Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 33 (1) : June 2012 REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE DURING PARASITIC LOADS AND
AICRP, on Black Bengal Goat, Department. of ABG, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry (BAU) Kanke, Ranchi-6 Jharkhand.(India) Received : 02.09.2011 Accepted : 29.03.2012 A total number of 18 does, which had kidded at least once and were found positive for common intestinal nematodes, were treated with Albendazole (Helmigard) @ 5mg/kg body weight orally along with a supportivetherapy of mineral mixture (Calvimin) @ 10 gm orally daily for 20 days. Six goats were kept as untreated control.
The minimum interval from treatment to onset of estrus in does was recorded in Albendazole + Mineral mixturegroup (43 days) which was followed by Albendazole group (46 days) and control group (52days), the averagerequired number of services per conception in does were 1.33, 1.00 and 2.00, respectively. The pregnancy ratesin the three groups were 66.66, 83.33 and 33.33%, respectively in case of does. The Albendazole along withMineral mixture can be administered to the parasitized goats to improve their reproductive performances.
Key words: Albendazole, Mineral, Nematodes, Estrus and Does.
The goat husbandry plays a significant role in the The present study was conducted to see the effect national economy. Inadequate nutrition coupled with high of intestinal parasites on reproductive performance of level of parasitic infection contribute to high reproductive does. For this a total number of 18 does which had and productive wastage in small ruminants. Apart from kidded for at least once and were found positive for this, intestinal helminthes cause significant reduction common intestinal nematodes were utilized and allotted in efficiency of nutrient utilization (Coop and Angus, to three groups viz. T , T and T , each group having 6 1975), poor calcium and phosphorus retention (Sykes animals. The animals of group – T were treated with and Coop, 1976) and poor feed conversion (Andrew et Albendazole (Helmigard) @ 5mg/kg body weight, orally.
al., 1944), blood loss and loss of plasma protein (Arora The T animals were treated with Albendazole @ 5mg/ et al., 2001). Several parasitic infections are known to kg body weight orally along with a supportive therapy of cause serious health hazards for the animals being mineral mixture (Calvimin) @ 10 gm orally daily for 20 raised under different system of management. The days. Animals of group – T served as untreated control.
reproductive efficiency of goat is also directly or indirectly All the experimental does were maintained at almost affected by various gastrointestinal helminthes which balanced diet along with routine grazing at least 4 to 5 was assessed in the present study.
hours daily. Clean water was supplied ad–lib. The does were provided with ear tags for proper identification. The primary health check up of each animal was carried Present Address:1 SRF (AICRP on Goat), 2, Univ.
out prior to the experiment. During the course of Prof, Deptt. of AGB, experiment, animals were kept under close observation.
3 Univ. Prof.(ARGO), 4Univ. Prof. (ADR) , Reinfected in few cases in both the treatment groups 5SRF(AICRP on Poultry Breeding) Email:
were treated with the same drugs on day 35, if found Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 33 (1) : June 2012
Reproductive Performance during Parasitic Loads and its Control in Does findings of Dede et al. (2003) in goat. The infected animals were found to have lower calcium value than The efficacy of Albendazole and Albendazole + the treated animals, which might occur due to the poor Mineral mixture were used to control the common G.I.
absorption of calcium from the gut (Roseby, 1973 and helminths in does.A lbendazole alone and Albendazole Sykes et al. 1977). The mean levels of serum + Mineral mixture during the present study revealed phosphorus prior to treatment were 2.72±0.11 mg/dl, in almost 100% efficacy against the common G.I.
infected untreated does. The value increased significantly helminths of does (Haemonchus, Strongyloides, after treatment in the does. The serum inorganic phosphorus level was lower in control (i.e. infected) does.
Cooperia and Ostertagia spp.) as assessed by the day This result is also in close agreement with the reports 20 post treatment EPG counts (Table). The present of Arora et al. (2001) and Rajguru et al. (2001). The findings are in agreement with Singh et al. (1994).
lower level of serum inorganic phosphorus in infected Repeat treatment found to be almost 100 per cent animals might be due to the infection of parasite present effective as assessed by the post treatment EPG in G.I. tract and its effects on feed intake and digestion observations on day 40 in the does.
(Roseby, 1973) and utilization.
The goats infected with G.I. helminthes and The levels of copper in does in T , T and T group subsequently treated with Albendazole were found to on day 0 were found to be 27.38±0.23, 27.04±0.08 and have lower Hb (g/dl) and PCV (%) on day zero i.e.
27.76±0.13 µg/dl, respectively. The corresponding 8.78±0.02 g/dl and 26.29±0.26 per cent, which values on day 20 post treatment were 26.57±0.20 µg/ significantly improved to 10.78±0.05 g/dl and 31.90±0.13 dl and 82.70±0.04, 83.76±0.14 and 26.59±0.04 µg/dl, per cent, respectively on day 20 post treatment. The respectively. The copper level was lower in infected G.I. helminthes infected does when treated with does as compared to post treatment values which is in Albendazole + Mineral mixture, it was observed that close agreement with the findings of Dede et al. (2003) the values of Hb and PCV also improved from 8.93±0.04 in goats and Lakra et al. (2007) in Black Bengal goats.
g/dl and 26.52±0.03 per cent on day zero before treatment to 10.96 ±0.08 g/dl and 32.44 ± 0.15 per cent The levels of zinc in does in T , T and T group on on day 20 post treatment. Whereas, the infected day 0 were found to be 46.29±0.26, 46.52±0.25 and untreated control does continued to have reduced 46.72±0.23 µg/dl, respectively. The corresponding haematological values of Hb and PCV during the entire values on day 20 post treatment were 81.64±0.58, period of observations. The haematological observations 87.09±0.59 and 44.13±0.72 µg/dl, respectively. The zinc of the present finding are in close agreement with the levels were lower in parasite infested does which are in findings of Lakra et al. (2007) in Black Bengal goat.
close agreement with the earlier reports of Dede et al. The reduction in Hb and PCV values during infection (2003) in goats and Lakra et al. (2007) in Black Bengal recorded during present study might have occurred due goats. The decreased biochemical profiles during to blood loss, less feed intake and utilization, present study might have occurred due to blood loss suppressive effects on haemopoiesis caused by the caused by sucking nature of some helm inths toxic substances produced by helminthes in the host.
particularly that of Haemonchus contortus. Some helm inths also produce hypoproteinem ia, The overall mean serum calcium level in infected hypoalbuminemia and hypoglycemia due to reduced does prior to treatment were recorded to be 8.63±0.11 feed intake and absorption through the injured gut and mg/dl, which increased significantly after treatment in elevation of blood gastrin level, which results in altered the group of animals. Which is in accordance with the Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 33 (1) : June 2012
Dinesh Mahto et al. carbohydrate metabolism and ultimately function of liver treatment. EPG count dropped to almost zero post gets disturbed.
treatm ent and the reproductiv e perf orm ance improvement after treatment in this study might be due Hypoalbuminemia has been seen as the most to increased serum levels of Ca, P, Cu and Zn and common cause of a low serum total calcium. Due to improved level of Hb and PCV post treatment.
alteration in carbohydrate metabolism , serum phosphorus level gets decreased. Bursate worms cause Interval from treatment to onset of estrus macrocytic hypochromic anaemia, which results into revealed that this duration was significantly shortest serum deficiency as copper helps in blood cell (43.00±0.73 days) in does in Albendazole + Mineral formation. Zinc has the binding ability with protein to mixture treated ewes and does followed by Albendazole over 60 percent, so the resultant hypoproteinemia and treated group of does. However, these values were hypoalbuminemia in case of parasite infestation are the significantly higher in both the treated groups as main cause for decrease in the level of zinc in serum.
compared to the untreated control group of does (Table), Gatongi et al. (1997) reported that after treatment with All the biochemical profiles are the fractions of Ivermectin @ 200 µg in does the flock fertility and haemoglobin. Therefore, treatment with broad spectrum reproductive performance improved as compared to anthelmintic along with supportive drugs appears to have untreated ewes does. The infected untreated ewes does helped the G.I. helminths affected animals to recover might have exhibited the first estrus after prolonged anaemia due to repairing of damage tissue, restoration interval due to anaemia, anorexia, poor growth and of body fluid balance and resumption of their function.
macro mineral deficiency in blood serum under the In infected animals the levels of Ca, P Cu and Zn, Hb influence of intestinal parasites. The results of the and PCV were low which improved after treatment.
present study indicated significantly lowest number of Balakrishnan and Balagopal (1994) have reported that services per conception (1.17 for does) and highest serum Ca, P, Cu and Zn levels were significantly lower pregnancy rate (83.33±4.30 for does) in the treatment in buffaloes with poor reproductive performances.
group T where Albendazole + Mineral mixture were Bhaskaran and Abdullah Khan (1981) have reported that administered. During the present study, the reproductive marginal deficiency of Phosphorus is sufficient to cause performance of does improved after treatment with disturbances in pituitary ov arian ax is without anthelmintic drugs. The interval from treatment to onset manifestation of specific deficiency symptoms.
of estrus was low, the numbers of services per Mufarrege et al. (1986) also found that blood phosphorus conception were also low and the pregnancy rate concentration was higher in cow which conceived than percent were higher in treated animals.
that which did not conceive. Phosphorus is also essential for transfer of biological energy particularly Finally, it can be inferred that for achieving all around through ATP and its deficiency may thus interfere with improvement in health and reproductive performance, fertilization and or may cause early embryonic death.
the application of package for parasite control appears All the haematological parameters improved after to be beneficial. Gastrointestinal helminthes parasites Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 33 (1) : June 2012
Reproductive Performance during Parasitic Loads and its Control in Does TABLE: EFFICACY OF ALBENDAZOLE ALONE OR IN COMBINATION WITH MINERAL MIXTURE FOR
Albendazole treated group Albendazole + mineral mixture treated group Infected untreated control *G.I. helminths: Haemonchus sp., Oesophagostomum sp., Ostertagia sp.,Trichostrongylus sp., Trichuris sp., Marshallagia sp., Bunostomum sp.,Strongyloides sp.
affect the nutritional status and indirectly reproductive larvae on the intestinal mucosa of sheep and on performance in goat.
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The award is given for Lifetime achievement in Andrology by a Life member of ISSAR The applicant should be above 50 years of age.
The applicant should forward eight copies of Bio-data and best five papers in Andrologywith all supporting document as proof of his contribution in Andrology to the GeneralSecretary, ISSAR before 31st March of the convension year.
The award is given once in three years and consist of a gold plate 30 gram silver anda certificate.
Application form may be obtained from the General Secretary, ISSAR Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 33 (1) : June 2012


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