Etech march 2014

e-tech News & views MARCH 2014
Maglev high-speed trains
New trends in urban transport
Formula E on the starting grid
Getting to know Kerry McManama
Africa Smart Grid Forum
4 A technology that sees trains "fl oating" over a track using magnets and superconductivity may radically change train transport in the future
6 New safety devices, connected and autonomous vehicles and intelligent transportation systems are expected to cut the number of road traffi c
11 Insights into the standardization challenges faced by developers of the EV wireless charging system 18 Automated or "self-driving"
personal transport systems are no longer the preserve of science fi ction. They are now up and running at several locations around the world
31 The international Africa Smart Grid Forum will take place on 14-16 May 2014 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire 37 IEC material declaration Standard
goes global

Smarter, safer transportation for all Getting to know Kerry McManama Knowledge supports safety in This issue of e-tech focuses on Maglev – a technology for the transportation, from the role of the IEC in the automotive Safer cars, smarter drives Can smart traffi c and cars save industry to new modes of urban IEC WORLD
transportation and maglev Smart energy for Africa (magnetic levitation) high-speed Easier, safer, leaner and cleaner trains. Smart transport and traffi c Reaching out – Using social media 32
management will also be covered. EV wireless charging system: to increase awareness of IEC work And last but not least, electric light a standardization challenge and heavy-duty industrial vehicles.
Formula E approaches the starting 33
Behind the scenes at the Sochi IEC FAMILY
Nominations and extensions Personal systems herald Nanotechnology: a key to solar energy and energy storage TECHNICAL COMMITTEE AFFAIRS
IEC material declaration Standard TC 9 – On the right track e-tech I March 2014
Smarter, safer transportation for all
IEC standardization and conformity assessment work essential
to modern transportation modes

The March issue of e-tech focuses on transportation, from the role of the IEC
in the automotive industry to new modes of urban transportation and maglev
(magnetic levitation) high-speed trains. Smart transport and traffi c management
are also covered. And last but not least, light and heavy-duty industrial vehicles,
an important segment of the automotive industry that is undergoing many
developments with the emergence of electric vehicles.
Motor vehicles, whether they are EVs (electric vehicles), hybrids or powered by internal combustion engines, contain an ever growing number of electric and electronic parts. Consequently the role played by the IEC becomes more important as well. Through its standardization and conformity assessment work, the Commission ensures that electrical Claire Marchand equipment and electronic components used in these vehicles are of the highest quality Managing Editor e-tech
and reliability and help make cars safer and ever more energy-effi cient.
Another type of EV will be featured in this issue: electric racing cars. Formula E is a new FIA (International Automobile Federation) championship and the world's fi rst fully-electric racing series. In the words of its promoters, [the championship] represents a vision for the future of the motor industry over the coming decades, serving as a framework for R&D around the electric vehicle, accelerating general interest in these cars and promoting Away from the glamour of Grand Prix racing but indispensable nonetheless on factory fl oors, harbours, hangars or warehouses, there are industrial vehicles. The trend for many of those is to go all electric. An article will explain the whys of this development.
The March issue will also take a closer look at new modes of urban transportation. With a view to reducing pollution and become more energy-effi cient, many cities around the world are developing new public transit networks, such as electric pods or cable cars depending on the terrain, and are encouraging emission-free individual means of Formula E is a new FIA championship featuring PRT (Personal Rapid Transit) System station at the fully-electric racing cars (Photo: Formula E) Masdar Institute Campus (Photo: Masdar City) March 2014 I e-tech
Maglev – a technology for the future?Magnetically-levitated trains are running in a small number of countries Morand Fachot trains to run faster and faster, the Come fl y with magnets
Railways have constantly improved
mechanical friction between wheels Maglev train rail systems need three since they were fi rst introduced.
and tracks is considered a factor components: a large electrical power However, they still rely on basically
limiting performance and requiring source, metal coils lining a guideway the same principle: train wheels
considerable maintenance of or track and large guidance magnets running on steel tracks and
equipment in this well-established attached to the underside of the train.
causing friction. A technology
mode of transportation.
that sees trains "fl oating" over
Two different concepts of magnetic a track using magnets and
Magnetically-levitating trains that levitation – or suspension – are superconductivity may radically
eliminate mechanical friction by using currently being implemented.
change train transport in the
magnetic suspension (or levitation) are seen as offering an interesting possibility EMS (electromagnetic suspension) for the future of rail transport. The uses electromagnets attached to the technology relies on superconducting train's undercarriage; the magnets wrap Not the end of the line yet
magnets. Even so, existing networks around the steel guideway. The system Ever since they were introduced built over decades are not likely to levitates the train about 1 cm above the trains have run on rails; currently disappear soon as the few maglev trains guideway and keeps it levitated even those are made of steel. Even though functioning now are still mainly in the when it's not moving. This system is rolling stock and rail technologies experimental phase or are running over used in Germany's Transrapid train and have greatly improved, allowing relatively short distances.
the Shanghai Transrapid maglev train Japan's MLX01-1 train holds the world record for fastest maglev train (581 kph) e-tech I March 2014
Cutaway of Transrapid maglev train propulsion system (Illustration: ThyssenKrupp Transrapid GmbH) that connects Shanghai airport with In August 2013 the mayor of Tel Aviv, Superconductivity, acknowledges its metro network.
Israel, announced plans to introduce that this domain could benefi t from skyTran, an urban maglev transportation applications of superconductivity, in EDS (electrodynamic suspension) system that uses two-seater pods particular where HTS (high temperature is based on the repelling forces of hanging from magnetic rails superconductors) are introduced. magnets to levitate the train. In EDS Whilst LTS (low temperature systems, trains fl oat about 10 cm above superconductors) materials need the guideway. EDS is used in Japan's IEC work on superconductivity
to be cooled to about 4 K (-269oC) MLX01 maglev train, the fastest train IEC standardization work on to demonstrate superconductive in the world, which reached a speed of superconductivity doesn't extend to properties, HTS materials reach these 581 kph in 2003.
transportation, although IEC TC 90: properties at temperatures as "high" as 77 Kelvin (-143oC) or so.
TC 90 works on preparing International Standards to help the development of commercial markets for new products and/or applications using As of March 2014 it had published 19 International Standards that concern various kinds of measurements for electronic or mechanical characteristics and properties for composite superconductors, including HTS.
TC 90 sees HTS as very promising for new applications and markets. Even so, their widespread use in maglev technology is still some years away – but then so too is the commercial skyTran urban mass transit pods use maglev technology (Image courtesy of skyTran) operation of maglev trains.
March 2014 I e-tech
Can smart traffi c and cars save lives?Road safety has been steadily improving; the trend is expected to continue Morand Fachot Each year, an estimated 1,3 million
people die in road traffi c accidents;
a further 20-50 million are injured.
Technologies that include new
safety devices, connected and
autonomous vehicles and intelligent
transportation systems with
their associated infrastructure
and systems are expected to
improve this poor record. Car
manufacturers, governments and
other organizations are all working
to achieve this goal and are heavily
reliant on International Standards.
Huge human and economic cost
Driver and passenger airbags helped cut road accident deaths According to the WHO (World Health Organization) around 1,3 mllion people their seriousness. They are triggered die in road traffi c accidents every The falling rate of road traffi c accidents and operated by electronic systems year, with pedestrians, cyclists and observed in many countries is by and introduced more recently than passive motorcyclists accounting for half of the large the result of the gradual adoption total. Most of these deaths occur in of passive and active safety measures low- and middle-income countries.
and devices. Changes in road traffi c ABS (anti-lock braking system), which regulations and improved road and has been fi tted gradually to cars since The WHO estimates that road traffi c the mid-1980s, is an active safety fatalities will be the fi fth leading cause signalling infrastructure have also system that prevents the wheels of of death by 2030.
played their part.
a vehicle from locking up, reduces braking distance and helps avoiding However, statistics can be misleading Seat belts and airbags are the best uncontrolled skidding in case of as the large numbers of victims examples of passive safety devices. emergency braking, allowing the driver refl ect an exceptional growth in global Compulsory wearing of seat belts for to remain in control.
road traffi c in recent years. In most drivers, front and rear passengers, developed countries, the number which started being introduced in most ESC (electronic stability control), fi rst of road accident fatalities has been countries from the 1970s, has made a rolled out in the early / mid-2000s, steadily diminishing for decades. In great contribution to cutting the number helps avoid crashes by detecting the the US, for instance, fatalities in car of deaths and serious injuries caused by likelihood of vehicles losing traction accidents dropped by 30% between road accidents. Airbags, now standard and going into a skid during sudden 1994 and 2011 (in spite of a 20% equipment on most cars, offer additional manoeuvres such as avoiding an increase in the number of drivers and safety by protecting occupants from obstacle in front. ESC applies brakes to 33% growth in the number of vehicles).
hitting parts of the vehicle's interior in wheels independently, so reducing the case of a hard impact.
risk of such skids occurring.
Overall in 25 European Union countries (i.e. not including the 3 to join most Lane departure warning systems, using recently) road traffi c deaths (including .to active safety
cameras and sensors, warn drivers motorcyclists and non-motorists) fell by Active safety is provided by devices when their vehicle moves out of its lane; 54% between 1992 and 2009.
that help prevent crashes, or reduce they help prevent accidents provoked e-tech I March 2014
Today's new drivers live in a connected world and expect a connected car. They want to bring their connectivity and the environment they have in the offi ce and at home into the car. The challenge is to do that safely and with less distraction, as there are enough opportunities for distraction in road traffi c as it is, Owens said. The aim is to have more connectivity and less Towards the self-driving car
As is often the case when humans meet technology, people are often the weakest link. Connectivity aims to help drivers when they need it by providing technology which ensures that, even if the driver is distracted, the car never is.
This camera-based alertness assistant detects the blink of the eyelid and calculates the blink frequency and blink duration (Photo: Hella KGaA) One objective is to create a "safety envelope" around the car. Technologies by drowsiness or distraction. Blind spot this e-tech on electric/electronic content for this, such as predictive forward monitoring alerts drivers to possible in cars) and for some by IECQ, the IEC collision system (for the car in front plus risks that may be in blind spots to the worldwide approval and certifi cation one) or steer-by-wire, already exist and side of the vehicle and so could go system embracing the supply of hint at forthcoming autonomous driving undetected. Other recent advanced electronic components and associated active safety systems include adaptive materials and assemblies and processes.
cruise control, which automatically One long-term objective is to provide depresses and releases the accelerator the possibility of autonomous driving pedal to stay even with traffi c even as Smart transportation looming on
when drivers want / need it. Certain speeds of other vehicles vary, and anti- the horizon
modes of automated transport are collision equipment that apply brakes If passive and active safety devices already in operation (see article in this when the driver is distracted.
have contributed greatly to cutting e-tech on pods at Heathrow Airport the numbers of road accident victims and Masdar City). Autonomously-driven All passive and active safety devices in many countries, new technologies cars have already been tested on and systems, including many driver made possible by ICT (information and highways, so far without causing any assistance systems that offer additional communications technology) herald safety features, were initially offered additional benefi ts for road safety. The either as standard features on the average car has 50 computers, some Government regulators are already priciest luxury models or as optional have as many as 100 and the trend encouraging further automation and and costly extras on other cars before is growing, Jeffrey J. Owens, Chief communication between vehicles. becoming standard equipment on all Technology Offi cer and Executive VP, In early February 2014 the US Delphi Automotive, told participants in Department of Transport announced a symposium on the Future Networked a plan to require auto makers to These devices rely entirely on Car, held on the fringe of the 2014 equip new cars and trucks with so countless electrical and electronic Geneva Motor Show.
called V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle) crash- components such as sensors or MEMS avoidance systems that allow vehicles (microelectromechanical systems), and A car is no longer a machine that gets to communicate with each other to all their associated components, such occupants from A to B, but increasingly avoid crashes. The DoT estimates that as connectors, cables, fuses or drives, a software-driven platform that keeps V2V communication could prevent up or improved lights, which are covered by them plugged in, informed, entertained to 80% of accidents that don't involve IEC International Standards (see article in drink driving or mechanical failure.
March 2014 I e-tech
Liability and security issues
ICT systems might result in vehicle Connected and networked cars may malfunction and accidents occurring. pose a number of legal issues. One Manufacturers are aware of these that has been encountered before is risks and are working to reduce that of liability.
and suppress the likelihood of their Car manufacturers have recalled and are still occasionally recalling cars when a fault appears, often after Safer driving conditions for all in
several years. When these faults have the future
resulted in fatalities, manufacturers Connected and networked vehicles have even faced costly lawsuits.
will undoubtedly have a positive impact Advances in car electronics and connectivity on road safety. Experts forecast they are heralding the introduction of self-driving vehicles In the case of networked cars could result in a further drop of 50% the liability issue becomes more or more in the number of road traffi c the world's road traffi c fatalities.
complicated: it may prove diffi cult As the cost of electronics in cars is to establish if accidents are due to mechanical or electrical faults, software However, it must be borne in mind forecast to reach 65% of their overall or communication problems or to other that the number of victims is unequally value in a few years, it is clear that the issues, such as hacking.
shared between countries and regions. benefi ts of connected cars are likely Low- and middle-income countries to be felt initially mainly in high-income Another issue that has been mentioned currently account for 48% of the countries before reaching other nations is that breaches of security in cars' world's vehicles but more than 90% of further into the future.
Easier, safer, leaner and cleanerGreater electrical and electronic content in cars lightens drivers' burden Morand Fachot Most major automobile
manufacturers now offer a variety
of EVs (electric vehicles). However,
this offering often obscures
the fact that the electrical and
electronic content in vehicles
powered by internal combustion
engines has been growing steadily
over the years. This makes for
safer, more fuel-effi cient and
comfortable driving, and drives the
growth of a global industry.
Internal combustion engines rely
Petrolheads are often dismissive of EVs, focusing instead on the performance and features of their cars. Well-designed EEA (electrical electronic architecture) plays a vital role in modern cars (Photo: However, they often forget (or ignore Delphi Automotive PLC) e-tech I March 2014
the fact?) that even conventional cars rely increasingly on a multitude of electrical and electronic systems to For decades electrical installation and components in cars were confi ned to essential functions and basic safety Electric starter engines that could provide enough power to crank and start the engine were introduced widely from The introduction of hybrid and other EVs has boosted the electrical/electronic content in cars the 1920s and were the fi rst signifi cant (Photo: Volkswagen AG) electrically-based system in cars. They replaced hand cranks (or starting systems initially. Gradually they have or drowsy drivers by issuing sound, handles) and proved a major advance incorporated electrical and electronic vibration or light warnings.
for internal combustion engines. They components that make them easier relied on a lead-acid battery to provide and more reliable to operate.
Systems that use information suffi ciently high voltage and current.
transmitted from roadside infrastructure Today, many other car systems systems and rely on electronics to The other electrical systems to besides power windows, electric control engines and brakes are also be installed in cars early on were power steering and electro-mechanical being developed.
headlamps and tail lights, supplanting transmission rely on electrical or acetylene and oil lamps. Additional electronic components. They include Safety is further enhanced by better lamps such as indicators were light and rain sensors that automatically lighting emanating from LED lamps that introduced later. Other electrical switch on lamps and wipers, cruise are more luminous than conventional components – for instance, alternators control allowing drivers to maintain a supplying electricity to electrical loads constant speed and advanced parking and batteries, ignition coils, motors support systems that manoeuvre cars for windshield wipers, etc. – were automatically into a selected parking Leaner and cleaner
introduced step by step and made up space. All these contribute, along A number of electronic systems now most of a car's electrical content for with a variety of other aids, to better ensure cars powered by internal several decades.
driveability, increased comfort and combustion engines are more fuel reduced driver distraction.
effi cient and cleaner than ever whilst offering better performance. Fuel More comfortable driving
injection, particularly of the electronic To lure customers away from the Safety fi rst
variety, has greatly improved the running competition, manufacturers have Improving road safety has been another of engines. It allows smoother driving, gradually introduced a variety of major factor in the growing electrical better operation throughout a wide range features to make driving easier and and electronic content of motor of temperatures and is more effi cient, as more comfortable; often these have vehicles. Sensors play a crucial role less fuel is needed for the same power relied on electrical components. Initially – for example by setting off airbags if output. As a result exhaust emissions they were available on top of the range accidents occur and by detecting critical are cleaner, containing combustion by- vehicles only or at extra cost; now situations so as to prevent a skid using products that are less toxic and relatively many of these features, such as electric ESC (electronic stabilisation control) easy to eliminate using clean-up devices windows, heated rear windscreens or ABS (anti-lock braking system). such as catalytic converters.
and air conditioning, are standard Safety is likely to improve further with equipment in most cars.
the introduction of many other devices Other technologies help save fuel and such as pre-crash systems that control cut emissions. They include Start/Stop Other systems like power steering the brakes, automatic steering so as to in which double-layer capacitors shut or automatic transmission, which mitigate the seriousness of accidents down and restart engines automatically help to make driving easier and more and collision-avoidance systems when vehicles wait at traffi c lights or comfortable, were primarily hydraulic that detect hazards or alert careless stop frequently, or braking recuperation March 2014 I e-tech
that recycles the energy normally lost In March 2011, IEC and ISO (Internatiomal Manufacturers producing during braking by storing it and then Organization for Standardization) electrotechnology components and using it for acceleration or re-starting.
signed an agreement concerning the systems for the automotive industry standardization of electrotechnology for also rely on IECQ, the IEC Quality road vehicles and cooperation between Assessment System for Electronic Growing share in the value of
ISO TC 22: Road vehicles, and IEC TCs Components, covering the supply of electronic components and associated Electrical and electronic systems are materials and assemblies, to ensure that wholly responsible for the advances All road vehicles, even those powered their products meet the requirements of made in many areas of the automotive by internal combustion engines, the car industry.
industry. This is particularly true rely increasingly on such systems. for electronics, which have made a More than 3 dozen IEC TCs and spectacular contribution to the increase SCs (Subcommittees) cover the in overall value of cars in recent standardization of equipment used in As the electrical and electronic content years. In the mid-2000s, electronics and related to road vehicles as well as of cars has increased, so has the overall accounted for 10-15% of the total of other associated issues.
value of the industry, opening up many production cost of mid-range cars and opportunities for manufacturers. The 20-30% of the cost of luxury models.
They include: IEC SC 17B and SC 17D: current size of the global car market Low voltage switchgear and controlgear, gives a good indication of the size and Today they represent some 20-30% and their assemblies; TC 20: Electric growth potential of the electrotechnology of the total cost for all categories of cables; TC 21: Secondary cells and content of cars and of its overall cars, and this share is expected to batteries; SC 22G: Adjustable speed value. Over 63 million motor cars were reach 40% or so by 2015. The fi gure electric drive systems incorporating produced in 2012, in addition to 21 million is nearer 50% if all electrical systems semiconductor power converters; commercial vehicles, according to the are included. This growth is set to SC 23E: Circuit breakers and similar OICA (International Organization of Motor continue: a recent study by A.T. equipment for household use; SC 23G: Kearney, a consulting fi rm, predicts Appliance couplers; SC 23H: Plugs, that a car's embedded software and Socket-outlets and Couplers for industrial Together, the world's top 10 car electronics will account for up to 65% and similar applications, and for Electric producers had revenues of nearly of its total value by 2025.
Vehicles; SC 32B: Low voltage fuses; USD 1 375 billion in 2013, according to SC 32C: miniature fuses, TC 34: Lamps Forbes. As electronic components alone and related equipment; SC 37A: Low- account for a very substantial share IEC Standards apply across all
voltage surge protecting devices (surge of the total costs for all categories of protection of electronic devices will be a cars, they constitute a highly signifi cant Road vehicle standardization relies on very important consideration for plug-in global market, and one that is set to a number of international, regional and EVs) and SC 47A: Integrated circuits. grow further. This expansion would not national regulations and directives.
Naturally IEC TC 69: Electric road be possible without the standardization vehicles and electric industrial trucks, work done by many IEC TCs and SCs.
The main requirement is that cars plays a crucial role in the development should comply with the UNECE (UN of future automotive products and its Economic Commission for Europe) importance and workload are set to grow rules as defi ned by its World Forum for in coming years.
Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP 29). Most countries — with IECEE, the IEC System of the notable exception of the US Conformity Assessment Schemes and Canada, which have their own for Electrotechnical Equipment and directives — recognize the UNECE Components, has a scheme covering Regulations and apply them in their certain International Standards own national requirements. They developed for the EV industry. These must also comply, when relevant, Standards cover plugs, socket-outlets, with national and regional rules and vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets regulations. Many of those apply to for conductive charging of EVs, This car overhead control centre integrates equipment that depends on electrical conductive charging systems for EVs complex electronics for multiple functions and electronic systems.
and secondary lithium-ion cells.
into a limited space (Photo: Hella KGaA) e-tech I March 2014
EV wireless charging system: a standardization challenge Dimitrios Ladas* Since 2011 Dimitrios Ladas, IEC
In this article I will share some insights 2013 Young Professional Leader, has
about a specifi c charging system: the been a member of the IEC TC 69:
Wireless Charging system, which could Electric road vehicles and electric
be an enabler of EV market growth.
industrial trucks, project team which
From cable to wireless charging develops the Standard for Wireless
Power Transfer for EV charging. In
this article he gives insights into
The current EV charging systems are the standardization challenges
all based on a cable that connects that developers of the EV (Electric
the EV to the grid. The charger can Vehicle) wireless charging system
be embedded in the car or positioned externally, but the cable is mandatory. For the user, this represents a constraint, because the cable can be EV market context
dirty or diffi cult to handle.
For several years, the automotive industry has invested a lot in the To provide a more convenient charging Dimitrios Ladas, IEC 2013 Young development of electric vehicles. Some system ICPT (Inductive Coupling manufacturers have chosen to focus on Power Transfer) technology can be full electric cars whereas others have i.e. a network of charging points that used to transfer energy to charge a decided to work on hybrid and plug- ensures car drivers that they will always vehicle without any cable to handle. in hybrid models. For instance, the fi nd a charging solution on the road. In a nutshell, this technology consists French car manufacturer Renault has Others believe the electric vehicle of a charger which is split in two invested EUR 4 billion in research and market cannot grow quickly unless a parts. There is an emitter (on the development to develop a range of full real charging infrastructure is already ground) which is connected to the electric cars.
This represents a major business opportunity for the electrotechnology industry because all these new cars will need to charge their batteries. Basically, we can imagine that the scheme is very simple: you can put an electric charging cable between the socket and the car and it should work. Unfortunately, we are here at the interface of two different worlds – automotive and electrical distribution The chicken or the egg?
With EV charging systems a complicating factor is that there are diverging views on the process and timing. Some believe that we fi rst need to have the cars before providing a widespread charging infrastructure .is a member the IEC TC 69 Project Teams PT 61980-2 and PT 61980-3. March 2014 I e-tech 11

.which develop the International Standards for Wireless Power Transfer for EV charging (Image: Arriva) grid through a converter. This device objective is to agree on one International standardization, but the combination generates a magnetic fi eld, which is Standard so that manufacturers have of difficult technical questions and used by a receiver (underneath the a reference system. But there are the framework of electric vehicle car) that transforms the magnetic fi eld several points that augment the diffi culty leads to a complex situation where into current that is used to charge the with regard to cable-based systems. consensus is difficult.
battery. With such a system, the driver First of all, the market for wireless can just park and charge, without charging is not yet developed. There IEC Young Professionals - 2014
having to think about plugging in the are trials and many manufacturers have demonstration models, some even have The IEC Young Professionals - 2014 products, but the Standard is still in workshop will be held in Tokyo, Japan, advance of the market.
from 10 to 12 November, in parallel with Complex standardization
the IEC 2014 General Meeting. Please The technical aspect of the system contact your NC for further information.
In TC 69, the IEC Technical Committee is very difficult and not so obvious to that is responsible for EV charging standardize. As it involves a magnetic * Since 2010 Dimitrios Ladas has been the project system-related standards, a project field, the project team has to take care leader of the EV (Electric Vehicle) Inductive Charging project at Schneider Electric, Grenoble, team has been set up to address the about public fear of electromagnetic ICPT charging systems. Ideally, the waves. This context is not unusual in e-tech I March 2014
Heavy liftingEVs muscle in on heavy industrial applications Morand Fachot Mention of EVs (electric vehicles)
immediately brings to mind electric
cars and possibly urban transport
vehicles such as trolleybuses or
electric buses. However, it is also
important to consider commercial
and industrial EVs as they
represent 60% of the value of the
overall EV market. IEC Standards
are essential for the further
development and introduction of
this class of EVs and for the entire
EV sector.
An eclectic electric vehicle market
Certain types of EVs are already widely present in the industrial and commercial sectors.
FC systems can easily be retrofi tted to replace lead-acid batteries into forklifts, like in this machine (Photo: Yale) Materials handling vehicles, such they act as counterweights in forklifts. as pallet trucks, reach trucks, may not be relevant in the case of FC-powered vehicles can also be used counterbalance stand ups and commercial and industrial EVs. These in cold environments, such as cold counterbalance forklifts are obvious are often used in limited environments examples of vehicles that are often stores, as their performance is not and so may not need to cover vast powered by electricity. This may be degraded by low temperatures.
distances between charges. This is imposed through laws and regulations; certainly the case for airports' GSE for instance in certain countries, In future, the FC and battery (Ground Support Equipment) such forklifts have to be electric when combination is expected to be used as aircraft tugs, baggage tractors, used inside buildings so as to prevent for a hybrid mix of FCs and electric belt loaders, shuttle buses and cargo emission of noxious fumes.
storage for batteries and super moving equipment.
capacitors. Already under development Electric forklifts fi rst appeared in the is a FC and battery hybrid that helps There are about 300 000 GSE vehicles 1940s, but were only deployed on a recover energy as forklifts raise and in the world's airports today, including commercial basis after World War 2. lower loads.
in the commercial airports used for They can be powered by lead-acid freight and by the oil industry and batteries, but these may not last a full Energy is supplied as the forklift raises in military airports. In a report on working day and may take up to its load and is then recovered as the industrial and commercial EVs, market 8 hours to recharge.
lift comes back down. The recovered research company IDTechEx estimated electric power can be used in a the sale of EVs for airport applications More recently materials handling generator to charge the battery and to be between 30 000 and 39 000 vehicles powered by FCs (fuel cells) keep the cycle going.
units in 2013.
have been introduced. In contrast with lead-acid systems FCs can be Airports are often funded or controlled recharged in a matter of minutes. Shifting and lifting beyond forklifts
by governments or local/regional Their weight is not a drawback as, Short range is often perceived as a authorities and are under pressure to in common with lead-acid batteries, drawback for personal EVs, but this convert their GSE to electric versions.
March 2014 I e-tech 13
IDTechEx expects the commercial Fuel cells are increasingly being used and industrial EV sector to more than in commercial, industrial and personal quadruple between 2013 and 2023. It EVs. TC 105 prepares International forecasts that 706 000 purely electric Standards for FC technologies. forklifts will be sold in 2020, almost all In January 2013 three global car for indoor use, together with 750 000 manufacturers announced they were other heavy industrial vehicles, mainly pooling resources to bring FCEVs hybrid forklifts used outdoors and self- to the market as early as 2017. FCs Four-wheel drive / four-wheel steer SCHOPF propelled cranes. Agricultural, mining are already widely deployed in the F110 electric tractor designed to move and earthmoving electric vehicles will aircraft up to 150 tonnes (Photo: SCHOPF) industrial and commercial EV sector.
also be included in this latter category.
Comparable machines in other markets Capacitors and supercapacitors To this should be added 110 000 are electric yard or heavy duty tractors are being used more and more electric buses and 377 000 light for use in harbours or warehouses to widely in vehicle applications, with industrial and commercial EVs.
pull containers or trailers.
supercapacitors sometimes replacing traction batteries, Standards for Some commercial and industrial EVs capacitors are prepared by IEC standardization supporting the
are also available as hybrid or plug-in TC 33: Power capacitors and hybrid vehicles or are equipped with their applications.
Many IEC TCs (Technical Committees) range extenders powered by fossil and SCs (Subcommittees) are fuels (petrol or liquid gas).
TC 69 liaises and collaborates with working on Standards for systems and TC 21 and TC 105, as well as with components used in the EV sector. The Another emerging trend likely to boost other IEC TCs and SCs involved in following list is not exhaustive.
the adoption of industrial EVs is the electromobility. These include rollout of driverless or fully automated SC 17D: Low-voltage switchgear and IEC TC 69: Electric road vehicles and systems. These are already in use in controlgear assemblies, SC 23E: electric industrial trucks, is obviously a warehouses and in the mining industry.
major player. It prepares Standards for Circuit-breakers and similar equipment motors and motor controllers, on-board for household use, SC 23H: Plugs, electrical energy storage systems and socket-outlets and couplers for Fast-growing sector for slow-
for power supplies and chargers.
industrial and similar applications, and for electric vehicles, and Unlike in the personal EV industry, where TC 21: Secondary cells and batteries, TC 64: Electrical installations and manufacturers are launching many prepares Standards for secondary protection against electric shock.
models, sometimes without prospects batteries for the propulsion of electric of signifi cant ROI (return on investment) road vehicles. These batteries can be IEC standardization work for EVs so as to keep up with their competitors, of the lead-acid, lithium-ion, nickel- supports an industry which is set the commercial and industrial sector metal-hydride or lithium iron phosphate to reach a global gross value market demand for EVs is driven by other types, for instance.
of USD 334 billion by 2023.
considerations. These include the quest to lower the operating costs of large fl eets and the need to meet ever more stringent government emissions limits.
These will drive the introduction of EVs into previously uncharted territory, that of earthmoving, mining, agricultural and outdoor machinery.
Major earth-moving equipment manufacturers such as Caterpillar, John Deere and Komatsu, have already introduced hybrid electric earth- moving machines that can cut fuel This Caterpillar 336E H hybrid excavator uses up to 33% less fuel than its 336D diesel consumption by 25% or more.
equivalent (Photo: Caterpillar) e-tech I March 2014
Behind the scenes at the Sochi OlympicsIEC International Standards helped to make things work Janice Blondeau prepare International Standards for a Timing is everything
Invisible but essential for the
myriad of components and systems Measuring athletes' performances success of the Sochi 2014 Winter
that were used throughout the Games relies on sensors, and optoelectronic Olympics, IEC work underpinned a
venues and in the Sochi region.
sensors in particular, used to trigger host of technologies which helped
chronographs to measure time as in the smooth running of the
competitors go past them. Rail away to Sochi
The Sochi Aeroexpress, a special TC 47: Semiconductor devices, train link was constructed from and its subcommittees prepare Invisible but essential
Sochi International Airport to the city International Standards for the design, From access control and transportation of Sochi to make transport easier. manufacture, use and reuse of discrete for visitors, to timers and information IEC TC 9: Electrical equipment and semiconductor devices, integrated systems for offi cials and athletes, systems for railways, prepared the circuits, display devices, sensors, cameras, microphones, lighting for International Standard IEC 61373, electronic component assemblies, announcers and the media, the stoves Railway applications - Rolling stock interface requirements, and micro- and appliances for catering, as well equipment - Shock and vibration tests, as the kilometres of cables and fi bre which sets down testing requirements optics in electrical and communication for railway vehicle equipment subjected Electronic display devices form an installations, IEC TCs (Technical to vibrations and other similar shocks in integral part of all sporting events Committees) and SCs (Subcommittees) connection with railway operations.
to show times, scores, and even IEC International Standards helped to ensure many aspects of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi.(Photo: romantiche/123RF Stock Photo) March 2014 I e-tech 15
Work that was invisible but vital to enable timers, cables, lighting, cameras. (Photo: Russian govt.) replay some of the action. TC 110: outdoor cables, to ensure reliable keeping ice frozen for skaters and air Electronic display devices, works on system performance and operation.
fl owing in areas with lots of people. standardization in the fi eld of electronic display devices and their specifi c One US television chain reportedly In the indoor arenas in Sochi where relevant components. TC 34: Lamps invested in 120 kilometres of cable for ice hockey and ice skating took place, and related equipment, prepares its television coverage of the Sochi underfloor cooling systems ensured standards for lamps and LEDs (Light- Games. TC 100/TA 5: Cable networks that the ice didn't melt. This process Emitting Diodes) used extensively in for television signals, sound signals used a chemical called propylene lighting throughout the Sochi Olympics.
and interactive services, develops glycol, cooled in a refrigeration International Standards relating to system and then pumped through to cable networks including processing chill pipes in aluminium panels that Cables bring us the Olympic feats
and distribution of television and sound sat directly below the ice. SC 61C: To show audiences around the signals. TC 100: Audio, video and Safety of refrigeration appliances world athletes' performances, photo multimedia systems and equipment, for household and commercial agency Getty Images in a joint effort prepares international publications in use, prepares International Safety with AP (Associated Press), AFP the fi eld of audio, video and multimedia Standards for motor compressors, (Agence France-Presse), Reuters and systems and equipment including refrigerating appliances and similar epa (european pressphoto agency) specifi cation of the performance and appliances for household and used a 20-kilometre fi bre optic cable interoperability with other systems or commercial use.
supporting a 100Mbps network that delivered images from southern Russia to the rest of the world within three IT standardization work central to
Ventilation and cooling
Olympic Games organization
A number of IEC TCs and SCs Ensuring the security of major global TC 86: Fibres optics, prepares are involved in the preparation of sporting events such as the Olympic standards for fi bre optic systems, International Standards for components Games represents a major challenge for modules, devices and components and systems used in the ventilation and organizers. The contests attract huge intended for use with communications cooling of installations and devices – crowds and universal media coverage. equipment, including indoor and all key technologies when it came to Underpinning the overall security system e-tech I March 2014
increased train capacity, and new rail lines, all of which required power.
When Sochi was selected to host the winter Olympics it was far from major pipelines and energy transmission. Since 2007, Russia has built 49 major energy projects, according to its Energy Ministry. This has increased the capacity to generate electricity in the Sochi region by 800%.
A new power plant with two 90 MW .microphones, heating, cooling, transport, communications systems and much more. generators, and running on two steam turbine units, was predicted to supply more than 25% of the energy needed for the Sochi Olympics were of machinery Electrotechnical aspects, during the 2014 Olympic Games. electronic devices and installations or SC 65 A: Industrial process Expected to generate about 1,5 million that rely on International Standards measurement, control and automation. megawatt hours of electricity per year, prepared by ISO/IEC JTC 1, the IEC the Dzhubginskaya plant aimed to keep and ISO (International Organization the Olympics on the grid and in the for Standardization) Joint Technical Is it a bird? No it's a drone
future it will also provide power to Committee that deals with Information 5 million people who live in the southern Technology matters. ISO/IEC JTC 1 These Olympics also provided a Krasnodar Krai region. This plant has work was also widely used in systems showcase for the use of drones in major importance for modernizing the that allowed spectators back home to broadcasting live video of snowboard enjoy the Olympic experience in front region's energy sector according to and ski jump competitions. Olympic of their televisions.
local authorities.
Broadcasting Services, which provided the offi cial world feed of all the events at the Games used a drone in Sochi. Biometrics, automatic
Broadcasting live from a remote- Turbines, transformers and energy
identifi cation and security
controlled device required an extra measurement and control
Technological solutions to secure transmitter to send back live video TC 5: Steam turbines, prepares the site areas including ACS (access and allows closer angles than from a specifi cations and International Standards control systems) comprising RFID helicopter. IEC TC work is once for the rating and testing of steam (radio-frequency identifi cation) token again not far away. TC 2: Rotating turbines. TC 14: Power transformers, and biometrics are covered by the work machinery, prepares International conducts standardization in the fi eld of of ISO/IECJTC 1/SC 31: Automatic Standards regarding specifi cations power transformers, tap-changers and identifi cation and data capture for rotating electrical machines and reactors for use in power generation, techniques, and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 37: TC 91: Electronics assembly transmission and distribution. TC 13: technology, prepares International Electrical energy measurement and Standards on electronic assembly control, prepares International Standards Security surveillance for the technologies including components.
in the fi eld of a.c. and d.c. electrical Sochi Games included drones, energy measurement and control, for reconnaissance robots, extensive smart metering equipment and systems network monitoring, sonar systems Power up for Sochi Games
forming part of smart grids, used in and high-speed patrol boats. The successful hosting of sporting power stations, along the network, and Drones and robots are essentially events, as well as preparing and at energy users and producers.
electromechanical systems that transmitting media coverage of the include electrical and electronic Olympics depended on consistent, So next time you sit down to watch a parts that depend on International reliable sources of electricity, as did the gripping global sporting event such Standards to operate properly and various Olympic events that took place as the Olympic Games or the World safely. These are prepared by various after nightfall or in enclosed athletic Cup, spare a thought for the thousands IEC TCs and SCs such as TC 47: facilities. In addition, the remoteness of technical experts whose work has Semiconductor devices, TC 44: Safety of Sochi meant it needed new roads, helped to make the event run smoothly.
March 2014 I e-tech 17
Personal systems herald "smart mobility"New systems will introduce personalized modes of transport in urban areas Peter Feuilherade PRTs are intended to combine the by GPS (Global Positioning System) to Automated or "self-driving"
convenience and privacy of cars with destinations selected on touchscreens. personal transport systems are
the environmental benefi ts of mass Conventional steering can be used on no longer the preserve of science
transit. Their primary aims are to a simple track consisting only of a road fi ction. They are now up and
achieve optimum door to door mobility, surface with some form of reference for running at several locations around
improve safety, reduce environmental the vehicle's steering sensors.
the world. IEC standardization
impact and lower operational costs.
work will prove instrumental in
The oldest system similar to a PRT has the expansion of systems that use
They are part of the advance towards been in operation since 1975 in the innovative pod-type vehicles as
a new era of "smart mobility" in which US city of Morgantown, West Virginia. well as for two- and three-wheeled
infrastructure, methods of short distance Comprising cars which hold about transport, passengers and goods will be 20 passengers and run on a ground- increasingly interconnected, especially in mounted rail, it is more properly urban areas.
described as "Group Rapid Transit".
Personal, rapid, clean and safe
Small self-driving electric powered PRTs operate on networks of specially vehicles running on dedicated built guideways, with traffi c controlled Pod systems in operation
guideways and designed for on- by a central computer to eliminate Worldwide there are currently two fully demand use by individuals or collisions and minimize congestion.
operational PRT systems: at Heathrow small groups, typically four to six Airport near London and Masdar City passengers, are often referred to as They are usually powered by onboard near Abu Dhabi, UAE (United Arab PRTs (personal rapid transit systems).
batteries recharged at stops, and guided Driverless pod in service at Heathrow Airport (Photo: Ultra Global) e-tech I March 2014
The driverless pod service at Heathrow, operated by UK company Ultra Global, was launched in May 2011. The Personal transporters system comprises 21 pods running at a maximum speed of 40 kph along Flexible use for multiple
Stability is maintained using a guideways on a 3,9 km route between combination of computers, tilt Terminal 5 and a business car park; up Electric stand-up personal sensors, gyroscopic sensors and to 100-120 vehicles can be dispatched transporters (like Segways and their motors that rotate the wheels one or two-wheeled derivatives, forwards or backwards as required or alternative machines such as for balance or propulsion.
The pods are powered by electric Roboscooters) are devices that are motors and use Lithium ion (Li-ion) controlled by the body movements of Personal transporters target the batteries which recharge when parked the driver and are equipped with self individual consumer market for at stations, bypassing the need for balancing mechanisms urban commuting or leisure, as well electrifi cation along the track. The as corporate users including police batteries provide an average 2 kW of They are also available as personal forces, security fi rms, ports and motive power, and add only 8% to the scooters in three-wheeled airports, factories, shopping centres, gross weight of the vehicle.
confi gurations, which offer greater campuses, sports stadiums and stability and the option of riding seated amusement parks.
The pods have onboard computers and on larger models. These vehicles are are guided by laser sensors. Passenger generally powered by Li-ion batteries, Manufacturers in the US estimate the information is updated on LCD removable on some models to allow operating costs of three-wheelers screens in the pods, and a wireless longer operational cycles. Some used in police patrol duty to be communication system allows for two- versions may include regenerative around USD 0,10 per day.
way exchange of data and commands braking capability, allowing batteries between vehicles and central control.
to recharge during deceleration.
Passenger safety measures include continuous CCTV and black box monitoring of all pods; an independent As part of a GBP 75 million UK company 2getthere, was launched in "Automatic Vehicle Protection" government scheme to enable November 2010.
system that protects against pod businesses to make and test low collision on the guideway; safety carbon technologies, trials of driverless Masdar City is an initiative by the interlocks between the brakes, motor cars will start in Milton Keynes, a UAE government to build a new small and doors; and emergency exits, so-called "new" town 80 km north of city based on renewable energy and smoke detectors and fire extinguishers London which was built on a "grid plan" developed around green technologies, fitted in all pods.
in the 1960s.
including public transport A complete pod system like the one at The specifi c technology has not yet The pods run at 25 kph and are Heathrow, including guideway, stations, been announced but plans are for an powered by lithium phosphate vehicles and control systems costs initial batch of 20 driver-operated pods batteries, which are charged using somewhere between USD 7 million able to carry two passengers to enter solar energy. They travel on tracks and USD 15 million per km to service in 2015, followed in 2017 by equipped with embedded magnets construct, according to the system's 100 fully autonomous (driverless) pods placed every 5 m which the vehicle operators. They say the pods have that will run on pathways alongside uses, along with information about saved over 200 tonnes of CO per but separated from pedestrian areas. wheel angles and speed, to determine annum and reduced the number of The vehicles will be able to travel at up its location. Pods designed to carry bus journeys on the airport's roads to 19 kph and will be equipped with freight also operate at the site.
by 70 000 a year.
onboard sensors that will enable them to detect and respond to obstacles.
Heathrow Airport Limited's business Feasibility tests in other countries
plan for 2014-2019 includes plans for The driverless electric pods used in Other countries examining the another PRT system linking Terminals 2 Masdar City near Abu Dhabi have feasibility of PRT systems include and 3 to their respective business car carried more than 820 000 passengers Taiwan and Brazil. In Florianopolis, since the system, designed by Dutch a provincial Brazilian city in which March 2014 I e-tech 19
Driverless electric pods used in Masdar City (Photo: 2getthere) large parts of the city are laid testbed for new charging technologies networks depend heavily on computer- out on a coastal island while the such as wireless induction and new based management, control and remainder of the city is on the super capacitors for electric vehicles.
mainland, car traffic between the two is served by a single bridge, Other personal urban mobility The IEC TCs (Technical Committees) leading to peak time bottlenecks. prototype vehicles have been whose activities cover automated The local authorities are mulling over demonstrated in recent years but public transport systems and personal using PRT as a local distribution never put into production. They transport pods include TC 9: Electrical network within the dense central include self-driving pods unveiled by equipment and systems for railways, business district situated on the the US multinational General Motors TC 21: Secondary cells and batteries, island, as part of a multimodal Company in 2010. Powered by and TC 47: Semiconductor devices, transport proposal that would electric motors and with a range of and its SCs (Subcommittees).
include ferries and monorail.
65 km, the two-seater vehicles were crammed with technology including TC 9: Electrical equipment and In Singapore, NTU (Nanyang roof mounted GPS, Wi-Fi, vehicle to systems for railways, is responsible Technological University) and French vehicle communication systems, front- for International Standards relating to company Induct Technology are mounted ultrasonic and vision systems the systems, power components and collaborating on tests of a driverless and collision avoidance sensors.
electronic hardware and software used electric shuttle vehicle powered in fully automatic transport systems by lithium polymer batteries and operating in the wider context of urban capable of carrying 8 passengers IEC makes safety top priority
rail and metro transport (see article at a maximum speed of 20 kph. The top priority in the operation of on TC 9 in this e-tech). This includes The vehicle uses laser mapping automated public transport networks safety aspects such as passenger and sensors to manoeuvre, runs on is to ensure provision of the highest alarm systems and automatic system a predefined route and recharges levels of safety while not restricting the surveillance. TC 9 works in liaison with at docking stations. It serves as a introduction of new technology. Such other relevant IEC TCs, for example, e-tech I March 2014
electric cars have also been tested on roads in Japan. In the US, the technology giant Google has been licensed to experiment with driverless vehicles, and says that in tests its cars have logged about 500 000 km without an accident. And in 2017 the Swedish city of Gothenburg will start a pilot project with 100 cars and 100 regular drivers who will manually drive cars to roads where they then join road trains and switch to autonomous driving.
Software will be crucial to autonomous travel, not only to calculate a vehicle's position and route from a constant stream of incoming data, but also to Personal transporters can be used for indoor, sidewalk, cross-terrain and patrol use (Photo: Segway) react to unforeseen obstacles.
coordinating with TC 69: Electric road in urban environments, although the However, it could be decades before vehicles and electric industrial trucks, density of traffi c in cities would pose passenger cars driving autonomously on the development of double-layer more complex and diverse challenges win consumer and government capacitors for energy storage, and with than, for example, in an airport setting.
acceptance to reach the mass market. TC 56: Dependabilty, which covers One way to help promote autonomous the reliability of electronic components Consumers would pay a fraction of driving would be to incorporate and equipment and is included as a the cost of buying and running an technologies such as coordinated characteristic of quality.
individual car, while building dedicated traffi c lights and smart parking systems trackways would be much cheaper in the design of smart cities.
TC 21: Secondary cells and batteries, than the cost of most traditional prepares International Standards for The US based market research and all secondary cells and batteries. This consulting fi rm Navigant Research covers the performance, dimensions, As the Heathrow system's operator told forecast in August 2013 that sales of safety installation principles and labelling e-tech in an interview, "an innovative autonomous vehicles would rise from of batteries used in electric vehicles.
and now proven technology that fewer than 8 000 annually in 2020 to responds to patrons' desire for on- 95,4 million in 2035, representing 75% TC 47 and its SCs prepare International demand, direct and personal transport of all light duty vehicle sales by that Standards for semiconductor devices should be seen not only as a viable time. In addition to advanced driver used in sensors and MEMS (micro- but altogether a more economically, assistance features now available electromechanical systems) installed in socially and environmentally benefi cial in some vehicles, such as adaptive personal transport systems.
alternative to conventional forms of speed control, automatic emergency public transport".
braking and lane departure warning, new features that could assume control Driverless vehicles approaching
The wider signifi cance of driverless of more aspects of driving would Existing PRT networks, albeit small- pod networks is that they are part of a be introduced gradually, Navigant scale, combine the advantages of long term trend in the car industry to fl exibility in terms of planning available develop autonomous vehicle control with individual means of transport systems equipped with a combination "The fi rst features will most likely be with those of urban public transport of sensors and dedicated software for self-parking, traffi c jam assistance, systems. They have proved safe, the personal mobility sector.
and freeway cruising – well-defi ned reliable and environmentally friendly situations that lend themselves to and offer a feasible public transport Tests on autonomous cars have already control by upgraded versions of option for tourist attractions, business begun. As well as the Milton Keynes today's onboard systems", said David parks, hospitals and university trial set for 2015, NTU in Singapore has Alexander, senior research analyst at campuses. They could also be one tested a driverless electric vehicle on a Navigant Research.
way forward for "last mile" solutions 2 km shuttle route, while autonomous March 2014 I e-tech 21
On the right trackIEC standardization for rail transport contributes to the sector's development This Advisory Committee had the title: Electric traction equipment. It subsequently became IEC TC (Technical Committee) 9: Electrical equipment and systems for railways.
Widespread work with a global
Standardization work by TC 9 now extends well beyond "tramway and railway motors". It also includes "rolling stock, fi xed installations, management systems (including communication, signalling and processing systems) for railway operation, their interfaces and their ecological environment".
Swiss-made "crocodile" electric locomotive introduced in India in 1928 As of March 2014 TC 9 had issued 91 publications covering all the above- Morand Fachot The fi rst electric-powered underground mentioned areas, and was working on Rail transport is a well-established
railway line was inaugurated in London dozens more.
and pivotal mode of transportation
in 1890, with Paris, Berlin and New both for passengers and freight
York opening their own underground The TC's membership greatly and is a key component of the
electric railway lines in the early 1900s. expanded in line with the scope of global economy. It has enabled
Underground railway lines gave an its work. The Advisory Committee many remote areas to be
impetus to electric traction as steam created in April 1924 was "to consist developed and, far from sliding
engines proved obviously impractical of one delegate from each of the into obsolescence, it is enjoying
in tunnels, from which they were soon following [six] countries: France, major expansion throughout the
Great Britain, Holland, Italy, Sweden, world. Standardization work by
Switzerland". Today 395 experts from IEC TC 9 : Electrical equipment
The IEC took the decision to start work 26 participating countries are involved and systems for railways, is
on standardization for metropolitan in TC 9 standardization work in 5 WGs central to the growth of the rail
and railway transport networks in April (Working Groups), 12 PTs (Project 1924. Minutes of an IEC Committee Teams), a number of MTs (Maintenance of Action meeting held in London on Teams) to revise, maintain and update 28 April 1924 mention "the decision existing Standards and 5 ad hoc Early urban transport : electricity
to refer the question of traction Groups to work on specifi c issues. not steam
motors to a Subcommittee of the Thirteen countries also hold observer Whilst steam power ruled rail transport Advisory Committee on Rating, but the status in TC 9.
over long distances in most countries Committee of Action felt that it would when this mode of transport was first be wiser to appoint a special Advisory introduced, urban public transport Committee for this subject. It was Changing worldwide environment
systems were powered by electricity. pointed out that the proposals already TC 9 observes that the sector has This started in Berlin in 1879 when circulated appeared to refer only to experienced signifi cant change. This the world's first electric suburban tramway motors and they felt that the has greatly infl uenced the design of railway was inaugurated and electric Advisory Committee should review the railway systems, their operational trams and electric trolleybuses subject from the point of view both of characteristics and the technologies followed soon afterwards.
tramway and railway motors".
e-tech I March 2014
It also notes that its work has been affected by regional activities, such as the adoption of EU (European Union) Directives aimed at promoting common standards, open access and competition in the railway sector.
Therefore TC 9 seeks to identify "where there is a need of an attractive action for worldwide standardization by adapting regional standards when possible; creating original International Standards when there is a specifi c need different from regional ones; focusing its means preferably on general worldwide items".
Japan Railways Group Shinkanzen high-speed trains The TC sees its goal in the near future as being "responsible for a full coherent varying from 0% in many countries to and stray currents. Environmental set of standards, the ones based on 100% (Switzerland). Some countries issues also include "taking into regional standards included".
like India and China have embarked on consideration the disposal, recyclability, massive electrifi cation programmes.
reusability and toxicity concerns where In recent years a domain that has necessary", and energy-effi ciency seen a signifi cant expansion in Even where network electrifi cation with "projects to assist the reduction TC 9 standardization work is that is partial or non-existent, it is worth of energy consumption in trains and of communication to interconnect remembering that even so-called diesel trains, to connect standard on-board locomotives are actually diesel-electric equipment and to connect trains to a machines that use a diesel engine to ground network. To make this possible drive an electrical d.c. generator or an Safety fi rst
TC 9 is developing the IEC 61375, a.c. alternator-rectifi er to provide power Global railway safety record varies Electronic railway equipment – Train to traction motors.
according to countries with obvious communication network (TCN), series differences depending on infrastructure of Standards, six of which had been and rolling stock conditions. However, published as of February 2014.
Relevant for shorter and individual
considering the number of passengers travel too
and volume of goods transported TC 9 has also set up WG 46 to develop The expansion of urban and suburban it is on the whole extremely good, Standards for on-board multimedia transport and automatic people mover especially when compared, for systems for railways.
systems is also driving standardization instance, with road transport.
work for TC 9, which set up WG 40: Railway applications – Urban Train safety is a major concern for Technology and environment
Guided Transport Management and manufacturers and operators. As a Technology in the railway domain Command/Control Systems, to develop result TC 9 has identifi ed the following has seen signifi cant performance specifi c Standards.
safety aspects as being relevant to its developments, in particular as regards traction systems, which have benefi ted The gradual introduction of automatic from techniques based on on-board people movers requires specifi c • Protection against fi re power electronics that allow the use of provisions as these systems are fully • Safety hazards in long tunnels traction motors with their higher power- automated (see article on automatic • Passenger safety (including to-weight ratio.
people movers in this e-tech). TC 9 passenger alarm systems and also focuses its work on environmental communication between the Network electrifi cation varies greatly issues that include noise emission of operator and passengers) from country to country. Worldwide equipment, which involves acoustics, • Event recorders (e.g. so-called it stands at 26,6%, according to UIC as well as EMF (Electromotive force), "black boxes" or automatic system (International Union of Railways) data, EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) March 2014 I e-tech 23
All these contribute to safer railway • CISPR (International Special important. With over 9,8 billion t/km transport. In the EU, for instance, there Committee on Radio Interference) of goods estimated to have been were 2 261 persons killed or seriously SC B to ensure coordination on transported globally in that year, it is injured in railway accidents in 2012. an absolutely central pillar of domestic However, the majority (82,1%) of these • TC 9 liaises also with IEEE (Institute and global trade.
victims were not passengers travelling of Electrical and Electronics on trains or railway employees but Engineers) P1901, which works The introduction of intermodal "other persons" such as level-crossing on the 1901 BPL (Broadband over freight transport in particular, which users or unauthorized persons on Power Line networks) Standard, made possible the transportation railway premises.
to ensure coordination in the of goods across multiple modes of development of communication transportation (lorries, trains, ships), Furthermore, serious accidents which protocols for train communication thanks to containerization, has result in significant loss of life, such as transformed global trade.
the July 2013 Santiago de Compostela derailment in Spain and the Lac- Rail transport plays an essential role Mégantic derailment in Canada, are Crucial sector for the global
in intermodal freight transport, in more often than not the result of particular over long distances or in human error rather than of technical Rail transport is central to domestic countries where the road infrastructure and global trade. The public's attention may not support movements of large is often drawn to the latest generation volumes of freight adequately.
of high-tech, high-speed trains in service or being introduced or planned IEC TC 9 standardization work Railway transport is a complex sector in many parts of the world. However, over 90 years has provided and will that relies on many technologies. if passenger transport, which nearly continue to provide the best possible As such, TC 9 maintains liaison reached 2 900 000 billion passengers/ support to ensure the safe and with a number of IEC TCs and SCs km in 2012, according to UIC statistics, reliable transport of passengers and (Subcommittees) to determine whether is the most visible aspect of rail freight over long or short distances existing Standards developed by these transport for the media and members in international, domestic or urban can apply, fully or partly. As a result of the public, freight transport is no less TC 9 liaises with the following: • SC 32B: Low-voltage fuses • TC 36: Insulators • TC 40: Capacitors and resistors for electronic equipment • TC 56: Dependability • TC 69: Electric road vehicles and electric industrial trucks • TC 79: Alarm and electronic • TC 99: System engineering and erection of electrical power installations in systems with nominal voltages above 1 kV a.c. and 1,5 kV d.c., particularly concerning safety • TC 100: Audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment • TC 106: Methods for the assessment of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fi elds associated with human exposure • TC 111: Environmental standardization for electrical and This light rail system in Nottingham (UK) relies also on IEC TC 9 Standards electronic products and systems e-tech I March 2014
Getting to know Kerry McManamaA mind open to all possibilities When I got out of the Navy I was Explosive Atmospheres) I was able hired by a local college to teach to see the type of things that he was basic electronics. That kept me doing – business development in the in the fi eld of electronics. Then I Ex fi eld of Conformity Assessment, changed jobs and went to work for working with stakeholders from all a US defence contractor. I worked around the world – and that was for them for about a year, helping something I wanted to do so I made them to design and manufacture the decision to try for this job.
electronic countermeasure (radar jamming) equipment. At the time of my fi rst performance evaluation I was told: "well Kerry, you've plateaued e-tech: What did you expect when you already. You're in the top position in applied for this job? terms of your training and you can't McManama: I didn't have any major go any higher". I decided that I wasn't expectations per se. I wasn't sure that ready for my career to plateau at that I would be viewed as the right person point so I went back to school to get for the job, but I was hopeful given Kerry McManama, the new Executive Secretary and Chief Operating Offi cer of my Bachelor of Science degree in my past work and my expertise in the IECEE, attending the 2013 IEC General Electrical Engineering (BSEE) from the industry. I guess my expectation was University of Illinois.
that I would be able to do the job and do it well otherwise I wouldn't have Aliyah Esmail applied to begin with.
e-tech talks to Kerry McManama,
Work that led to Conformity
the new Executive Secretary
I expect it to be diffi cult. I expect the and Chief Operating Officer of
McManama: Coming out of university learning curve to be long and steep. IECEE (IEC System of Conformity
I was hired by UL (Underwriters Coming from a business management Assessment Schemes for
Laboratories Inc.). I found the work and Conformity Assessment Electrotechnical Equipment
fascinating enough to keep me there background and coming from being and Components) to find out
for 21 years. It was different all the the Chairman of IECEx it certainly isn't how he arrived at this point and
time. You saw all kinds of products something that is new to me: I am very the challenges he sees in his
coming through the door. The work familiar with what IECEE is. And I know new role.
was never boring and monotonous and it is going to be a challenge to do it well I was able to do a number of different – but I think I am up to that challenge.
things, both on the technical side and Engineering is the choice
the business, or management, side.
e-tech: How did you decide to More to do and more to believe in
become an engineer? After those 21 years, this job became e-tech: Why did you want to do this McManama: Coming out of high available. I had greatly enjoyed working school I didn't really know what with the IEC tangentially in my work McManama: The vision and mission of I wanted to do. I wasn't sure what at UL. This prospect really excited me the IEC are very interesting to me and field I wanted to pursue or where as it was a smaller company. UL was I embraced it. This allows me to jump my passion was. I joined the US about 12 000 people and here we in with both feet, rather than play a Navy and it trained me in electronics have about a hundred. Going from a tangential role.
and in electricity, specifically as they large corporation to a smaller company relate to missile systems and gun was something I found interesting and Because we're a smaller organization fire control systems. I operated alluring. Having worked with Chris I feel I will be able to provide input into and maintained the computers Agius as the Chairman of IECEx (IEC different areas of the organization. I've and radars associated with those System for Certifi cation to Standards got my fi nger on everything here. This systems aboard ships.
Relating to Equipment for Use in is certainly not going to be a job where March 2014 I e-tech 25
ISO/IEC 17065, Conformity assessment – Requirements for bodies certifying products, processes and services and ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. As International Standards change, the assessments that we perform also necessarily have to change to a certain degree because new requirements now exist. Our documentation has to change, our processes on how we function have to change, and it is a challenge to meet the new International Standards that come on board.
Safe electrical products is one of IECEE's main goals We have to stay up to date with I am just focused on one thing and I I understand that IECEE has been technology. We have our own internal am just putting a nut on a bolt on a operating for a decade and a half or IT challenges that we have to work to conveyor belt.
more and for the most part it seems improve. Our membership expects us to be serving its members well. My to be effi cient and cost effective, and desire is not to muck that up. First I they want us to provide value for the The importance of IECEE
want to fi nish my assessment of where money that they pay to the IEC, and e-tech: Tell me why you think IECEE is we're at then I'm sure I'll apply my little specifi cally to the IECEE System.
touch here and there. Sometimes it will McManama: We deal with safety be visible and sometimes it won't be We constantly have to show them that standards and primarily with electrical we are providing that value with fast safety. Electric shocks and electrical responses to emails and questions fi res kill and injure people all around It's a system that has been operating and we have to do it in a cost effective the world every year, as well as cause for a long time. Most of the players way. They're being challenged in their untold millions of dollars in property who have been coming to meetings companies to cut costs or be more damage. IEC International Standards and participating in working groups effi cient and they expect the IEC and are used to set the minimum bar of have been here for years and years and IECEE to do the same thing. Our what a safe product is.
years. They know every requirement, challenge is always doing more with every comma and period in our Rules less at the same time as we are trying IECEE Conformity Assessment and Procedures. I have to get myself to to provide better services and faster System sets the bar in terms of the that point so as to be able to be taken responses to the needs of the System. basic requirements for certifi cation seriously and to be able to contribute. That's the kind of juggling act that is and evaluation to IEC International Right now I'm doing a lot of listening diffi cult to perform sometimes. And we Standards. It means that everybody rather than talking. I would hope that in have to be fair and consistent in how comes in at the same level. This the near future I will perhaps be able to we apply the rules as the Secretary is is hugely important in facilitating start putting my mark on things.
often the arbiter for various aspects of international trade and cooperation.
Goals for the future New role brings greater
e-tech: When you heard that you had got the job, what things did you set out e-tech: What challenges do you see in McManama: The IEC is a fairly known to achieve? your new role? commodity in the marketplace and McManama: I came with an open McManama: There are challenges that so too is the IECEE for the main part. mind. I didn't have any preconceived come along because of changes to Our biggest challenges are with the notions of what I wanted to do. I am International Standards – and I don't differing regulatory systems around still assessing where everything's at even know if I want to classify them as the world. Where I, in my position, can and what's going on. I don't want to challenges. Our certifi cation bodies and step in is in assisting the regulatory make changes arbitrarily or too quickly. test laboratories have to comply with agencies with any needs they may e-tech I March 2014
have in terms of regulations and thought of renewable energies. Wind Conformity Assessment as they relate energy, marine energy and solar are to electrotechnology equipment and things that have grown over the past components. There have been some 15 to 20 years to the point that we're successes in doing that, certainly at now looking at a new system for those I think that IEC is viewed as a fair What's going to happen over the next partner, a neutral player in terms 15 to 20 years in terms of technology? of International Standards and I'm not sure. If it continues along the Conformity Assessment. Because line of renewable energies we'll see of that sense of neutrality and the some new developments in terms of mission and goals of the IEC, the IEC energy storage whether in terms of can help open doors to governmental batteries or some other technique. It's agencies. The fact that we're a non- tough to determine what will come in profit organization and that we're Kerry McManama in front of the United the course of the coming years.
looking to facilitate global trade Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, when he helps us get through doors and have was Chairman of IECEx discussions with regulators and users.
future technological changes. I think Striving to practise fairness
our main challenge is that we know e-tech: If there is one thing you want Understanding the technological
change is coming – but sometimes we people to know about you, what would just don't know where it will occur.
e-tech: What technological challenges McManama: What do I want people do you see in the future of IECEE? If you had asked me that question 15 to know? I think it's that I'm fair, McManama: It is diffi cult to predict years ago, I perhaps would not have collaborative and consistent.
Knowledge supports safety in Ex areasChris Agius presents at the ATEX Forum in Denmark Aliyah Esmail The purpose of the Forum is to The Forum is to act as a primary It is important that the people working
give participants a place to exchange contact point in Denmark for those in explosive areas are competent and
experiences and knowledge and who work in any Ex or explosive area. have the most up-to-date knowledge.
urge them to give a presentation on They might work in the offshore or oil Not having this knowledge could have
what they do in their company to and gas industry, consult in the Ex serious repercussions, including
comply with Ex related regulations areas, be a Danish producer of any of a in Europe. Much of what is covered number of different types of equipment, involves the health and safety aspects on the railways, in a cement factory of working in explosive atmospheres: (they install their own energy supply A Forum that educates
how to work in Ex areas, what should based on coal which makes it an The Danish Forum and mailing list was be worn and so on. It also covers explosive area) or as a regulator. As set up nine years ago. It's a network the framework of the products Denmark has a large number of SMEs of about 350 participants who are encompassed by IEC International (small and medium enterprises) there is registered on a mailing list and are Standards through TC (Technical also a drive to involve them.
invited to each Forum. The Forum is held Committee) 31: Equipment for explosive twice a year, once in the Eastern part of atmospheres, as well as European "We are focusing on areas like static Denmark and once in the Western part.
electricity and others that get less March 2014 I e-tech 27
working in the Ex sectors in Denmark to increase safety. Agius explained that in the 1990s, standards, certifi cation and approval régimes that aimed to control the risks inherent to Ex areas differed from one country to the next. This meant that if a manufacturer wanted to sell a product in more than one country, they would have to get approval/certifi cation in each one. For many manufacturers, the need to repeat testing was expensive and time Based on industry requests, the IEC developed a unique international Chris Agius talks in-depth about IECEx at the Forum in November 2013 System that today covers all of the certifi cation needs of the explosive attention. Static electricity can make it probably won't happen in an ordinary atmosphere sector. It includes all go up in the air. The consequences kitchen, in large industrial bakeries individual devices and systems; of an accident are major. You can have there will be hot surfaces and it's vital location evaluation; inspection; a plant destroyed, people killed and so that you know how to take proper installation; maintenance and repair on," says René Nielsen, the manager of and assessment of the competence the Forum as a result of his position as of personnel working in this highly Senior Consultant in the department of specialized area. One of the key International Leadership and University Presentation on IECEx
advantages the System offers is that Cooperation at Danish Standards.
In his presentation to Forum testing and assessment only need to participants, Chris Agius, the Executive be conducted once and are thereafter He uses the example of taking a Secretary of IECEx (IEC System for accepted by all members of the handful of fl our, throwing it up in the Certifi cation to Standards Relating air and sparking your lighter. Given the to Equipment for Use in Explosive right mixture of oxygen and the ignition, Atmospheres), dug deeply into the Agius went on to talk about how IECEx you can have a disaster. While this subject of how IECEx can help those has an open and transparent process and clear rules and that industry is able to provide direct input into the way the System works.
Agius explained that at the beginning IECEx only covered the International certifi cation of Ex equipment. Industry soon realized that these benefi ts could equally apply to Ex related services such as repair and overhaul as well as to the assessment of the competence of persons that work in Ex areas.
One of the most important aspects of the IECEx System is its "On- Line" Certifi cates of Conformity. All IECEx Certifi cates issued by IECEx approved Certifi cation Bodies have the master version in electronic form live on the IECEx website; any paper Many surprising industries have potentially Ex environments: sugar refi neries; fl our mills; and grain silos, to name a few or downloaded electronic version is e-tech I March 2014
considered an uncontrolled copy of also a member of the IEC SMB/JDMT and has been the IEC NC (National that master IECEx Certifi cate. The (Standardization Management Board/ Committee) Secretary of Denmark electronic version of any valid IECEx Joint Directives Maintenance Team) Certifi cate is fully accessible to the public and allows instant verifi cation of claims made by a vendor.
A place to discuss Ex issues
Though Agius' presentation took up a large part of the day, other topics such as how to be sure ATEX (Atmosphères Explosibles) certifi cates are updated when there is a change in standards and how to deal with gas installations in relation to ATEX regulations were also covered.
"The Forum is an exchange of experience and knowledge. We have people from all sectors of Ex coming to these Forums. When we started out in 2005 we hit on something that people were looking for," said Nielsen who is Chris Agius talks to the Danish ATEX Forum about the history of IECEx Safer cars, smarter drivesCars and world connect Aliyah Esmail Some days it looks if you are
going to be stuck in traffi c forever.
Sometimes it is because traffi c
volumes have suddenly increased.
All you can see is car ahead of car
as far as the eye can see. At other
times, you hear the squeal of tyres
and then you see two cars collide.
About 1.24 million people died on
the world's roads in 2010, said the
Global Health Observatory of the
WHO (World Health Organization).
But technology may be able to
V2V communication technology warns drivers of what is happening on the road increase safety or save you from
being stuck in traffi c sooner than
Traffi c Safety Administration said that specifi c information such as speed and you think.
it will start allowing V2V (vehicle-to- position, up to ten times per second.
vehicle) communication technology. Cars can talk to each other in the US
This will let cars exchange basic safety Signals from other cars, sent through a In February 2014 the US Department data, as well as information about road modifi ed version of Wi-Fi, can help fl ag of Transportation's National Highway and traffi c conditions and vehicle- up potential risks. This technology may March 2014 I e-tech 29
help people avoid most of the crashes functionality, effi cacy and feasibility for involving two or more cars and has been everyday use of car-to-x communication shown to increase safety in the real world – a combination of V2V and vehicle-to- as well as in test environments. Though infrastructure communication – under V2V does send out warnings, it does real driving conditions.
not take over vehicle systems such as braking or steering.
The radio technology developed for this system is based on the wireless local area network. Its purpose is to increase Tested on the street
safety as well as to minimize traffi c, In August 2012, UMTRI (University of which will hopefully save drivers time With V2V and V2I technology helping drivers Michigan's Transportation Research on the road, lower their fuel and vehicle plan their trips, hopefully traffi c jams will become a thing of the past Institute) installed built-in connected maintenance costs and reduce CO technology into 2 500 cars in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Another 300 cars as As the technologies that allow cars to well as some motorcycles, buses and talk to each other and to infrastructure take off, with multiple similar projects commercial trucks had communications running throughout the world, people devices added into them that allowed The launch plan for simTD is a voluntary will come to rely on the warnings their them to communicate with each other one. Starting in 2015 the simTD car is giving them. If the components and the road infrastructure. This test technology will be used near road that underpin these technologies are lasted for a year and used cameras construction sites as part of a public- not certifi ed by IECQ AQP, there will be outside and inside the vehicles to see private partnership signed up to by the no way of knowing whether or not they how drivers reacted to warnings.
Austrian, German and Dutch transport/ will fail at a crucial moment.
infrastructure ministries and called Eight major car companies participated "Cooperative ITS Corridor Rotterdam - Organizations that hold IECQ in the tests. They used different Frankfurt am Main – Vienna".
Automotive Qualifi cation Programme warning systems, including red LED Certifi cation show the international lights on the bottom of the windscreen, The trials will benefi t drivers by market that they and their facilities alarms and vibrating seats as well as showing them their travel history and comply with the requirements of the graphics in the instrument panel. The the congestion on the routes they are IECQ System. These organizations are test also looked at the interoperability taking and will help them understand also demonstrating that they comply of V2V technology in vehicles from the best strategies to employ during with the relevant declared technical different manufacturers and suppliers.
rush hour. It can warn of traffi c delays Standards and specifi cations for their but it is not meant to warn drivers of scope of activity.
Car-to-x communication in
The future may bring us cars that help keep us safe and speed up our trips In June 2013, the fi nal phase of the New technologies require safer
during rush hour but IECQ will continue simTD (Safe Intelligent Mobility – to ensure that the electronic and Test Area Germany) project began To ensure that the technologies being electrical components in our vehicles examining the "fi rst social network for developed for vehicles around the do not fail us when we need them automobiles". One hundred and twenty world are reliable, IECQ (IEC Quality vehicles and three motorcycles were Assessment System for Electronic tested in a venture that linked vehicles Components) created a programme and infrastructure in an electronic that gives the automotive industry network with the aim of avoiding traffi c a standardized way of testing the jams and accidents and to report on a components in those technologies. range of other applications. The overall IECQ AQP (Automotive Qualifi cation project, which began back in 2008, is Programme) helps automotive funded by the German Government. The manufacturers avoid multiple tests and research element is headed by Daimler related costs. It can also be used by Research and Advance Development independent, third-party certifi cation These technologies allow cars to communicate while a number of other companies bodies to make sure that components about sudden braking and other incidents that are also participating, looking at the meet automotive industry standards.
could affect you while you are driving e-tech I March 2014
Smart energy for AfricaFirst International Africa Smart Grid Forum next May in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire standards body), AFSEC (African Electrotechnical Standardization Commission) and APUA (Association of Power Utilities of Africa).
The Forum is held in collaboration and partnership with the IEC, CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization), DKE (German Commission for Electrical, The Africa Smart Grid Forum has a dedicated website in English and in French where you can Electronic & Information Technologies register for the event of DIN and VDE), SGCC (State Grid Corporation of China), KATS (Korean Claire Marchand such as utilities, consumers and Agency for Technology & Standards) While access to electricity is a
telecommunications and ICT and AFREC/AU (African Energy given in industrialized countries,
Commission of the African Union).
the situation is very different
in large parts of the developing
world, and so also in Africa,
What is at stake?
Save the date! Register!
where vast areas have only limited
Smart Grids for whom, why and what To register and obtain more information and sporadic energy supply or
for? What are the technological barriers on this event, please visit the are still completely off the grid.
to the Smart Grid development? Which Africa Smart Grid Forum at: http:// To continue and increase its
investments are necessary to deploy economic development, Africa
these solutions? How to manage the index.php (website available in French needs to upgrade existing
decision-making hierarchy between electrical infrastructures or in
all stakeholders? Which standards are some cases build networks from
applicable to these networks? What will scratch to meet the ever growing
be the benefi ts for Africa? These questions, and many more, will be addressed during the fi rst The Smart Grid approach
international Africa Smart Grid Forum Today Africa has a unique opportunity 2014, which will take place in Abidjan, to build systems and networks that Côte d'Ivoire, from 14 to 16 May 2014.
use the most recent technologies and include renewable power generation. A solar farm in Rustenburg, North West Province, South Africa The continent can benefi t from recent First international Africa Smart
developments in the industrialized Grid Forum
world and put in place smart systems Entitled The Smart Grids, a solution for that integrate renewable energies – emerging Africa, the Forum will bring solar and hydropower for instance – together renowned Smart Grid experts and state-of-the-art ICTs (information from around the world who will be able and communications technologies).
to share their experience and expertise with all participants.
This move towards a Smart Grid approach is bound to have in-depth The event is jointly organized by CIE consequences on the interaction and (Compagnie Ivoirienne d'Electricité), communication between stakeholders, CODINORM (Côte d'Ivoire national The Naute dam in Namibia March 2014 I e-tech 31
Reaching outUsing social media to increase awareness of IEC work The IEC has embraced the changing communications landscape and is present on all major social media channels Zoé Smart be informed of latest news through From early on the IEC has been With the introduction of social
targeted communications such as responsive to the changing media to the communications
news releases.
communications landscape by landscape the way organizations
reaching out to audiences and sharing interact with their stakeholders has
information on social media platforms changed irrevocably. The IEC has
it has deemed appropriate. As a result risen to the challenge with aplomb.
the IEC is today present on all of the top 5 social media channels globally; LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter, Google+ Reaching out to audiences…
and YouTube.
Today more than ever, people expect to be able to connect with the brands that interest them on the social media …with tailored content
channels on which they are active, One of the major consequences rather than having to spend time of the expansion of social media looking for a website or waiting to Today content is shared on multiple networks is that content is shared on multiple e-tech I March 2014
With nearly one in four people world- celebrating standardization work, wide estimated to be using social introduced in February 2012 networks, the IEC is keen to keep • Global Visions mobile app abreast of the latest developments in launched in January 2013 social media effectiveness by follow- • Reached 3 000 Facebook fans ing industry insights on best practice. in September 2013. Like us here: From setting up its IEC Facebook page in 2008 to reaching an audience of 36 800 with a single post in late • 10 000 members on LinkedIn in 2013, here are some of the key IEC October 2013. Join the conver- social media milestones: sation on ‘The Electrotechnical • Facebook and YouTube accounts Standards Group' on LinkedIn • Joined LinkedIn in early 2010 • #StandardsTuesday out of earshot, the type of content actively engaging with stakeholders being shared is of utmost importance.
rather than talking at them and sharing content, both existing and Key IEC social media milestones With businesses and those working IEC-produced, that will arouse interest in electrotechnology and related and stimulate further discussion. In fields being the organization's core the case of the IEC LinkedIn group, networks and often without the audience, the IEC aims to share which boasts 12 316 members to organization's awareness, in what content that increases awareness date, content is predominantly self- is called the ‘ripple effect'. Because of its work and the importance of generated and reflects the interests of a lot of the conversations take place standardization. It does so through the professionals initiating them.
Formula E approaches the starting gridElectric vehicles in the motor-racing spotlight Janice Blondeau The inaugural season of the
world's fi rst fully-electric racing
series, Formula E, will run from
September 2014 to June 2015.
Ten teams, ten cities
For the first season, 10 teams with two drivers each will compete in 10 cities across the world. Races are planned for Bejing, China; Putrajaya, Malaysia; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Punta del Este, The Formula E series gives the opportunity to showcase electrical vehicle innovations in a Uruguay; Buenos Aires, Argentina; racing environment (Photo: Formula E) March 2014 I e-tech 33
The Spark-Renault SRT-01E will be used by all teams in the fi rst season (Photo: Formula E) Los Angeles and Miami, USA; Monte traction motor. The maximum weight in a racing environment. Organizers Carlo, Monaco; Berlin, Germany and of the Battery Cells and/or Capacitor hope that this multi-make series of the RESS must not be more than will foster research and development 200 kg. The amount of energy that around the electric vehicle and can be delivered to the MGU (Motor push the boundaries of current One car for 2014
Generator Unit) by the RESS is limited The Spark-Renault SRT-01E is the to 30 kWh. This will be permanently first car to be homologated by the monitored by the FIA.
A long-term aim of Formula E is to FIA. For the 2014-2015 season, each accelerate the market penetration of team will run four Spark-Renault SRT- Cars will accelerate from 0 kph electric vehicles by appealing to new 01E Formula E cars, two per driver. to 100 kph in an estimated time of The cars and teams will be based at 3 seconds, with a maximum speed a purpose-built central workshop in of 220 kph. Maximum power will the UK. From season two, Formula E be available during practice and will become an open championship qualifying sessions while during races, with teams designing and developing power-saving mode will apply. A ‘Push- their own cars, in accordance to the to-Pass' system will temporarily allow technical specifications set out by maximum power for a limited time during a race.
The traction battery is a RESS The Formula E series will provide (Rechargeable Energy Storage car manufacturers and constructors Formula E hopes to accelerate the market System), supplying electric energy with the opportunity to showcase their penetration of EVs by appealing to new to the power circuit and so to the electrical energy innovations e-tech I March 2014
Nominations and extensionsTC 11 welcomes its new Chairman Giovanni Pirovano is the new Chairman of TC 11 Zoé Smart TC 18 prepares standards for electrical installations and equipment of ships and of mobile SMB (Standardization Management
and fi xed offshore units Board) has approved the
nomination of Giovanni Pirovano as
Extensions of terms of offi ce and
Jos Remy as Chairman of TC 108: Chairman of IEC TC 11: Overhead
new member to ACEE
Safety of electronic equipment within lines for the period 1 November
SMB has approved the extension of the field of audio/video, information 2013 to 31 October 2019.
term of offi ce of Alasdair M Anderson technology and communication as Chairman of TC 18: Electrical technology, for the period 2014-02-01 installations of ships and of mobile and to 2017-01-31.
About Giovanni Pirovano
fi xed offshore units. Anderson's new Currently head of the research mandate runs from 1 December 2013 Philippe Volletas has been approved by group ‘Electrical Technologies and to 30 November 2016.
SMB as TC 23: Electrical accessories, Components' for RSE (Ricerca sul member to ACEE (Advisory Committee Sistema Energetico) SpA, Pirovano The SMB has also approved the on Energy Effi ciency).
has no less than 25 years' experience extension of the term of office of in research, testing, consulting and standardization activities on overhead lines and relevant components.
He has provided his expertise as consultant for a number of international bodies, such as UNMIK (United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo) and the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development and is author of a large number of technical He takes over as Chairman of TC 11 from Romeo Rendina.
ACEE coordinates IEC TC activities related to energy effi ciency March 2014 I e-tech 35
Nanotechnology: a key to solar energyand energy storageNew IEC and Fraunhofer ISI study fi nds it will bring signifi cant benefi ts to energy sector Janice Blondeau and "nano-electrodes". These seven Nanotechnology will bring
technology profi les form the basis for signifi cant benefi ts to the energy
two comprehensive roadmaps in the sector, especially to energy storage
technical report.
and solar energy, a new study
from the IEC and the Fraunhofer
Institute for Systems and Innovation
A key to success
Research ISI has found. Improved
Commissioning this study to evaluate materials effi ciency and reduced
the potential of nanotechnologies and manufacturing costs are just two
the future role of nanomaterials in of the real economic benefi ts that
addressing the energy challenge helps nanotechnology already brings
the IEC to understand the kind of work these fi elds and that's only the
This study found that in some areas it needs to undertake to enable the nanotechnology may even be a key to broad roll out of these technologies. Against the backdrop of an anticipated 30% increase of global energy which will gain importance as Into the nano future…
demand by 2035 and the signifi cant technology continues to advance. The Thanks to continued development expansion of renewable energy Technology Report Nanotechnology in of nanotechnology, battery storage coming into the grid, the study has the sectors of solar energy and energy capacity could be extended, solar cells found that nanotechnologies including storage is available on the IEC website.
could be produced cheaper, and the new nanomaterials, could be a key lifetime of solar cells or batteries for to successful renewable energy and electric cars could be increased.
energy storage integration.
The rise of nanomaterials
In the study Nanotechnology in the The study found that the following sectors of solar energy and energy nanomaterial technologies will be of Large-scale application in solar
storage commissioned by the IEC, particular importance: "organic and power generation and energy
the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems printed electronics", "nano-coatings", and Innovation Research ISI found that "nano-composites", "nano-fl uids", Dr Björn P. Moller, project leader of this there is a whole range of nanomaterials "nano-catalysts", "nanocarbons" study at Fraunhofer ISI is convinced that everything points to its large-scale application in solar power generation and energy storage, unlike many other fi elds where nanotechnology has been unable to make a break-through. Moller said, "It can be assumed that in 2035 the share of fossil fuels in global energy production will have decreased to 75%. This implies that renewable energy will need to contribute signifi cantly more to the overall energy generation. It is therefore crucially important that key technologies such as solar cells are further developed with the help of nanotechnology and that energy New nanomaterial technologies will be of growing importance to energy storage and solar energy storage is improved." "In some areas e-tech I March 2014
nanotechnology may even be a key to that work in this area are TC 113: success. There is great potential for Nanotechnology standardization for nanotechnology to help to mitigate the electrical and electronic products and intermittency of renewable energy," systems, TC 117: Solar thermal electric Moller said.
plants, TC 82: Solar photovoltaic energy systems, TC 120: Electrical Energy Storage (EES) Systems and In practical terms
TC 21: Secondary cells and batteries, A practical example is through the use as well as others.
of nanotechnology, the light and energy generation of crystalline silicon solar cells or organic solar cells can already MSB market watch
be enabled or signifi cantly increased. This study was commissioned as part Their manufacturing also requires less of the market watch that the MSB material and is more cost-effi cient.
(Market Strategy Board) has put in place to know in advance what kind of In addition, energy storage capacity technology will be important to IEC in will signifi cantly improve with the use of the future. The Technical Report of the The future role of nanotechnology and these nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries. study Nanotechnology in the sectors new materials will be vital in addressing the This is by far the most important of solar energy and energy storage will energy challenge (Photo: Siemens) battery technology for energy storage be useful for those planning the use of emergence and effects of innovation. since the early 1990s. It is especially solar energy and storage, whether they important in view of the constantly make products, use those products We explore the short- and long- increasing demand for electric vehicles, to generate and store electricity, or term developments of innovation whose success is also directly linked organize and regulate the use of the processes and the societal impact of to battery performance and resulting electric energy produced.
new technologies and services. On range extension.
this basis, we provide our clients from industry, politics and science policy About the Fraunhofer Institute
recommendations and perspectives for Resource for TCs' ongoing work
for Systems and Innovation
key decisions. Our expertise lies in the The work of several IEC TCs (Technical Research ISI
profound scientifi c expertise as well as an Committees) might be impacted by The Fraunhofer Institute for Systems interdisciplinary and systemic research the fi ndings of this study. The TCs and Innovation Research ISI analyzes Material declaration Standard goes globalEuropean, Japanese and US bodies recommend adoption of IEC Standard Morand Fachot industry, and its associated database
Every electrotechnical product has
have been adopted by European,
an environmental impact over its
Japanese and US industries.
entire life cycle, from raw material
acquisition, to the manufacture,
distribution, use, maintenance, re-
use and end of life of its components,
Electrical and electronic products are and all of this across borders. An
manufactured using many substances; IEC International Standard for the
some, for instance lead, mercury and material declaration for products
cadmium, are regulated and must be Compact fl uorescent lights contain small of and for the electrotechnical
quantities of mercury March 2014 I e-tech 37
The US-based CEA brings together 2 000 companies within the consumer technology industry. It "functions as a vital connection between companies, retailers and consumers to develop a unified technology roadmap and tackles any impasses along the way." DIGITALEUROPE "the voice of the European digital technology industry" represents more than 10 000 companies all over Europe with more than 2 million employees and over EUR 1 000 billion in revenues.
Lead is often used in batteries Japan's JGPSII is a voluntary organization created with the purpose IEC TC (Technical Committee) 111: reporting thresholds. The database of standardizing substances contained Environmental standardization for also includes information for software in parts and materials of equipment electrical and electronic products developers who are working on IT in electrical and electronic products and systems, published IEC 62474, tools for material declaration that through effective survey methods. Material Declaration for Products of conforms to the standard.
Back in June 2012 it announced it and for the Electrotechnical Industry, would be dissolved and its activities in March 2012.
IEC 62474 specifies the criteria to add, transferred to a subcommittee of change or delete a given substance, the Japanese IEC TC 111 committee This landmark standard was designed substance group or material class following publication of IEC 62474.
to help the industry track and declare from the database. There are three specific information about the material basic criteria for inclusion in the Adoption of this International Standard composition of its products.
IEC 62474 database: "currently and its associated database by these regulated", "for information only" three influential international bodies It is aimed at harmonizing and "for assessment".
will help manufacturers track and requirements across the supply declare detailed and harmonized chain and at improving economic information about the material efficiencies; it defines requirements for Simultaneous adoption across
composition of their products and the exchange of material composition the possible presence of restricted data and provides those for material On 21 January 2014 three bodies, substances they contain. It should declarations. IEC 62474 benefits CEA (Consumer Electronics also help ensure that these products conform to legal requirements, thereby the electrotechnical industry by Association), DIGITALEUROPE supporting trade and reducing the establishing the requirements for and the JGPSSI (Japanese Green possible negative environmental reporting substances and materials, Procurement Survey Standardization impact of many electrotechnical standardizing protocols, and Initiative) announced that IEC components and products.
facilitating the transfer and processing 62474 was now the recommended electrotechnical industry's material declaration standard. The existing JIG (Joint Industry Guide) 101 they used Associated database facilitates
previously was "now several years out of date with global regulations and, The IEC 62474 "database" consequently, should be considered accompanies the IEC 62474 standard. officially obsolete," a joint press This database, which is maintained by release by the three organizations a validation team, consists of a list of indicated, adding: "IEC 62474 is now substances, substance groups and the recommended electrotechnical common material classes to declare, industry's material declaration Old IT equipment may contain regulated with reportable applications and e-tech I March 2014
Medical equipment Healthcare is undergoing nothing short of a revolution with key advances in long-established technologies and major development in new areas which all depend on electrotechnology. From X-ray imaging and therapies techniques, fi rst discovered in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, to developments in ultrasonics diagnosis and treatment equipment and, more recently the introduction of robotics, printed electronics and 3D printing in the medical environment, improvement in the health of patients has become more reliant than ever on electromedical equipment. A number of IEC TCs work on developing standards for such equipment, with one IEC TC in particular focusing on basic and particular safety requirements. One related technology that is set to experience a major expansion is that of wearable health monitoring and wellness equipment, which relies also on standards prepared by a number of IEC TCs.
Photo: iHealth March 2014 I e-tech 39
News & views from the IEC This is a special printout of IEC e-tech our electronic publication. You can fi nd a link to e-tech on the IEC homepage, or you can access it at If you would like to receive our monthly email notice telling you when the latest edition of e-tech is available, you can subscribe via the e-tech homepage. Click the button "Subscribe" or sign up for an RSS feed.
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- Managing Editor e-tech: Claire Marchand- Editor in chief: Gabriela Ehrlich Articles published in e-tech represent the opinion of their author and the IEC cannot be held responsible for content matter or content. IEC e-tech is published 10 times a year in English by the International Electrotechnical Commission.
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R E G L A M E N T O REGLAMENTO DE CONTROL DE DOPAJE II. Violaciones del reglamento contra el dopaje III. Prueba de dopaje 1. Carga y medios probatorios 2. Métodos para establecer hechos y presunciones IV. Organización de los controles de dopaje 1. Disposiciones administrativas 2. Obligaciones de Clubes y de los jugadores 3. Procedimiento del control de dopaje para las muestras de orina

Dafinet poster november 2010

NOVEMBER 9 & 10, 2010 IMMUNE RESPONSES IN FISH: FROM GENE TO FUNCTION Invited speakers:Dr. Barbara Nowak, Australia University of Copenhagen Dr. Bertrand Collet, Scotland Faculty of Life Sciences Dr. Simon Jones, Canada Book of abstracts DAFINET November 9 and 10, 2010 University of Copenhagen, Denmark DAFINET is supported by the Danish Council for Strategic Research The book of abstracts is edited by Kurt Buchmann, Per W. Kania and Lars Holten-Andersen Printed by Frederiksberg Bogtrykkeri 2010

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