HSS 250: The Social History of Mental Illness Hans Pols () Taught at the University of Pennsylvania, 1995, 1996 This course will explore the social construction of mental illness throughout American history, from the eighteenth century until the present time. It will consider changing definitions of insanity, as well as conceptions of the sane and normal, changing attitudes towards the mentally ill, and the development of institutional, medical, and cultural responses to the mentally ill. The course will start with the establishment of mental asylums in the 18th and 19th centuries in America as the prime method of dealing with mental illness. The rise of psychiatry as a medical specialty in relation the asylum care will be investigated as well.
EmergepdspgProduct Data Sheet
BODY SLENDERIZING DRINK MIX Emerge is a powerful fat loss and body composition slenderizing system specially formulated
Size: Net Wt. 540 g (1.19 lbs)
to inhibit appetite, promote the release of fat from stored fat cells and accelerate the burning Serving Size: 1 Scoop (Approx. 18 g)
of fat for fuel. Emerge contains clinically proven weight loss ingredients to suppress
Servings Per Container: 30
appetite, provide maximum calorie burning specifically from fat, increase energy and elevate Flavors: Wild Cherry Tart, Grape Blast, Strawberry Lemonade, Tangerine
the body's metabolism. The combination of selected ingredients promotes a metabolic shift, Dream, Watermelon Splash, Mango Madness, Sour Green Apple, Blue Raspberry Bomb, Tangy Pink Grapefruit, Pineapple Pizzazz scientists describe as "fuel partitioning" by shifting the burning of fat as fuel rather than fat for storage. By using a product like Emerge, fuel partitioning benefits can ultimately lead to
enhanced lean body composition changes. • Promotes Appetite Suppression and Weight Loss† Emerge contains the patented ingredient Advantra Z®, an extract of a citrus fruit (Citrus
• Stimulates Thermogenesis With Advantra Z® and Caffeine† aurantium). Advantra Z® contains a natural and synergistic family of bioactive amines • Contains Selected Ingredients Promoting "Fuel Partitioning"† including synephrine, N-methyltyramine, hordenine, octopanime and tyramine. The naturally occurring form of synephrine in Advantra Z® is call P-synephrine and is the safe form for • Enhances Mood, Alertness, and Focus† humans. Advantra Z® has been shown to be safe and effective in human ingestion, KEY BENEFITS
stimulating metabolic thermogenesis, increasing the breakdown of fat (lipolysis), increasing • Contains Advantra Z® which is a proprietary patented the ratio of lean muscle to total body mass, improving athletic performance and exerting an ingredient containing the naturally occurring bioactive amines appetite suppressing effect. Additionally, Advantra Z® increases metabolic rate without P-synephrine (safe form for humans), N-methyltyramine, affecting heart rate or blood pressure. hordenine, octopamine and tyramine. Caffeine has been added to Emerge as an extensively researched ingredient that enhances
• Advantra Z® is the only indicated Citrus aurantium extract for fuel partitioning and providing an effective thermogenic, metabolic, and fat oxidation effect in weight loss and physical performance on the market today.† humans. Green Tea Extract, containing highly concentrated levels of EGCG, has been added as numerous published studies have now shown that EGCG is effective in reducing body • Contains Green Tea Extract standardized with highly weight, mainly body fat, by increasing thermogenesis and fat burning. Green Tea Extract concentrated levels of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). boosts and supports mood, enhances energy and promotes a sense of well-being. The Published studies have demonstrated the efficacy of EGCG in addition of Panax Ginseng and Glucuronolactone further promotes well being, energy, reducing body fat, increasing thermogenesis and fat oxidation mood and focus. Caffeine enhances the effectiveness of Advantra Z®, Green Tea Extract (fat burning).† and Panax Ginseng. • Provides caffeine (300 mg per serving) for effective benefits including thermogenic, metabolic and lipolysis (fat oxidation) L-Carnitine is absolutely essential for all fat metabolism to take place in cells and the body cannot burn a single molecule of fat without L-Carnitine. In terms of function, it plays a critical role in transporting fatty acids into the mitochondria, the "furnace of the cells", for fat • Panax Ginseng and Glucuronolactone further promotes well burning to produce energy (technically known as β oxidation). L-Taurine is a non-essential being and enhancing energy, mood and focus especially when sulfur containing amino acid with high concentrations in skeletal muscles. The combination combined with caffeine.† of Caffeine and L-Taurine appears to be beneficial enhance endurance performance. • L-Carnitine is absolutely essential to transport fatty acids into L-Taurine promotes the formation of taurocholate which supports fat metabolism in the liver.
muscle cells for fat burning (β oxidation). Your body cannot burn fat without L-carnitine. Recent studies have shown that Octopamine is known to exert adrenergic effects in mammals stimulating alpha(2)- L-carnitine, when combined with caffeine, are powerful adrenoceptors and stimulating fat breakdown through beta(3)-adrenoreceptors. NADH is the stimulators of lipolysis (fatty acid oxidation)† body's energy transporter. The NADH molecule is how the body transports energy during muscular contraction as well as countless other reactions. Adenosine is found in ATP • L-Taurine promotes focus and energy.† (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate), the energy molecule in the body. Vinpocetine has the ability to • Octopamine is known to exert adrenergic effects in mammals dilate blood vessels thereby enhancing circulation and improving oxygen utilization for stimulating fat breakdown through beta(3)-adrenoreceptors. support of fat use as energy. Vinpocetine also has antioxidant properties. Evodiamine is a • NADH is the body's energy transporter for muscular unique compound that acts on the vanilloid receptors to help with body fat utilization.
contraction as well as countless other reactions.† Emerge will provide you with the most complete and satisfying body composition optimizing
• Adenosine is found in ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate), the system to produce the great body you are after.
energy molecule in the body.† (cont'd on p.2) Your assurance of quality® 210 W. Taft Ave.•Orange, California 92865•714.456.0700•714.456.0727 fax Product Data Sheet
BODY SLENDERIZING DRINK MIX (cont'd from p.1) Size: Net Wt. 540 g (1.19 lbs)
Serving Size: 1 Scoop (Approx. 18 g)
Servings Per Container: 30
KEY FEATURES (continued)
Flavors: Wild Cherry Tart, Grape Blast, Strawberry Lemonade, Tangerine
• Vinpocetine has the ability to dilate blood vessels thereby enhancing circulation and Dream, Watermelon Splash, Mango Madness, Sour Green Apple, Blue improving oxygen utilization for support of fat use as energy as well as having Raspberry Bomb, Tangy Pink Grapefruit, Pineapple Pizzazz antioxidant properties.† • Evodiamine is a unique compound that acts on the vanilloid receptors to help with Serving Size: 1 Scoop (Approx. 18 g) body fat utilization.† Servings Per Container: 30 • Great tasting flavors! Amount Per Serving
Calories from Fat: 0
Primary: Adults seeking a powerful body composition slenderizing formula
Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid) providing appetite suppression, thermogenic enhancement and fat buring, clean Niacin (as niacinamide) energy and mood. Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine hydrochloride) Vitamin B12 (as cyanocobalamin) Secondary: Fitness athletes looking for an energizing pre-workout formula.
Proprietary Emerge Slenderizing Complex
Caffeine (anhydrous), Dandelion Leaf Extract (4:1), Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis) (leaf, 45% EGCG), Hoodia gordonii, Advantra Z® (Citrus aurantium, 60% synephrine alkaloids), L-Taurine, Panax Ginseng Powder, Glucuronolactone, Adenosine, Octopamine, L-Carnitine, Yohimbine, Vinpocetine, NADH, Evodiamine *Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
**Daily Value not established.
Max Lean Protein
Directions: As a dietary supplement test your tolerance by taking one half (1/2) scoop with 8 - 16 oz
Max Gluta Matrix
of cold water. After tolerance test, you may take one (1) scoop with cold water. Water can be adjusted up to 16 ounces for taste preference. Stay well hydrated throughout the day while using this product especially in hot and humid temperatures. DO NOT TAKE AFTER 6 PM. MAY CAUSE
SLEEPLESSNESS. DO NOT EXCEED FOUR (4) SCOOPS PER DAY.
REFRIGERATE AFTER OPENING FOR QUALITY.
OTHER INGREDIENTS (Cherry Tart): Sta-Lite III Polydextrose, Fructose, Fibersol-2®, Malic Acid, Citric
1. Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M. The Safety of Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) and its Primary Protoalkaloid p-Synephrine. Phytotherapy Res. Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavors (FD&C Red No. 40 and Blue No. 1), Tri-Calcium Phosphate, Acesulfame 2011 Apr 8.doi:10.1002/ptr.3490.
Potassium, Sucralose Sweetener, Silicon Dioxide.
2. Haaz S, Fontaine KR, Cutter G, et al. Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity: an update. Obesity OTHER INGREDIENTS (Grape Blast): Sta-Lite III Polydextrose, Fructose, Fibersol-2®, Malic Acid, Citric
Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavors (FD&C Red No. 40 and Blue No. 1), Tri-Calcium Phosphate, Acesulfame Potassium, Sucralose Sweetener, Silicon Dioxide.
3. van Heerden FR, Marthinus Horak R, Maharaj VJ, et al. An appetite suppressant from Hoodia species. Phytochemistry. 2007;68:2545-53.
OTHER INGREDIENTS (Strawberry Lemonade): Sta-Lite III Polydextrose, Fructose, Fibersol-2®, Malic
4. van Heerden FR. Hoodia gordonii: a natural appetite suppressant. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;28:434-7.
Acid, Citric Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavors (FD&C Red No. 40), Tri-Calcium Phosphate, Acesulfame Potassium, Sucralose Sweetener, Silicon Dioxide.
5. Geoffrey P, Ressault B, Marchioni E, Miesch M. Synthesis of Hoodigogenin A, aglycone of natural appetite suppressant glycosteroids extracted OTHER INGREDIENTS (Tangerine Dream): Sta-Lite III Polydextrose, Fructose, Fibersol-2®, Malic Acid,
from Hoodia gordonii. Steroids. 2011;76:702-8.
Citric Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavors (FD&C Yellow No. 6),Tri-Calcium Phosphate, Acesulfame Potassium, Sucralose Sweetener, Silicon Dioxide.
6. Shixian Q et al. Green tea extract thermogenesis-induced weight loss by epigallocatechin gallate inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase. J Med Food. 2006;9:451-8.
OTHER INGREDIENTS (Watermelon Splash): Sta-Lite III Polydextrose, Fructose, Fibersol-2®, Malic
Acid, Citric Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavors (FD&C Red No. 40), Tri-Calcium Phosphate, Acesulfame 7. Westerterp-Plantenga MS et al. Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea Potassium, Sucralose Sweetener, Silicon Dioxide.
supplementation. Obes Res. 2005;13:1195-204.
OTHER INGREDIENTS (Mango Madness): Sta-Lite III Polydextrose, Fructose, Fibersol-2®, Malic Acid,
8. Astrup A et al. Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy Citric Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavors (FD&C Yellow 6 Lake and Yellow No. 6), Tri-Calcium Phosphate, volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51:759-67.
Acesulfame Potassium, Sucralose Sweetener, Silicon Dioxide.
OTHER INGREDIENTS (Sour Green Apple): Sta-Lite III Polydextrose, Fructose, Fibersol-2®, Malic Acid,
10. Imagawa TF, Hirano I, Utsuki K, et al. Caffeine and taurine enhance endurance performance. Int J Sports Med. 2009;30:485-8.
Citric Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavors (FD&C Yellow No.5 and Blue No. 1), Tri-Calcium Phosphate, 11. Cha YS. Effects of L-carnitine on obesity, diabetes, and as an ergogenic aid. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:306-8.
Acesulfame Potassium, Sucralose Sweetener, Silicon Dioxide.
OTHER INGREDIENTS (Blue Raspberry Bomb): Sta-Lite III Polydextrose, Fructose, Fibersol-2®, Malic
12. Foster DW. The role of carnitine system in human metabolism. Ann N.Y. Acad Sci. 2004;1033:1-16.
Acid, Citric Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavors (FD&C Blue No. 1), Tri-Calcium Phosphate, Acesulfame Potassium, Sucralose Sweetener, Silicon Dioxide.
13. Lee MS, Lee HJ, Lee HS, Kim Y. L-carnitine stimulates lipolysis via induction of the lipolytic gene expression and suppression of the adipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Med Food. 2006 9(4):468-73.
OTHER INGREDIENTS (Tangy Pink Grapefruit): Sta-Lite III Polydextrose, Fructose, Fibersol-2®, Malic
Acid, Citric Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavors (FD&C Red No. 40), Tri-Calcium Phosphate, Acesulfame 14. Hursel R, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Thermogenic ingredients and body weight regulation. Int J Obes. 2010;Feb 9.
Potassium, Sucralose Sweetener, Silicon Dioxide.
15. McCarty MF. Pre-exercise administration of yohimbine may enhance the efficacy of exercise training as a fat loss strategy by lipolysis. Med OTHER INGREDIENTS (Pineapple Pizzazz): Sta-Lite III Polydextrose, Fructose, Fibersol-2®, Malic Acid,
Citric Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavors (FD&C Yellow No. 5), Tri-Calcium Phosphate, Acesulfame Potassium, Sucralose Sweetener, Silicon Dioxide.
16. Fontana E, Morin N, Prevot D, Carpene C. Effects of octopamine on lipolysis, glucose transport and amine oxidation in mammalian fat cells. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2000;125:33-44.
WARNING: NOT FOR USE BY INDIVIDUALS UNDER THE AGE OF 18 YEARS. DO NOT USE IF
PREGNANT OR NURSING. Consult a physician before starting any diet and exercise program and
before using this product. Do not take this product if you have a medical condition. Discontinue use SHAKE CONTAINER BEFORE EACH USE TO COMPLETELY DISTRIBUTE INGREDIENTS. BEFORE OPENING, STORE IN A COOL AND
and call a physician or licensed health care professional immediately if you experience unexpected DRY PLACE AWAY FROM MOISTURE, SUNLIGHT AND EXCESS HEAT. AFTER OPENING REFRIGERATE FOR QUALITY. EXPOSURE TO
side effects. If taking prescription medications, consult a licensed health care professional prior to MOISTURE AND HUMIDITY CAN CAUSE PRODUCT TO CAKE, CLUMP OR DISCOLOR. ALWAYS KEEP TIGHTLY SEALED.
use. This product contains 300 mg caffeine per serving. Individuals who consume caffeine with this product may experience serious adverse health effects and those that are sensitive to the effects of KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.
caffeine should consult a physician before consuming this product. Improper use of this product may STORE IN A COOL, DRY PLACE IN THE ORIGINAL CONTAINER AWAY FROM MOISTURE AND SUNLIGHT. ALWAYS KEEP TIGHTLY
be hazardous to a person's health. Stay well hydrated throughout the day by drinking at least 2 liters of water daily when using this product.
Advantra Z® is a registered trademark of Nutratech, Inc./Zhishin, LLC licensor of U.S. Patents 6,224,873; 6,316,499; 6,340,481; 6,340,482 and Canadian Patent 2,248,854.
Allergy Information: Manufactured in a facility that processes milk, soy and egg proteins, peanuts,
other tree nuts and wheat.
Contains 300 mg Caffeine per serving.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
To report a serious adverse event, contact: Max Muscle Sports Nutrition
210 W. Taft Ave., Orange CA 92865
epidemiology Biostatistics and public Health - 2013, volume 10, number 2 SyStematic reviewS and meta- and pooled analySeS A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle modification as primary prevention intervention for diabetes mellitus type 2 Katrin I. Radl(1), Carolina Ianuale(2), Stefania Boccia(2) Background: diabetes is one of the leading causes of death, and has a huge economic impact on the burden of society. Lifestyle interventions such as diet, physical activity and weight reducing are proven to be effective in the prevention of diabetes. To encourage policy actions, data on the cost-effectiveness of such strategies of prevention programmes are needed. MeThods: a systematic review of the literature on the cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies focusing on lifestyle interventions for diabetes type 2 patients. a weighted version of drummond checklist was used to further assess the quality of the included studies. resuLTs: six studies met the inclusion criteria and were therefore considered in this paper. Intensive lifestyle intervention to prevent diabetes type 2 is cost-effective in comparison to other interventions. all studies were judged of medium-to-high quality.concLusIons: policy makers should consider the adoption of a prevention strategy focusing on intensive lifestyle changes because they are proven to be either cost-saving or cost-effective.