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Intellectual Property
Strategies
K. ABATZIS,
INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION (Ο.Β.Ι.)
Director, Applications & Grants
How inventions are made.
1. Need for something that does not exist at the market ???
2. Help someone do his job to better way
 Olive oil harvesting machines 3. Combination of two or more well-known products to produce
another product with new properties
 Algon: aspirin and caffeine in a pill for headache 4. Technical solution based on the observation of nature
 The way the dragonfly moves around Biomimetics
By studding the nature one can come into conclusions on how nature found technical solutions after 3.8 billion years Nature has already solved many of the problems of everyday life and in various fields, e.g.:  energy  food production  climate control  chemistry  transport  packaging, etc.  The study of the shape, structure, function or biologically produced substances (such as enzymes or silk) and biological mechanisms and processes (such as protein synthesis or photosynthesis) can lead to the creation of similar products or mechanisms for the benefit of mankind. Examples of inventions.
Observation of nature .

Mercedes-Benz bionic car
This model achieves 20% lower fuel consumption and 80% lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx).
The diesel engine of 140 hp, free from the strict management to limit pollutants, achieves extremely low
consumption, with just 2.8 liters of diesel per 100 kilometers at a speed of 90 km/h
Examples of inventions.
Observation of nature .

Speedo Fastskin FSII Olympic Games, Athens, 2004 Shark skin feature inspired low hydrodynamic surface drag: high efficiency swimsuits design with antibacterial effect. Nature's unique design at microscale provides enormous reduction in surface drag of water close to the body (Riblet effect). Arrows show anti-microbial features mimicking shark skin micro-topography. Biomimetics material and design.pdf (Elsevier) http://astro.temple.edu/ sthsieh/BIO5466_2011/Singh%20et%20al_2011(MatDes).pdf Examples of inventions.
Observation of nature .

The structure of the shark skin prevents adhesion of organisms onto it. This model has been transferred into ships, thus saving vast amounts of fuel. bio-inspired systems.pdf (http://webx.ubi.pt/ felippe/texts/sb_textos_ppt5.pdf) Examples of inventions.
Observation of nature .

Could Butterfly wings improve Photovoltaics? In 2009, scientists discovered that on the wings of
butterfly there are flakes, which act as natural solar
panels absorbing light in a highly efficient manner.
Using the wing of the butterfly as a model, researchers
improved dye-sensitive solar cells.

Examples (continued):
5. Novel use of a known product
Use of nitroglycerin in the manufacture medicines
for the heart
6. Improving previous inventions
7. Inventions with unexpected properties
Is it always successful ?
1700 patents !
The Nespresso case
Nespresso is a subsidiary of Swiss Nestle ( more than 20,000 patent applications).
It has a turnover of $ 5 bil ion ( 25% of the parent's company income) More than 20 mil ion coffee capsules were sold by Nespresso. More than 12 mil ion coffee machines were sold by Nespresso since 1986 Has more than 4,500 employees It is present in 50 countries  Introduced a closed system:
the Nespresso coffee machines use only its own coffee capsules
1976: Patent application, inventor: ERIC FAVRE
1982: Target: the market of restaurants and bars.
1986: The Nespresso is created. Sales are not going very well!
1988: The new CEO changes marketing strategy.
1991: Target: Households. Nespresso gets into international markets
1997: First campaigns appear.
1998: Focus on e-commerce
2006: A "luxury" character is introduced for the product. George Clooney is the star for Nespresso.
2008: Sales increased by average of 35% for years 2000-2008
2012: Market expansion with low cost machines.
2013. European patent is lost and market is open


Apparatus for making beverages
(household machines or implements for straining
6/7/2015
Why NESPRESSO dominated the market?
Always the same good quality of coffee to excessive price that consumer is ready to
pay
It creates a sense of "everyday luxury" to the average consumer (George Clooney,
expensive lounges, well-designed coffee machines and capsules, etc.)
Cost of capsulized coffee 7-8 times more than the price of ground Colombian coffee in
supermarkets
The "corporate name" justify sales 3X more expensive sales than the competition
Marketing key point for domination
Expansion into many kinds of coffee, chocolate, tea and other beverages
Result: Beverage market reformation
Approximately 15 billion coffee capsules were sold in 2013 worldwide
Absolut requirement before applying for a patent . Do not disclose in any way the content of our
invention before we file an application for a patent.
Three basic steps for the protection of inventions 1st step:
Novelty Search (what is the state of the art in the field of the invention)
2nd step:
National Application for a patent

3rd step:
European Application for a patent or PCT application, declaring
priority rights from the National application WHERE should I apply for protection … worldwide? !!!
How many countries? In principle, the issue is … MONEY! in countries that you can market the invention in emerging markets (in view of 20 years) low cost production countries How to protect your invention?
by:
a patent
a utility model
Design
other (i.e. Semiconductor topography)
Why a national application has to be filed first?
For national security reasons (Law for National Security)
You can use priority rights from the first filing
You are entitled for a quick Search Report
The Search Report has indications of novelty useful for second filings
Fees are lower compared to the European procedure
LICENSES
Positive examples
IBM: $ 1.7 billion revenues in 2001 only from licenses to third parties
(92-02 of 10 years submitted 22,357 patent applications) Rambus Inc. (advanced technology for microchips): 100% of revenue from licensing

Stanford University:
$ 100 mil/year from licenses

Negative examples
The IBM - Apple - Microsoft in the field of personal computers Sony's Beta and VHS video systems Conclusion: Whoever grants licenses to third parties establishes the industry standards What is the strategy of choice
for a company or an inventor;
I. Theory of " Castle and Moat" II. Theory of "The Tree and Forest burned forest" III. Theory of " The shot gun" IV. Theory of " Progressive protection " Theory of " Castle and Moat"
 A Castle of technology is created protected by a moat of patents, which are filed
in certain period.  The core of the invention is protected and any visible variation, method of manufacture and use thereof.  Ideal strategy for well funded Startups  Introduction of a new product into the market from existing company. Example: Gemstar-TV (NASDAQ):
Applied for 200 patents for a single technology, which
it was believed to be the core for the consolidation of Interactive TV, internet and personal computer. Theory of "The Tree and the burned forest"
 Select & protect the strongest tree = protect the core of the invention
 "Burn" all the other trees = publication of any other visible secondary idea, production technology, alternative implementation and application
Good choice in cases of limited funds for patenting of inventions
Example:
IBM, Hewlett Packard and Xerox have and use their own official online databases for publications. Theory of " The shot gun"
Among a large number of inventions relating to various aspects, wil be
one which will be commercially successful.
Good choice for large, well-funded R & D departments .
Example:
During the 70s and 80s Mobil Chemicals launched dozens of Patent applications for simple polyethylene products. The ultimate success of the plastic bag with relief notches became an industry standard. Theory of " Progressive protection "
Protect each new variant, improvement or addition of an invention if and
when it emerged during research.
 Easy cost control way of protecting inventions.  A commonly used approach by small companies and private researchers . for innovators, entrepreneurs, researchers,
employees in R & D, inventors .

If you can't sell it, don't invent it!
… unless inventions is your hobby!
Thank you …
Kostas Abatzis,
Director, Applications & Grants
5, Pandanassis Str
152 25 ATHENS, GREECE
Tel. +30210 6183521
E-mail: kaba@obi.gr

Source: http://www.innovcrete.eu/files/workshops/Intellectual_Property_Strategies.pdf

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