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ww Outlook! • Vol.5 No.3
How to Create a Positive Work Environment
We have all worked in places where we
Skill #2: Show Interest in Your
grew to dread getting up in the morning, and a few of us have had the pleasure What behaviors convey that someone is of working for a boss who makes us feel interested in you? like we can do anything. Let's take a ■ Making eye contact look at the differences between a positive ■ Calling you by name and a negative work environment.
■ Asking your opinion Signs of a Negative Work
■ Complimenting your work ■ Fol owing your suggestions ■ The boss is unfriendly.
■ The boss is critical.
These behaviors convey a lack of interest: ■ There is high employee turnover.
■ There is low employee morale.
information, few companies succeed at ■ Not knowing your name or not using it ■ People watch the clock.
creating a positive work environment. Let's ■ Not asking your opinion ■ People don't get much performance see what's involved.
■ Ignoring your suggestions ■ Not commenting on your work Four Key Skills
■ Fol owing your suggestions, but only Signs of a Positive Work
Creating a positive work environment is when heard from someone else based on the fol owing four key skil s: continued on page 2
■ The boss demonstrates interest in the 1. Tell people what you expect of them.
2. Show interest in your team members.
■ The boss has an encouraging attitude.
3. Create an encouraging environment.
In This Issue
■ Employees like working there.
4. Recognize and reward good perfomance.
■ There is evidence of company pride and 1 How to Create a Positive Work Skill #1: State Your Expectations
Environment ■ People know where they stand with their Telling people what you expect of them means doing the fol owing: 2 Humor in the Workplace ■ Communicating expectations clearly 3 Seasonal Affective Disorder Thousands of books have been written on ■ Having a specific job description the subject of managing and motivating ■ Identifying specific performance 4 Ask the EAP people, and as many training seminars are conducted on this subject around the ■ Specifying deadlines 4 Upcoming Events world every day. And yet, it's interesting ■ Setting goals that even with all of this available .Work Environment continued from page 1
Skill #4: Recognize and Reward
Such signs discourage productivity 1. Describe the results you are recogniz- because they make people feel discour- A reinforcer is anything that happens, ing. Be specific. It's important to make aged, angry, less confident, and stripped of based on a behavior, that tends to increase certain the employee knows the specific the chances that the behavior will be relevant behavior or accomplishment.
repeated. For example: 2. State your personal appreciation. Say, Skill #3: Create an Encouraging
"I appreciate it." Adding your personal appreciation makes the compliment feel Most people would agree that the fol owing ■ Giving thumbs-up gesture more genuine.
are characteristics of an encouraging work ■ Saying "Thank you" 3. Encourage the person to continue pro- ■ Giving a public announcement of your ducing such good work. This increases ■ Your ideas are valued the chances that the person will repeat ■ Creativity is encouraged ■ Placing a positive letter in your person- the desirable behavior.
■ Risks are encouraged ■ Fun and laughter are valued ■ Awarding a special parking space ■ New ideas are rewarded ■ Promotion to first choice on schedule Bob Nelson, 1001 Ways to Reward ■ You feel appreciated ■ Placing picture on the bul etin board Employees. New York, NY: Workman ■ People thank you for your contributions ■ Recognizing with applause at a meeting Publishing Company, 1994. ■ ■ Flexibility is valued Adapted from an article by Rachel Barone, Ph.D., ■ You feel like part of the team in the Therapists Newsletter. Used with permission.
EAP open during the summer
Something bothering you, but you haven't had the time to schedule an appointment to talk to a counselor? The Employee Assistance Program is open al year. Feel free to schedule an appointment with an EAP specialist over the summer. Just cal 240-314-1040. Humor in the Workplace
Imagine that you are at work and about to
it at home, because someone is bound to 2. The situation you all face (i.e., the
get a cup of coffee from the machine down be offended.
upcoming meeting, the new reorganiza- the hal . You notice that your coworker, Bob, approaches you with a smirk on his Rule #2: Don't make jokes about people's
face and starts a conversation with the appearance. This is another emotional y 3. Personal characteristics in areas of low
words, "Did you hear the one about the." charged area, and whether you agree or ego-involvement. Though most people You may react in one of two ways. You may not, just don't go there.
are extremely sensitive about appearance, be friends with Bob and grin in anticipa- they're much less invested in other as- tion of his joke, or you may dread it like Rule #3: Avoid jokes about religion,
pects of themselves. For example, poking hearing about your neighbor's colonos- ethnic background, nationality, and sexual fun at Peter because he'd rather ski than copy. Lucky for you, Bob had just read up do paperwork, or Mary because she has on what is and is not appropriate humor a distinctive laugh is relatively safe to do in the workplace. For example, David Rule #4: Avoid jokes about bodily func-
and communicates affection rather than Granirer, a Vancouver-based psychothera- tions. People may be offended.
pist and part-time standup comic, outlines four rules that people in the workplace You may be thinking, where does that And what did Bob have to say? leave me? What can I joke about? Mr. Granirer gives a few suggestions: "There is supposedly someone out there Rule #1: Don't make jokes about cowork-
doing exactly the same thing as you at the ers' sexuality. People are very uncomfort- 1. Yourself—your flaws, neuroses and
same time as you. I found out who it was able with sexual innuendo in a workplace. inadequacies. When you make these jokes, for me and gave them a phone cal .but Your friends may find it hilarious, but people are brought closer to you because the line was busy". ■ unless all the people you work with are they can relate. So far, no one's ever been close friends you've known for years, leave sued for joking about him or herself.

Seasonal Affective Disorder
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is the most common form of depression. It folows the seasons. The most frequently seen form of SAD begins in late fall or early winter and normal mood returns in summer. A less common type of SAD, known as summer depression, begins in early summer. Summer SAD may be related to changes in the amount of daylight. As many as 4 to 6 of every 100 people may have winter SAD. A much smal er number may have summer SAD. Although some children and teenagers get SAD, it usual y doesn't affect people younger than 20. Common symptoms of winter SAD include feelings of hopelessness and sadness, thoughts of suicide, weight gain, a heavy feeling in the arms or legs, a drop in energy levels, and irritability. Symptoms of the summer SAD include poor appetite, weight loss, insomnia, and anxiety. It's possible to successful y manage remission while taking medication. You can do things on your own to help SAD. Treatments may include the Summer SAD may also be treated with you cope with seasonal depression. The fol owing suggestions may help Examples of antidepressants include you better manage SAD: ■ Light therapy. This is the main treat-
paroxetine (Paxil), sertraline (Zoloft), ment for many people with winter SAD. fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), and venla- ■ Increase the amount of light in your Light therapy involves sitting a few feet faxine (Effexor). In June 2006 the Food home. Open blinds, add skylights and from a special lamp that's 10 to 20 times and Drug Administration approved trim tree branches that block sunlight. brighter than ordinary indoor lights for buproprion HCL extended release 30 minutes or more each day, usual y in tablets (Wel butrin XL) for prevention ■ Get outside. Walk outdoors on sunny the morning. You can do activities, such of depressive episodes in people with a days, even during winter. as reading or eating breakfast, while sit- history of SAD.
ting in front of the light.
The duration of treatment with medi- ■ Exercise regularly. Physical exercise Light therapy is easy to administer cations varies. If you have a history of helps relieve stress and anxiety, which and has relatively few side effects. SAD, your doctor may suggest you start can accentuate SAD. Being more Nearly 70 percent of people experi- medication before the time your signs fit can make you feel better about ence a reduction of their symptoms and symptoms usual y develop and from daily light therapy, and about 50 continue the medication beyond the percent experience remission while time the signs and symptoms usual y ■ Find ways to relax. Learn how to bet- undergoing light therapy. Light therapy abate. This may be from the middle of ter manage stress. needs to be done daily until springtime, fall to the middle of spring. If you have a when the sun shines for a longer period double depression, in which an underly- ■ Take a trip. If possible, take winter during the day. Lights from tanning ing depression is complicated during vacations in sunny, warm locations beds cannot be used for light therapy, the winter by SAD, your doctor may for winter SAD, or cooler locations for because tanning beds use potential y prescribe treatment with medication for damaging ultraviolet light.
a longer period.
If you think you might have SAD, either ■ Medication. Your doctor may pre-
Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy
the summer or winter version, you scribe an antidepressant medication helps you identify and modify nega- might consider talking to your doctor in combination with light therapy, or tive thoughts and behaviors that may about it, or, cal EAP and schedule an ap- as an alternative, if light therapy does influence signs and symptoms of SAD. pointment with a counselor. We can help not work. About 70 percent of people You and your psychiatrist or therapist you assess your symptoms and suggest taking antidepressants have decreased may also discuss ways to reduce stress symptoms, and about half experience

Do you have a question for EAP? Q. Do I have to pay for EAP services?
Send us your questions via Outlook or the pony to Jeff Becker A well-developed sense
A. There is no cost to you as an em-
ployee or to any of your immediate family of humor is the pole that
members who use the program. EAP is provided to you as a free resource paid for adds balance to your steps
by MCPS. Your insurance will not be bil ed and you do not have any co-pay to worry as you walk the tightrope
about. Payment only comes into play if you are referred to an outside resource, and in of life. —William A. Ward
that case every effort will be made to make sure the resource is compatible with your financial situation. ■ Upcoming Dates and Events
A Healthy Outlook! To help employees with troubling issues before they EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE National Aphasia Awareness Month
June 11–17
EAP at Gaither Road 2096 Gaither Road, Suite 205 National Men's Health Week
Rockvil e, Maryland 20850 Men's Health Network
phone: 240-314-1040 888-MEN-2-MEN (636-2636) Men's Healthline
departments/EAPImportant Notice: Information in A Healthy Outlook! is for general information purposes Materials available – Contact: Erin Hoffman
only and is not intended to replace the counsel or advice of a qualified health professional. For further questions or help with specific problems or personal concerns, contact your employee assistance professional. You may contact us or send your questions [email protected] Please note that e-mail is not necessarily Published by the Department of Communications for the Employee Assistance Program 3322.07 • ELECTRONIC GRAPHICS & PUBLISHING SERVICES • 24k • 6.07


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Microsoft word - -publication-briefing-cage-the-challenge-of-antimicrobial-resistance-cormac-o-grada-final.docx

The Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance: Lessons from the Past for the Present and the Future Global Perspectives Series: Paper 2 CORMAC Ó GRÁDA The challenge of anti-microbial resistance (AMR) needs to be set in historical context: though real, it is unlikely to mean a return to ‘the dark ages of medicine'. With the virtual eradication of most infectious diseases, life expectancy in the UK and other high-income countries has doubled in the last century (the gains in poor countries have been smaller, but still significant). Most of the increase in life expectancy preceded the antibiotics revolution.

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