are inundated on high spring tides. The hyper-salinity of the soil in these areas inhibits the establishment of vegetation. Samphire Flats: Samphire also occurs landward from the edge of the mangroves. The dominant species in this community are: Halosarcia halocnemoides, Muellerolimon salicorniaceum, Neobassia astrocarpa, Suaeda arbusculoides, Sesuvium portulacastrum and Hemichroa diandra (Chalmers and Woods 1987). These flats may be inundated by some high tides. Saline Grasslands: The saline grass plains are slightly higher in elevation than the samphire flats and the soil has a lower salinity. The dominant species is Saltwater Couch Sporobolus virginicus, which forms dense grassland 15-20 cm tall. Other species are Dicanthium fecundum, Eragrostis falcata and Salsola kali. Towards the edge of the grass plains, at the interface with pindan soils, occur thickets of Melaleuca acacioides, which grow to 10 m in height. Pindan: Pindan is the name given to the open woodland, which occurs inland from the low cliffs between Fisherman's Bend and Crab Creek. The main tree species are: Eucalyptus dampieri, Eucalyptus flavescens, Eucalyptus zygophylla, Gyrocarpus americanus, Terminalia petiolaris, Lysiphyllum cunninghamii, Ventilago viminalis, Premna acuminata, Hakea macrocarpa, Persoonia falcata, Atalaya hemiglauca and Gardenia pyriformis. The main shrub species are: Acacia eriopoda, Acacia colei, Acacia adoxa, Pavetta kimberleyana, Carissa lanceolata, Distichostemon hispidulus, Ehretia saligna and Santalum lanceolatum (Kenneally et al. 1996). 20. Noteworthy fauna:
Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
Waterbirds: Roebuck Bay supports internationally significant numbers of at least 21 shorebird species (19 migratory and 2 resident species), all of which occur in numbers well in excess of 1% of the flyway population (or Australian population, in the case of resident species). All of the migratory shorebirds are listed under the Japan – Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (JAMBA), the China – Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (CAMBA) and the Republic of Korea – Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (ROKAMBA) and are specially protected as matters of national environmental significance under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999). A total of 64 waterbird species have been recorded, including four darters and cormorants, 11 herons and allies, 40 shorebirds and 11 gulls and terns (Broome Bird Observatory, unpublished data). One or two Beach Stone-curlew Esacus magnirostris occur Waterbird Breeding: Four species found breeding in the vicinity of the Bay: Striated Heron Butorides striata, Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus (sometimes breeds in taller mangroves south of Crab Creek), Osprey Pandion haliaetus and Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus (C. Hassell, pers. comm.). Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus, Masked Lapwing Vanellus miles, Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybridus, and Black Swan Cygnus atratus are known to nest at Kidneybean Claypan, in addition to several mangrove-specialised passerines in that habitat (D. Rogers, pers. comm.) In November 1999, 29 Little Tern Sterna albifrons nests with one to three egg clutches were noted on the sand-spit at the mouth of "Jack's Creek", just south of Yardoogarra Creek (G. Swann, pers. comm.). Nearby, Bush Point is an important roost for this species, with a flock of 1200 recorded there in April 1996 (Collins & Jessop 1997). Shorebird Migration Stop-over: 36 migrant shorebird species occur, including vagrants and species recorded at Kidneybean Claypan such as Swinhoe's Snipe, Spotted Redshank, Long-toed Stint, Pectoral Sandpiper, Ruff, Red-necked Phalarope and Little Ringed Plover (D. Rogers, pers. comm.). Roebuck Bay is a principal arrival site in August-October for large proportions of the Australian populations of many shorebird species, especially larger species that travel non-stop from China to Australia. There is high turnover due to shorebirds moving onwards (e.g. to south- eastern Australia: some species arriving in Victoria within weeks) after feeding at the Bay to restore energy levels. However, very large numbers remain through summer and smaller numbers (mostly birds one to two years old) through winter. The area is also important (lower numbers) for northward departure of shorebirds; massed daytime departures of shorebirds occur in March-April. Shorebird departures from the site have been successfully tracked by radar (Lane & Jessop 1985) and afternoon migration watches (e.g. Tulp et al. 1994, Hassell 2000). Most birds depart between 1600 and 1800 hours, just prior to darkness, flying north-north-west. Most birds migrate in single Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
species flocks with an average flock size of <100, though flocks of up to 2,000 are occasionally seen. Eastern Curlew, Greater Sand Plover and Great Knot are the first species to leave, commencing in the first week of March and mostly departing before the end of the month. Birds prefer to leave when tail winds are blowing at altitudes of 600-2,500 m (Minton et al., 2000). Shorebird Banding: Banding of NW Australian shorebirds with a yellow plastic leg flag, attached to the right tibia, commenced in August 1992. This has greatly facilitated rapid visual recognition of birds captured in NW Australia at key stop-over sites and furnished valuable information in delineating migration routes, with over 36,000 shorebird flagged (Minton and Jessop 1999). Lists of sightings away from flagging locations (including China, Korea and Russia) have been published at almost annual intervals in the journal Stilt. Shorebird Species Ecology: Rogers (1999a) classified shorebirds (and others) in Roebuck Bay as belonging to seven guilds on the basis of prey choice and foraging method. In order of abundance, these are: tactile hunters of macrobenthos, feeding mainly in sea-edge flocks (Great Knot, Red Knot, Bar-tailed Godwit, Black-tailed Godwit, Asian Dowitcher); tactile hunters of microbenthos, feeding mainly along sandy sea-edges or near tidal creeks (Curlew Sandpiper, Red-necked Stint, Broad-billed Sandpiper, Marsh Sandpiper, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper); visual hunters of slow surface- dwelling prey, feeding mainly on reefs or mangrove fringes (Common Sandpiper, Sooty Oystercatcher, Pied Oystercatcher, Silver Gull, Ruddy Turnstone); visual hunters of small fast prey, mainly occurring in the sandier western parts of Roebuck Bay, often near-shore (Grey Plover, Red- capped Plover, Greater Sand Plover, Lesser Sand Plover, Grey-tailed Tattler, Terek Sandpiper); visual hunters of fast large prey, mostly favouring soft mudflats in N.E. Roebuck Bay (Eastern Curlew, Whimbrel, Greenshank, Striated Heron and Black-necked Stork); kleptoparasites (only Gull-billed Tern, which robs large crabs from Whimbrels); and pelagic hunters of nekton (animals of the pelagic zone) and neuston (animals that live on the surface film), mainly associated with creek- lines in eastern Roebuck Bay (Black-winged Stilt, Red-necked Avocet, Reef Egret, Little Egret, Great White Egret, White-faced Heron, and Royal Spoonbill). The majority of Little Curlews generally arrive at Broome in the third week of September, where birds utilise urban irrigated grassland such as sports ovals and Broome Golf Course. Departure on northward migration is more variable, usually commencing during the last week of March and extending to mid April (Collins and Jessop 2001). Sand flats between Dampier Creek and Fishermans Bend provide habitat for many sand-dwelling benthic animals and are an important feeding area for Terek Sandpipers. In 2000, sand flats adjacent to Town Beach were found to be an important feeding area for both Lesser Sand Plovers and Red Knots, with high bivalve densities close inshore (D. Rogers, pers. comm.). Both these areas lie outside the Ramsar Site. Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
Shorebird Roosting: High tide diurnal roosts of 1 000-15 000 shorebirds occur at several sites at the base of the cliffs and on beaches between Fisherman's Bend and Crab Creek (C. Hassell, pers. comm.). These roosts are subject to considerable disturbance from raptors and sometimes humans. A larger roost of up to 75 000+ shorebirds occurs at Bush Point. Exceptionally high tides force many birds to roost inland of the mangroves and some species (e.g. Whimbrels) routinely roost in the mangroves. It appears that during high tides at night, shorebirds do not roost on the northern beaches. Instead, they move behind the Crab Creek mangroves to areas such as "Kidneybean Claypan" on Roebuck Plains (Collins et al. 2001, Rogers et al. 2001) and to the southern end of Cable Beach (west of Roebuck Bay). During cyclones shorebirds retreat to areas inland of the mangroves in large numbers (Jessop and Collins 2000). Roost choice in northern Roebuck Bay reflects the need of shorebirds to avoid excessive heat stress and minimise disturbance. Shorebirds show a strong preference for roosts where a damp substrate lowers local temperature (Rogers 1999b). During diurnal high tides reaching 5.9-8.5 m, the major roosting areas are Town Beach and beaches between Dampier Creek and Fishermans Bend. On neap high tides small, raised mudflats just south of Crab Creek are significant roosts. Cable Beach is favoured during nocturnal high tides, other than at neaps. Bush Point is a very large roost, mainly used by shorebirds feeding in the southern sector of Roebuck Bay. During spring tides over 9 m, shallow-water open areas at the rear of mangroves are important nocturnal roosts and are also utilised to a lesser extent diurnally (D. Rogers, pers. comm.). Shorebird Numbers: Shorebird numbers in Roebuck Bay start to increase in August of each year with the arrival of adult birds after breeding. Numbers continue to rise until November as the juvenile birds arrive. In March numbers decline as adults return to breed in the Northern Hemisphere. Birds in their first year of life and some adults remain in Australia during the breeding season. In Roebuck Bay shorebird numbers in May to July are probably 20-30 per cent of the non- breeding season population – numbers are augmented by young birds from southeast and southern Australia that have undertaken a partial migration (D. Rogers, pers. comm.). In June/July 2003, a total of 37,500 shorebirds were using Roebuck Bay (6,800 on the northern beaches and 30,700 at Bush Point), with 8 species present in internationally significant numbers (Pied Oystercatcher, Large Sand Plover, Red-capped Plover, Grey-tailed Tattler, Bar-tailed Godwit, Great Knot, Red-necked Stint, Sanderling – Minton et al. in press). The highest number of waterbirds (shorebirds) counted was 170 900 in October 1983 (national rank 4); allowing for turnover, the total number of shorebirds using the Bay may exceed 300 000 annually. Grassland Birds: The saline grasslands of Roebuck Plains are important habitat for Oriental Plovers Charadrius veredus, Australian Pratincole Stiltia isabella, Oriental Pratincole Glareola Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
maldivarum and Little Curlew Numenius minutus, as well as uncommon species such as Yellow Chat Epthianura crocea and Grass Owl Tyto capensis (D. Rogers, pers. comm.) Bats: Insectivorous bats of the mangroves at Crab Creek have been studied as part of a larger study of the bat guilds in the Kimberley mangroves (McKenzie and Rolfe 1986). The species recorded were: Taphozous flaviventris, Chaerephon jobensis, Mormopterus nov. sp (Churchill 1998, p. 207), Chalinolobus gouldii, Nycticeius greyi, Pipistrellus westralis (Churchill 1998, p. 168- 169) and Nyctophilus arnhemensis. Two species of flying fox (Pteropus alecto and Pteropus scapulatus) and one blossom bat (Macroglossusminimus) also occur at Broome. Marine Fauna: A survey of dugongs Dugong dugon in the Kimberley, conducted by the Department of Conservation and Land Management in 1984 (Prince 1986), estimated the population in Roebuck Bay at 50 - 100 individuals. Dugongs are listed as a migratory species that is specially protected as a matter of national environmental significance under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999). Dolphins are known to occur in the Bay and include the Australian Snubfin Dolphin Orcaella heinsohni which is listed as a migratory species and is specially protected as a matter of national environmental significance under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999). Prince (1986) counted 37 dolphins during an aerial survey of the dugong population. All cetaceans within Australian waters are specially protected under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999). Nationally threatened species that use the site include Loggerhead Turtle Caretta caretta (endangered) and Green Turtle Chelonia mydas (vulnerable). Loggerhead Turtles use the Bay as a seasonal feeding area and as a transit area on migration. The recovery of tagged Loggerhead Turtles indicated that some of the individuals nest on the sandy beaches near Exmouth. Flatback Turtles Natator depressus (vulnerable) regularly nest in small numbers around Cape Villaret during summer months (T. Willing, pers. obs.). Nationally threatened species are specially protected as matters of national environmental significance under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999). The extensive mangal is an important nursery area for marine fishes and crustacea, particularly prawns. The Western Australian Museum has collected information on fiddler crabs (George and Jones 1982). Nine of the 17 species of fiddler crabs (Uca spp.) that occur in Australia have been recorded at Broome (Chalmers and Woods 1987). The scientific importance of the mangrove habitats and flats for the study of crabs has been noted in previous studies of the area (Chalmers and Woods 1987). Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
Benthic Fauna: Studies have also commenced on the benthic fauna of the mudflats by researchers associated with the Broome Bird Observatory, the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research and the Department of Conservation and Land Management. The zoobenthic biomass near Crab Creek has been estimated to average 13.9 g ash free dry mass/m2 (Tulp and de Goeij 1994). This is an index of the food availability in the top 30 cm of the mudflat. In June 1997, the northern sector of Roebuck Bay's inter-tidal mudflats was quantitatively sampled in a grid pattern for benthic animals at over 500 sites. This was the first detailed mapping of benthic biodiversity ever undertaken on tropical intertidal mudflats. 17,700 individual animals were collected (Piersma et al.1998). A total of 161 taxa were identified from sampling with another 30 taxa discovered opportunistically. The total density of macrobenthic animals retained on a 1 mm sieve was 1,287 ind./sq. m. Polychaete worms, especially the families Chaetopteridae and Oweniidae, dominated the fauna in terms of biomass (45%) and abundance (70% of all individuals). In abundance, bivalves comprised 12.5%, crustaceans 8%, brittle stars 4.2% and gastropods 2.5%. Only 10% of the taxa could be confidently assigned a species name within 3 months, revealing that the Bay holds a remarkable diversity of as-yet-undescribed benthic fauna (Pepping et al. 1999). Total intertidal invertebrate diversity is estimated at between 300 and 500 species – among the richest mudflats known in the world (Piersma et al. 1998). A preliminary examination of benthic invertebrate data gathered in 2002 suggests that there was considerable variation in the distribution and abundance of many invertebrates and sea grasses in the intertidal areas of the northern end of Roebuck Bay since previous surveys were undertaken in 1997 and 2000 (Piersma et al. 2002; Pepping et al. 1999). This may in part be due to the effects of Cyclone Rosita which crossed the coast at the site in April 2000.
21. Social and cultural values:
Roebuck Bay lies in the traditional estate of Aboriginal people belonging to both Jukun and Yawuru groups. In the Yawuru language, the Bay is named Nalen Nalena (Worms 1944). The northern shore from Burrgugun (Dampier Creek), past the law grounds at Ganin (Fishermans Bend), to Mangkalagun (Crab Creek) was an important area for seasonal meetings, exchanging gifts, arranging marriages and settling disputes. In addition, many localities have Dreamtime stories associated with them (Lands & Mann 1990). Numerous shellfish middens, marking former camping places, can still be seen along coastal cliffs and dunes. Aboriginal people continue to make extensive use of the Bay's natural resources e.g., gathering shellfish, fishing and hunting Dugong. The pearling industry has been established at Broome since the 1880s, initially for mother-of-pearl, but since 1956 has focused on high value cultured pearls. Broome's pearling history has contributed greatly to its multicultural character, bringing together Aboriginal, European and Asian Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
(notably Japanese, Chinese, Filipino and Malay) peoples. The principal cultural event in the Broome calendar is Shinju Matsuri (Festival of the Pearl), held in July-August. Broome Bird Observatory near Fall Point was opened in 1988; it is operated by BirdLife Australia, has full-time wardens and is used as an educational, research and recreation facility focusing on Roebuck Bay and its environs. Recreational fishing is important near Broome and the Fall Point coast and there are several boat- launching sites in both areas. Much of the shoreline along the eastern side of the Bay is inaccessible, other than by boat at high tide. Low cliffs offer a panoramic view across the northern Bay and the contrast of pale blue sea, dark green mangroves and red cliffs is particularly appealing. The cliffs and Crab Creek area offer one of the best places in the world for viewing shorebirds, because of the unique combination of accessibility, high species richness, very high densities and numbers. 22. Land tenure/ownership:
a) within the Flyway Network Site:
The Government of Western Australia has control over marine areas of the site. A Native Title Claim was lodged over the Bay by Yawuru Aboriginal Corporation in 1994. The landward sections of the site are Unallocated Crown Land, except for a small reserve gazetted for the purpose of a Bird Observatory. b) in the surrounding area:
Pastoral leases surround most of the Bay, excepting the north-western end where the Broome town site is located, and Fall Point, where the Broome Bird Observatory is located. 23. Current land (including water) use:
a) within the Flyway Network Site:
At present there is light recreational use of the northern part of Roebuck Bay, principally fishing and bird watching. There is also commercial fishing, pearling and industrial use, with deepwater port facilities at Broome. Live cattle exports to Indonesia and the Philippines are significant at Broome Port. Exploration permits for petroleum are held over the wetland area and there is a mining tenement around the Bush Point area. There are several commercial pearl farm leases in b) in the surroundings/catchment:
Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
Grazing of cattle occurs on pastoral leases (Roebuck Plains and Thangoo Stations). The Broome urban area (residential and industrial) is adjacent to the site, with high human population (11,547 in 2006, growing at 4-5%).
24. Factors (past, present or potential) adversely affecting the site's ecological character,
including changes in land (including water) use and development projects:
a) within the Flyway Network:
Existing and foreseeable land uses are compatible with Roebuck Bay remaining an important site for shorebirds. High tide shorebird roosts along much of the northern shore of the Bay are vulnerable to disturbance from off-road vehicles and pedestrian traffic. Careful management of increasing tourism is necessary to reduce disturbance at important roosts, especially on the accessible northern shore of the Bay. b) in the surrounding area:
There was a proposal to construct a new international airport at a site 8 km north of the northern shore of Roebuck Bay and approximately 12 km NE of Broome. The Environmental Protection Authority has determined (EPA Bulletin 1017) that the proponent is obliged to prepare a Flora and Fauna Management Plan. The latter is to include a detailed assessment of the airport's impact on migratory shorebirds. Petroleum exploration may occur in future and, subject to appropriate environmental safeguards to maintain the ecological character of the wetland and habitat for waterbirds using it, will be compatible with the status of a Wetland of International Importance. Proposed mining operations in the hinterlands behind the mangroves could result in de-watering of shallow surface aquifers, potentially affecting biodiversity values in the Bay. Similar impacts could occur from proposed intensive irrigated agriculture (e.g. for cotton) in the catchment area of the Bay. Industrial pollution and accidental sewage spills from the nearby township of Broome have the potential to adversely impact upon the benthic fauna, but the risks are reduced by the effect of strong tidal flushing. The impact of commercial net fishing operations on the benthic fauna of the Bay and on indigenous fish harvests is not well understood (G. Pearson, DCLM, pers. comm.). 25. Conservation measures taken:
a) List national and/or international category and legal status of protected areas, including
boundary relationships with the Flyway Network site: Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
In 2012, a 304 km2 ‘Roebuck Commonwealth Marine Reserve' was proposed (IUCN Category VI). This new reserve provides connectivity with proposed state Marine Park. The Marine Reserve aims to protect foraging areas adjacent to important breeding areas for migratory seabirds, shorebirds and marine turtles. b) If appropriate, list the IUCN (1994) protected areas category/ies which apply to the site (tick the
box or boxes as appropriate): c) Does an officially approved management plan exist; and is it being implemented?:
d) Describe any other current management practices:
WWF together with the local Aboriginal group Rubibi is implementing a shorebird conservation project involving community education and involvement in activities that will minimise the effects of human disturbance along the northern shores of Roebuck Bay. An ongoing community-based monitoring program of the benthic macrofauna has been undertaken since 1996. Site management actions taken include: • limiting vehicle access to beaches along the northern shore of the Bay; • controlling human activity on the northern shore at high tide; • developing a guided eco-tourism program by Broome Bird Observatory; • developing an "Accident Response Plan" for the Port of Broome; • promoting self-monitoring of dugong hunting by Aboriginal people; • assessing full sustainability of fishing operations in the bay; and • assessing impact of hovercraft use on the intertidal flats. 26. Conservation measures proposed but not yet implemented:
There is a proposal to have a Marine Park declared in Roebuck Bay (Burbidge et al, 1991). A subsequent report (DCLM, 1994) recommended that the Marine Park boundaries should extend Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
from the north side of Gantheaume Point to Cape Villaret, including coastal areas of pastoral lease, but excluding the jurisdiction of the Port of Broome. Watkins (1993b) and Watkins et al. (1997) identified management issues for the site and the Department of Conservation and Land Management held preliminary discussions with the Shire of Broome in 2001 and community workshops in 2002 (Pearson, pers. comm.). Development and implementation of options for the future management of Roebuck Bay are dependent on extensive consultation with numerous community and Aboriginal stakeholders. 27. Current scientific research and facilities:
BirdLife Australia (formerly the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union) operates an Observatory at the northern end of the wetland, which is staffed by full-time wardens and is used as an educational, recreational and research facility focussed on Roebuck Bay and its environs. Broome Bird Observatory and a local volunteer group undertake regular cannon netting and shorebird banding on a monthly basis. Global Flyway Network have a paid employee working in Roebuck Bay on shorebirds. Money is sourced from BirdLife-Netherlands. Main activities are the capture, banding and resighting of shorebirds and also the education and involvement of the local community in ‘citizen science'. The Australasian Wader Studies Group conducts large scale banding of shorebirds as part of regular expeditions at intervals of approximately 18 months to two years. These expeditions commenced in 1981. Many international participants have been involved, including Asian researchers (most sponsored by Environment Australia) seeking training in shorebird studies. Several studies have focussed on the behaviour and ecophysiology of migratory shorebirds, including shorebird roost choice, heat avoidance behaviour and preparation for migration (Tulp and de Geoij 1994; Battley 2000; Rogers 1999a, 1999b, 2000). The then Department of Conservation and Land Management (DCLM) in collaboration with the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Curtin University of Technology, Washington Central University, the University of Western Australia, Western Australian Museum, and the BirdLife Australia Broome Bird Observatory have undertaken extensive mapping of benthic invertebrate biodiversity in the mudflats of Roebuck Bay (Pepping et al. 1999; Piersma et al. 2002). The large spatial dataset generated by the research has been analysed and managed using innovative Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques (Hickey et al. 1998). The Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), in collaboration with DCLM, supervised a postgraduate evaluation of the molluscan fauna of Roebuck Bay. Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
Curtin University, in collaboration with DCLM, has two current postgraduate studies focused on Roebuck Bay – one on hydrology (Vogwill) and the other on the nature and distribution of sediments (Oldmeadow). Broome Bird Observatory and Environs Kimberley, in collaboration with DCLM and NIOZ, are conducting ongoing research into the sediments and benthos of the Bay with local community and Aboriginal support. 28. Current communications, education and public awareness (CEPA) activities related to or
benefiting the site:
Broome Bird Observatory has several walk-trails and interpretive displays, which are open to visitors. Telescopes can be hired and courses on the ecology of the Bay and its shorebirds are run periodically. Global Flyway Network involves the community in ‘citizen science'. GFN have regular radio and occasional TV appearances to promote the bays ecological values. 29. Current recreation and tourism:
Recreational use consists of fishing, crabbing, sightseeing and bird watching. One commercial hovercraft company has operated scenic tours in the Bay since 1990. There is also growing tourist use of the wetland, especially in the cooler months of the dry season (May to September). Broome Airport recorded 195,000 passenger arrivals in 1999-2000. Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
Annex 1: Criteria for the inclusion of sites in the Flyway Site Network
(from the Partnership Text)
To be considered for inclusion in the Flyway Site Network, this Partnership adopts the following criteria: Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) criteria for internationally important sites for migratory waterbirds. That is: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it supports vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered species or threatened ecological A wetland should be considered internationally important if it regularly supports 20,000 or more waterbirds. A wetland should be considered internationally important if it regularly supports 1% of the individuals in a population of one species or subspecies of waterbird. The staging criteria as applied under the Asia - Pacific Migratory Waterbird Conservation Strategy. i. A staging site should be considered internationally important if it regularly supports 0.25% of individuals in a population of one species or subspecies of waterbirds on migration. ii. A staging site should be considered internationally important if it regularly supports 5,000 or more waterbirds at one time during migration. c. Under exceptional circumstances a site can be nominated if it supports migratory waterbirds at a level or stage of their life cycle important to the maintenance of flyway populations. Justification of such nominations will be considered by the Partnership on a case by case basis. Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
Annex 2: Ramsar Classification System for Wetland Type
The codes are based upon the Ramsar Classification System for Wetland Type as approved by Recommendation 4.7 and amended by Resolutions VI.5 and VII.11 of the Conference of the Contracting Parties. The categories listed herein are intended to provide only a very broad framework to aid rapid identification of the main wetland habitats represented at each site. To assist in identification of the correct Wetland Types to list in section 19 of the RIS, the Secretariat has provided below tabulations for Marine/Coastal Wetlands and Inland Wetlands of some of the characteristics of each Wetland Type. Marine/Coastal Wetlands
Permanent shallow marine waters in most cases less than six metres deep at low tide;
includes sea bays and straits. Marine subtidal aquatic beds; includes kelp beds, sea-grass beds, tropical marine meadows.
Rocky marine shores; includes rocky offshore islands, sea cliffs.
Sand, shingle or pebble shores; includes sand bars, spits and sandy islets; includes dune
systems and humid dune slacks. Estuarine waters; permanent water of estuaries and estuarine systems of deltas.
Intertidal mud, sand or salt flats.
Intertidal marshes; includes salt marshes, salt meadows, saltings, raised salt marshes;
includes tidal brackish and freshwater marshes. Intertidal forested wetlands; includes mangrove swamps, nipah swamps and tidal freshwater
Coastal brackish/saline lagoons; brackish to saline lagoons with at least one relatively narrow
connection to the sea. Coastal freshwater lagoons; includes freshwater delta lagoons.
Karst and other subterranean hydrological systems, marine/coastal
Permanent inland deltas.
Permanent rivers/streams/creeks; includes waterfalls.
Permanent freshwater lakes (over 8 ha); includes large oxbow lakes.
Seasonal/intermittent freshwater lakes (over 8 ha); includes floodplain lakes.
Permanent saline/brackish/alkaline lakes.
Roebuck Bay, EAAF SIS
Seasonal/intermittent saline/brackish/alkaline lakes and flats.
Permanent saline/brackish/alkaline marshes/pools.
Seasonal/intermittent saline/brackish/alkaline marshes/pools.
Permanent freshwater marshes/pools; ponds (below 8 ha), marshes and swamps on
inorganic soils; with emergent vegetation water-logged for at least most of the growing season. Seasonal/intermittent freshwater marshes/pools on inorganic soils; includes sloughs,
potholes, seasonally flooded meadows, sedge marshes. Non-forested peatlands; includes shrub or open bogs, swamps, fens.
Alpine wetlands; includes alpine meadows, temporary waters from snowmelt.
Tundra wetlands; includes tundra pools, temporary waters from snowmelt.
Shrub-dominated wetlands; shrub swamps, shrub-dominated freshwater marshes, shrub carr,
alder thicket on inorganic soils. Freshwater, tree-dominated wetlands; includes freshwater swamp forests, seasonally flooded
forests, wooded swamps on inorganic soils. Forested peatlands; peatswamp forests.
Freshwater springs; oases.
Karst and other subterranean hydrological systems, inland
Note: "floodplain" is a broad term used to refer to one or more wetland types, which may include examples
from the R, Ss, Ts, W, Xf, Xp, or other wetland types. Some examples of floodplain wetlands are seasonally inundated grassland (including natural wet meadows), shrublands, woodlands and forests. Floodplain wetlands are not listed as a specific wetland type herein. Human-made wetlands
Aquaculture (e.g., fish/shrimp) ponds
Ponds; includes farm ponds, stock ponds, small tanks; (generally below 8 ha).
Irrigated land; includes irrigation channels and rice fields.
Seasonally flooded agricultural land (including intensively managed or grazed wet meadow or
Salt exploitation sites; salt pans, salines, etc.
Water storage areas; reservoirs/barrages/dams/impoundments (generally over 8 ha).
Excavations; gravel/brick/clay pits; borrow pits, mining pools.
Wastewater treatment areas; sewage farms, settling ponds, oxidation basins, etc.
Canals and drainage channels, ditches.
Zk(c) -- Karst and other subterranean hydrological systems, human-made
A Weekly FAX from the Center for Substance Abuse Research CESAR FAX Buprenorphine Series March 31, 2003 to December 15, 2014 (updated January 9, 2015) Center for Substance Abuse Research University of Maryland 4321 Hartwick Road, Suite 501 College Park, MD 20740 301-405-9770 (phone) 301-403-8342 (fax) CESAR is pleased to provide this compilation of CESAR FAX issues focusing on buprenorphine. While research indicates that buprenorphine is an effective drug for treating opioid dependence, we feel that the potential for its nonmedical use and related unintended consequences may be going unnoticed. The most recent CESAR FAX issues on buprenorphine were designed to highlight indicators of the increased availability, diversion, and misuse of buprenorphine. CESAR will continue to monitor the diversion and abuse of buprenorphine and report on developments as they arise.