HPSC3023 - HPPP
History & Philosophy of Psychology and Psychiatry
Semester 1, 2012
Unit co-ordinator & Lecturer
A/Prof. Hans Pols
Dr Fiona J. Hibberd
Phone: 9351 3610
Phone: 9351 2867
Office: Carslaw 435
Office: Brennan MacCallum 451
Hours: Tue 1-2 or by appt.
Dr Fiona Hibberd
firstname.lastname@example.org. Monday tutorials: History & Philosophy
email@example.com. Monday tutorials: History of Psychiatry
firstname.lastname@example.org. Thursday tutorials: Both subjects
HPS Administrate Assistant: Debbie Castle, Carslaw Rm. 441, email@example.com
(in the office on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday). Lectures:
Mon 12-1; Carslaw Lecture Theatre 273
Thur 10-11; Chemistry LT 4.
Mon 4-6, New Law School Annex SR 342
Thur 2-4, Eastern Ave Seminar room 311
Thur 4-6, New Law School Seminar Room 102
This unit of study consists of two parts, sections A and B. In the first half of the unit (section A) philosophical issues within psychology will be examined by Dr. Hibberd, giving due
consideration to some of psychology's history. In the second part (section B), Dr. Pols focuses on the history of psychiatry and also takes up some philosophical issues. Across both
sections, we examine one of the most interesting developments in the history and philosophy of science, viz.,
the scientific practices involved in making human beings an object of study.
We examine the ways in which psychologists and psychiatrists have investigated human nature, approaches to research they have developed to that end, major controversies in the
field, and basic philosophical assumptions made in the sciences of human nature. We investigate the development of psychological theories and investigative methods as well as
the development of psychiatric theory, treatment methods, and institutions.
This unit of study is for students in the History and Philosophy of Science and for students in
Psychology. For the latter, the unit counts towards a major in Psychology. Successful
completion of (i) the essay in the History & Philosophy of Psychology (Dr. Hibberd's
section), and (ii) this unit of study overall, are essential for Psychology students
intending to take the theoretical thesis option in Psychology Honours.
There are two ways to meet the pre-requisites for this unit: 1. 12 intermediate credit points in HPS.
2. 12 intermediate credit points in Psychology. Assumed knowledge
The basic principles and approaches within the History, Philosophy,
and Sociology of Science, as taught in HPSC2101 (Introductory Philosophy of Science) and HPSC2100 (The Birth of Modern Science)
Psychology students: Junior and Intermediate Psychology. COURSE OBJECTIVES
1. To examine the history of psychology and psychiatry, introducing students to debate
about interpretation of the historical process, focusing on important individuals and
movements and drawing particular attention to recurrent ideas and themes.
2. To acquaint students with various arguments which have been presented in favour of (or
against) certain theories and approaches in psychology and psychiatry.
3. To expose students to conceptual analysis by relating historical conceptual problems to
modern problems in psychology and psychiatry, and by examining some key concepts (such as ‘mind', ‘behaviour', ‘consciousness', ‘theory', ‘explanation', ‘mental illness,'
4. To foster in students the development of their own
abilities to present and evaluate
arguments and to engage in critical analysis of any material encountered in their reading and research in psychology and psychiatry.
Generic skills developed during this unit of study include:
1. Analytical reading: being able to gain a clear understanding of arguments through analysis
of scholarly material.
2. Research and writing skills: development of an argument using clear reasoning and
3. Presentation skills.
If you would like to see some samples of well-written work, please see your lecturer.
LECTURE AND TUTORIAL ATTENDANCE
Lecture attendance is mandatory. The Faculty of Science also requires students to attend 80%
of all tutorials. A tutorial roll will be taken each week and a student's attendance may be considered in the determination of final marks.
One essay: 44%. One exam: 44%. Tutorial attendance: 12%. I. Essay (44%)
: students will choose one
of the following two options
A. History of Psychiatry Essay B. History & Philosophy of Psychology Essay.
Essays are 2,500 words
. Psychology and HPS students may choose either option.
Due: Monday May 7, 11pm on Blackboard. A hard-copy with a signed plagiarism
form is required at that time as well (in the HPS submissions box, in front of
II. Exam (44%)
: students will sit a formal 2hr. exam (4 x 30 min. long essay questions)
during the June examination period. The exam paper contains 4 sections. The
questions in sections A and B deal with Dr. Hibberd's part of this Unit of Study;
the questions in sections C and D deal with Dr. Pols' part of this Unit of Study.
Students are required to answer one
question from each section (four questions are
provided in each section). Exam questions will cover both
lecture and tutorial
In order to be eligible to complete HPSC 3023, completion of one
the exam is
required. III. Tutorial Attendance (12%--1% for each tutorial)
At the start of each tutorial, you will hand in an outline of each of the readings for that week, highlighting the most important issues discussed in that reading. In addition, you need to
present at least two discussion questions based on the readings.
SUBMISSION OF WRITTEN WORK
A hard copy of your essay must be placed in the HPS submission box in front of Carslaw 441
(the HPS office) by the due date. Work submitted after the due date is considered as
being received the following day and will receive a late penalty.
An electronic copy of your essay must also be submitted through the secure web site on
Blackboard. Again, if this is submitted after 12.00noon on the due date, you will receive
a late penalty.
After submission, you will receive an electronic confirmation receipt.
Do not submit your work in hard copy at class, by sending or faxing it to the University, by
sliding it under office doors, or by emailing it to your tutor/lecturer.
Penalties for late essay submission
Up to one week
after due date
The assignment will be accepted and marked as normal.
marks out of the RAW MARK
will be deductedUp
to two weeks
after due date The assignment will be
accepted and marked as normal.
marks out of the RAW MARK
will be deductedUp
to three weeks
after due date
The assignment will
be accepted and marked as normal.
marks out of the RAW MARK
will be deducted;
Up to four weeks
after due date
Your assignment will be accepted but will not be
marked. It will be checked to make sure that it is a
serious attempt, and it will be given a mark of zero
However, you have fulfilled unit requirements, and so you are still eligible to complete the HPSC unit.
More than 28 days
after due date
Your assignment will no longer be accepted
You are no longer eligible to complete
For the University's Special Consideration Policy see:
For the University Policy on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism see:
Marking Criteria see:
For Guidelines on Re-marking graded work:
If you are unhappy with your essay mark, please meet with the marker of your essay (see signature at end of essay). They will explain the mark to you. If, after meeting with your
tutor, you want to apply for a re-mark of your essay, consult the HPS web-site for procedures to be followed.
These will be posted to Blackboard as soon as possible after marking.
HPS AND UNIVERSITY RESOURCES
The HPS main office is located in Carslaw 441 and operates during the semester on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday (hours may differ between semesters and the office is closed on
major holidays). Unit for HPS website: http://sydney.edu.au/hps/ HPS Essay Guide: http://sydney.edu.au/science/hps/undergraduate/resources/essay_guide.pdf
Learning Centre: http://sydney.edu.au/stuserv/learning_centre/
E-learning site: https://elearning.sydney.edu.au/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp
A required reader of texts for the lectures and the tutorials is available for purchase at cost
from the University Copy Centre. You will be expected to have read the tutorial material in advance
of the tutorial for which it is scheduled. In addition, books associated with the topics
of this unit of study will be placed in the special reserve section of Fisher Library. Some readings, particularly historical primary sources, may contain sexist or other types of
potentially offensive language, and are used for pedagogical purposes, but in no way represent the endorsement of such language or views. The Unit for HPS promotes and requires critical
and analytical reading of all materials used in its units of study.
Journals in which articles on conceptual issues in Psychology most frequently appear:
American Psychologist; Theory & Psychology; Philosophical Psychology; Journal for the
History of the Behavioural Sciences; Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology; New Ideas in Psychology; Journal of Constructivist Psychology; Journal for the Theory of
Social Behaviour; Behavior & Philosophy; Journal of Mind & Behavior; Mind; Philosophy, Psychiatry & Psychology
Journals in which articles on the History of Psychiatry appear:
History of Psychiatry; Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences; History of Psychology; Bulletin of the History of Medicine
, Journal of the History of Medicine and
Allied Sciences, Social History of Medicine
. For Australian sources see: Health and History
Blog on the history of psychiatry: H Madness: http://historypsychiatry.wordpress.com/ Background readings:
Leahey, T. H. (2004). A history of psychology: Main currents in psychological thought
Saddle River, NJ, Pearson Prentice Hall.
Eghigian, G., Ed. (2010). From madness to mental health: Psychiatric disorder and its
treatment in Western civilization
. New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press.
Note that lecture topic/material may change at the lecturer's discretion.
TIMETABLE – SECTION A
Psychology and the Philosophy of Science
5 March. The relationship between Psychology and Philosophy
In examining this relationship, we need to establish what is meant by the ‘philosophical test'
or ‘conceptual analysis' and why the philosophical test is so important to all science, including Psychology and Psychiatry. This is done through examining the nature of theory
and the hypothetico-deductive method. We also consider a metaphysical reason for philosophy's relevance to Psychology.
8 March. Logical Positivism and its Impact on Psychology: Operationalism
In this and the next lecture we examine the most influential of the philosophies of science on Psychology – logical positivism. A little of this philosophy needs to be understood in order to
recognise the role that it's played in shaping Psychology as a discipline. The most important legacy has been operationalism, i.e., the methodological dictum that Psychology operationally
define its variables. We examine operationalism's insurmountable logical difficulties and consider why the doctrine continues to live on.
12 March. Logical Positivism and its Impact on Psychology: Intervening variables
Logical positivism's scepticism towards metaphysics also influenced a scepticism in
Psychology towards hypothetical constructs. In this lecture, we differentiate between hypothetical constructs and intervening variables, and we examine the logical problems
involved in the latter.
15 March. Instrumentalism and Popper's theory of falsificationism in Psychology
Neither instrumentalism nor falsificationism make the truth of a theory the
In this lecture, we examine both doctrines, consider examples of them in Psychology, and
identify the problems associated with both.
19 March. Is Psychology still waiting for its first scientific paradigm?
What, if any, have been the influences of Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions
on Psychology? In this lecture, we examine Kuhn's account of science before considering
Psychology's appropriation of the Kuhnian model.
22 March. Are Psychology's observations theory-laden, theory-dependent, or theory-
If Kuhn et al. are right, all the observations made by scientists are paradigm/theory-laden. In this lecture, we discuss this possibility and its implications for an objective science of
26 March Social constructionism and post-modernism in Psychology
Kuhn's account of science was a significant influence on the social constructionist movement which developed in the 1980s. Social constructionism offers a radical alternative to
positivist-empiricist philosophies of science, and its influence in Psychology is greatest in the ‘softer' areas of the discipline. We consider some of constructionism's central tenets and the
logical problems they encounter.
Psychology and the Philosophy of Mind
29 March. Descartes, Dualism, and Cogito Ergo Sum
In this and the following lecture, we provide the intellectual context for the concepts of mind
that subsequently informed Psychology and Psychiatry. We examine Descartes' meta-physics, his mind-body dualism and his Cogito Ergo Sum
2 April. John Locke and British Empiricism
This lectures provides an overview of Locke's concept of ‘idea' and primary and secondary
qualities in the context of Cartesian and Newtonian physics.
5 April. The concept of behaviour
This lectures examines what must, and what cannot, be meant by the term ‘behaviour'? We
demonstrate three necessary components of any item of behaviour and explain why other analyses run into problems.
April 9-13 AVCC Week – No classes
16 April. The observability of mental processes and the concept of cognition
In the next two lectures, we consider whether cognition can be observed, mind-brain identity
theory, and a non-Cartesian, relational analysis of cognition.
19 April. The Mind-Brain Identity Thesis Week 7.
23 April. The concept of motivation
In this lecture, we examine the concepts of intention, purpose, disposition and instinctual drives.
TIMETABLE – SECTION B
History of Psychiatry
Psychiatry, Mental Illness, Mental Disorder
26 April. What Is Mental Illness? Asylums, Anti-Psychiatry and Labelling
Psychiatry has always been controversial. Critics have claimed that mental illness is not a disease and that psychiatrists merely medicalise and pathologise deviant or unusual
behaviour, thereby forcing individuals to conform to middle-class standards of propriety. In this lecture, an overview of the main criticisms that have been levelled against psychiatry
(asylums, anti-psychiatry and labelling theory) will be given.
Szasz, T. S. (1974). Introduction. In The myth of mental illness: Foundations of a
theory of personal conduct
(revised ed., pp. 1-13). New York: Harper & Row.
Rosenhan, D. L. (1973, Jan. 19). On being sane in insane places. Science, New Series,
Slater, L. (2004). On being sane in insane places: Experimenting with psychiatric
diagnosis. In Opening Skinner's box: Great psychological experiments of the twentieth century
(pp. 64-93). New York: Norton.
Thomas S. Szasz. The Manufacture of Madness: A Comparative Study of the
Inquisition and the Mental Health Movement
. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997, or. 1970;
For labelling theory see: Thomas J. Scheff. Being Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory
3rd ed. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1999.
About Laing consult Daniel Burston. The Wing of Madness: The Life and Work of
. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996; The Crucible of
Experience: R.D. Laing and the Crisis of Psychotherapy
. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000.
For historical overviews of anti-psychiatry see: Paul Laffey. "Antipsychiatry in
Australia: Sources for a Social and Intellectual History." Health and History
no. 2 (2003): 17-36.Erving Goffman. Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates
. New York: Achor Books/Doubleday,
Week 8. Mind and Mental Illness
30 April. Mind, Body, and Psychosomatic Medicine
An interest in the many connections between the mind and the body has characterised medical, popular and theological thought for centuries. After the rise of modern medicine,
with its focus on physical lesions, infections, and surgery, it became much harder to pursue
these interests within medicine.
Harrington, Anne. The Cure Within: A History of Mind-Body Medicine
. New York:
Norton, 2008. Pp. 88-101; 126-133.
T. H. Leahey, A history of psychology: Main currents in psychological thought
. 6th ed,
pp. 209-211; 228-243.
Harrington, Anne, ed. The Placebo Effect: An Interdisciplinary Explanation
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.
Hacking, Ian. "Making up People." In Reconstructing Individualism: Autonomy,
Individuality and the Self in Western Thought
, edited by Thomas C. Heller, 222-36. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1986.
Hacking, Ian. "Madness: Biological or Constructed?" In The Social Construction of
, 100-24. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Shorter, Edward. From Paralysis to Fatigue: A History of Psychosomatic Illness in the
. New York: Free Press, 1992.
3 May. The Origin of the Asylum
Psychiatry as a discipline originated in the mental hospital. Initially, lunatics were considered
animals because they had lost their reason. Harsh and brutal treatment awaited them. In the beginning of the 19th century, a different approach to mental illness became popular: moral
treatment. Doctors advocating moral treatment considered the mad as confused children in need of a gentle guidance. The treatment of the mentally ill improved considerably when the
ideals of moral treatment became popular. After mental hospitals increased in size and became overcrowded, the ideals of moral treatment were impossible to maintain.
Scull, A. (1989). The domestication of madness. In Social order/mental disorder: Anglo-
American psychiatry in historical perspective
(pp. 54-79). Berkeley: University of
The Madness of King George.
For moral treatment see Nancy Tomes. The Art of Asylum Keeping: Thomas Story
Kirkbride and the Origins of American Psychiatry
. Philadelphia: University of
Pennsylvania Press, 1994; Anne Digby. "Moral Treatment at the Retreat, 1796-1846." In The Anatomy of Madness: Essays in the History of Psychiatry
, edited by
W.F. Bynum, Roy Porter and Michael Shepherd, 52-72. London: Tavistock, 1983. For psychiatry in Australia and New Zealand see: Catharine Coleborne, and Dolly
MacKinnon, eds. ‘Madness' in Australia: Histories, Heritage and the Asylum
. Brisbane, Qld.: University of Queensland Press with the API Network, 2003.
Friday 4 May. Excursion to the site of the former Callan Park Mental
Excursion to the site and buildings of the former mental hospital at Callan Park, now the Sydney College of the Arts. Callan Park was one of the first mental hospitals in Australia and
was built according to the principles of moral treatment. When it opened in 1877, it was the most expensive structure ever built in Australia.
Attendance is voluntary.
Week 9. Neurasthenia and Hysteria
7 May. Neurasthenia and the Rest Cure
In the 1870s, the American neurologist George Miller Beard introduced neurasthenia, which was characterized by vague complaints such as depression, restlessness, irritability,
sleeplessness, fatigue, headaches, and the like. It primarily affected upper-middle class men engaged in desk work and intellectual labour. According to Beard, neurasthenia was one of
the consequences of the advances of civilisation, which taxed our brains beyond its natural capacities.
Rosenberg, C. E. (1962). The place of George M. Beard in nineteenth century psychiatry.
Bulletin of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 36
For a more general history of vague complaints within psychiatry see Edward Shorter.
From Paralysis to Fatigue: A History of Psychosomatic Illness in the Modern Era
. New York: Free Press, 1992. For an international perspective on neurasthenia see
Marijke Gijswijt-Hofstra, and Roy Porter. Cultures of Neurasthenia: From Beard to the First World War
. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2001.
10 May. Hysteria, Hypnosis, and Jean-Martin Charcot
In the 1880s, Jean-Martin Charcot introduced the diagnosis of hysteria for a wide variety of
psychological phenomena he had observed in his female patients in a Paris mental hospital. Hysterics generally suffered from local paralyses for which no neurological explanation could
be found. They were unusually susceptible to hypnosis. After Charcot's death, the diagnosis disappeared.
Showalter, E. (1985). Feminism and hysteria: The daughter's disease. In The female
malady: Women, madness, and English culture, 1830-1980
(pp. 145-164). New
Georges Didi-Huberman. The Invention of Hysteria: Charcot and the Photographic
Iconography of Salpetriere
. Translated by Alisa Hartz. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003; Sander L. Gilman, Helen King, Roy Porter, G.S. Rousseau, and Elaine Showalter.
Hysteria Beyond Freud
. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993; Mark Micale. Approaching Hysteria: Disease and Its Interpretations
. Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1995.
For hysteria today see Elaine Showalter. Hystories: Hysterical Epidemics and Modern
Culture: Alien Abduction, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Satanic Ritual Abuse, Recovered Memory, Gulf War Syndrome, Multiple Personality Syndrome
York: Columbia University Press, 1997.
Week 10. Psychoanalysis and mental hygiene
14 May. Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis
In 1900, Sigmund Freud published his Interpretations of Dreams
and developed his talking
cure for the treatment of hysteria and other mental disorders. According to Freud, mental disorders are rooted in life experiences and the internal psychological dynamics of desire and
its repression. Psychoanalysis, although always controversial, has profoundly influenced the history of psychiatry.
Forrester, J. (1998). Portrait of a dream reader. In M. S. Roth (Ed.), Freud: Conflict
(pp. 51-61). New York: Knopf.
T. H. Leahey, A history of psychology: Main currents in psychological thought
ed., pp. 264-293.
For a great (and adoring) biography of Freud see Peter Gay. Freud: A Life for Our
. New York: Norton, 1988; for a more critical analysis of Freud's work
see Frank J. Sulloway. Freud: Biologist of the Mind
. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1992.
For recent debates on Freud's influence see, for example, Frederick Crews. The
Memory Wars: Freud's Legacy in Dispute
. New York: New York Review Book, 1995; and Frederick Crews, ed. Unauthorized Freud: Doubters Confront
. New York: Penguin, 1998.
For psychoanalysis in Australia see: Joy Damousi. Freud in the Antipodes: A Cultural
History of Psychoanalysis in Australia
. Kensington, NSW: UNSW Press, 2005 and Stephen Garton. "Freud and the Psychiatrists: The Australian Debate, 1900
to 1940." In Intellectual Movements and Australian Society
, edited by Brian Head and James Walter, 170-87. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1988.
17 May. Mental Hygiene and the Psychiatric Diagnosis of Society
Mental hygienists were psychiatrists who wanted to bring psychiatry out of the mental
hospital and into the community. They wanted to make treatment available to more people before more severe forms of mental illness could develop. They believed that prevention was
better than cure. Mental hygienists also advocated far-reaching measures of social reconstruction to create a better society in which there would be fewer cases of mental illness.
Albee, G. W. (1990). The futility of psychotherapy. Journal of Mind and Behavior,
Pols, Hans. "‘Beyond the Clinical Frontiers': The Mental Hygiene Movement in the
United States." In International Relations in Psychiatry: Britain, Germany, and
the United States to World War II
, edited by Volker Roelcke, Paul J. Weindling and Louise Westwood, 111-33. Rochester, NY: Rochester University Press, 2010.
Pols, Hans. "Frankwood E. Williams on Finding a Way in Mental Hygiene." American
Journal of Public Health
96, no. 4 (2007): 616-19.
Pols, Hans. "August Hollingshead and Frederick Redlich: Poverty, Socioeconomic
Class, and Mental Illness." American Journal of Public Health
96, no. 10 (2007):
Ken Smith. Mental Hygiene: Classroom Films, 1945-1970
. New York: Blast Books,
Pols, H. (2001). Divergences in American psychiatry during the Depression: Somatic
psychiatry, community mental hygiene, and social reconstruction. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 37
Week 11. Biological psychiatry
21 May. Somatic Treatments in Psychiatry
The only Nobel Prize ever awarded for research in psychiatry and neurology went to the Portuguese neurologist Egaz Moniz, the inventor of lobotomy, in 1949. At the time of its
introduction in the 1930s, lobotomy was heralded as an exciting new surgical technique that could liberate thousands of patients from the mental hospital. Other somatic treatment
methods that were common before 1940 were: malaria fever therapy, metrazol shock therapy, insulin coma therapy, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
Braslow, J. T. (1996). The influence of a biological therapy on physician's narratives
and interrogations: The case of general paralysis of the insane and malaria fever
therapy, 1910-1950. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 70
For a history of somatic treatments in psychiatry see Joel T. Braslow. Mental Ills and
Bodily Cures: Psychiatric Treatment in the First Half of the Twentieth Century
Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1997. For a critical perspective see: Elliot S. Valenstein. Blaming the Brain: The Truth about Drugs and Mental
. New York: Free Press, 1998. For a favourable (and uncritical) perspective see: Edward Shorter. A History of Psychiatry: From the Era of the Asylum to the
Age of Prozac
. New York: John Wiley, 1997.
About lobotomy see: Elliot S. Valenstein. Great and Desperate Cures: The Rise and
Decline of Psychosurgery and Other Radical Treatments for Mental Illness
. New York: Basic Books, 1986. Jack D. Pressman. Last Resort: Psychosurgery and the
Limits of Medicine
. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
About ECT: Shorter, Edward, and David Healy. Shock Therapy: The History of
Electroconvulsive Treatment in Mental Illness
. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers
University Press, 2007.
24 May. DSM, Biological Psychiatry, and the Pharmaceutical Industry
The DSM is the Bible of diagnostic psychiatry. When your condition can be labelled with one
of the many diagnoses of the DSM, you have a disorder. In the past, psychiatric diagnoses, however, have turned out to be remarkably flexible. In 1980, homosexuality was voted out as
a mental disorder, at the same time when Posttraumatic Stress Disorder was voted in. Is there an objective or empirical basis for many of the disorders in the DSM?
Horwitz, A. V. (2002). The emergence of diagnostic psychiatry. In Creating mental
(pp. 56-82). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Moynihan, R., Heath, I., & Henry, D. (2002). Selling sickness: The pharmaceutical
industry and disease mongering. British Medical Journal, 324
For a well-known critiques of DSM-III see Stuart A. Kirk, and Herb Kutchins. The
Selling of DSM: The Rhetoric of Science in Psychiatry
. New York: Aldine de
Gruyter, 1992; Herb Kutchins, and Stuart A. Kirk. Making Us Crazy: DSM, the Psychiatric Bible and the Creation of Mental Disorders
. New York: Free
Press, 1997. Paula J. Caplan. They Say You're Crazy: How the World's Most Powerful Psychiatrists Decide Who's Normal
. New York: Perseus, 1995.
Vladan Starcevic. "Opportunistic ‘Rediscovery' of Mental Disorders by the Pharmaceutical Industry." Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
71, no. 6
For philosophical deliberations see: John Z. Sadler, ed. Descriptions and
Prescriptions: Values, Mental Disorders, and the DSMs
. Baltimore, MD: Johns
Hopkins University Press, 2002 and Rachel Cooper. "What Is Wrong with the DSM
?" History of Psychiatry
15, no. 1 (2004): 5-25.
Barber, Charles. 2009. Comfortably numb: How psychiatry is medicating a nation
New York: Vintage.
Week 12. War and Trauma
28 May. War, Trauma, and Psychiatry
Is participating in war inherently traumatic? The number of veterans with psychiatric
complaints has always been high. During World War I, soldiers were diagnosed with shell shock. During World War II, with war neurosis, combat fatigue, or combat stress. And after
the Vietnam War, the diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was introduced.
Pols, Hans. "The Tunisian Campaign, War Neuroses, and the Reorientation of
American Psychiatry During World War Ii." Harvard Review of Psychiatry
no. 6 (2011): 313-20.
Summerfield, D. (2001). The invention of post-traumatic stress disorder and the social
usefulness of a psychiatric category. British Medical Journal, 322
Pols, H. (1999). The repression of war trauma in American psychiatry after World
War II. In R. Cooter, M. Harrison & S. Sturdy (Eds.), Medicine and modern warfare
(pp. 251-276). Amsterdam/Atlanta: Rodopi.
Pols, Hans. "War Neurosis, Adjustment Problems in Veterans, and an Ill Nation: The
Disciplinary Project of American Psychiatry During and after World War II."
21 (2007): 72-92.
Pols, Hans, and Stephanie Oak. "War and Military Mental Health: The US Psychiatric
Response in the Twentieth Century." American Journal of Public Health
96, no. 12 (2007): 2132-42.
Wilbur J. Scott. "PTSD in DSM-III: A Case in the Politics of Diagnosis and Disease."
37, no. 3 (1990): 294-310; Ben Shephard. A War of Nerves:
Soldiers and Psychiatrists, 1914-1994
. London: Jonathan Cape, 2000; Hans Binnenveld. From Shellshock to Combat Stress: A Comparative History of
. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1997; Simon Wesseley, and Edgar Jones. Shell Shock to PTSD: Military Psychiatry from
1900 to the Gulf War
. Vol. 47, Maudsley Monographs
. New York: Psychology press for the Maudsley, 2005; Allan Young. The Harmony of Illusions:
Inventing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Withuis, Jolande, and Annet Mooij. The Politics of War Trauma: The
Aftermath of World War II in Eleven European Countries. Amsterdam:
31 May. Trauma, Repressed Memories, and False Memory Syndrome
In 1980, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder became part of the Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual, the diagnostic Bible of psychiatry. Psychiatrists applied this diagnosis to victims of rape, sexual abuse, violence, and natural disasters. These experiences are, not surprisingly,
associated with painful memories. Advocates of psychotherapy argued that therapy helped in uncovering memories which have been repressed because of their painful nature; critics
argued that psychotherapy merely created these memories, and that these were thereby false.
Loftus, E., & Ketcham, K. (1994). Entranced. In The myth of repressed memory: False
memories and allegations of sexual abuse
(pp. 8-19). New York: St. Martin's
For an overview of medical and psychiatric reactions to trauma see Mark S. Micale,
and Paul Lerner. Traumatic Pasts: History, Psychiatry, and Trauma in the Modern Age, 1870-1930
. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Chris R. Brewin. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Malady or Myth?
New Haven, CT:
Yale University Press, 2003. Richard J. McNally. Remembering Trauma
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003.
Fassin, Didier. The Empire of Trauma: An Inquiry into the Condition of Victimhood
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 1009.
4 June. Psychology and Psychiatry in the non-Western World
Both psychologists and psychiatrists claim to deal with universal categories. Yet some critics
argue that they embody Western approaches to Western minds. What about psychology and psychiatry in other parts of the world?
Pols, H. (2007). The nature of the native mind: Contested views of Dutch colonial
psychiatrists in the former Dutch East Indies. In S. Malone & M. Vaughan
(Eds.), Psychiatry and empire
. London: Palgrave MacMillan.
Saminaden, Annick, Stephen Loughnan, and Nick Haslam. 2010. Afterimages of
savages: Implicit associations between ‘primitives', animals and children. British Journal of Social Psychology
. To be published; available on the web.
Watters, Ethan. Crazy Like Us: The Globalization of the American Psyche
. New York:
Free Press, 2010.
Pols, Hans. "Psychological Knowledge in a Colonial Context: Theories on the Nature
of the "Native" Mind in the Former Dutch East Indies." History of Psychology
10, no. 2 (2007): 111-31.
Pols, Hans. "The Totem Vanishes, the Hordes Revolt: A Psychoanalytic Interpretation
of the Indonesian Struggle for Independence." In Unconscious Dominions: Psychoanalysis, Colonial Trauma, Sovereignties
, edited by Warwick
Anderson, Deborah Jenson and Richard Keller, 141-65. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011.
For psychiatry see: Megan Vaughan. Curing Their Ills: Colonial Power and African
. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991; Jonathan Sadowsky.
Imperial Bedlam: Institutions of Madness in Colonial Southwest Nigeria
. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999. For psychology see:
Psychology around the world.
See also: Nandy, Ashis. "The Non-Paradigmatic Crisis of Indian Psychology:
Reflections on a Recipient Culture of Science." Indian Journal of Psychology
49, no. 1 (1974): 1-20; Nandi, Ashis. The Savage Freud and Other Essays on
Possible and Retrievable Selves
. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Sexton, Virginia Staudt, and John D. Hogan, eds. International Psychology: Views
from around the World
. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.
7 June. Psychological Warfare during the Cold War
Guest lecturer: Gabrielle Kemmis
Immediately after World War II, psychologists and psychiatrists advised the US Government on ways to analyse Soviet minds, the role and effect of propaganda, how to analyse minds at a
distance, and how to engage in psychological warfare. A number of interesting experiments on brain-washing were performed as well.
Herman, Ellen. "The Career of Cold War Psychology." Radical History Review
, no. 63 (1995): 53-85.
Herman, Ellen, The Romance of American Psychology: Political Culture in the Age of
(Berkley: University of California Press, 1995).
Marks, John, The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: the CIA and Mind Control
Allen Lane, 1979).
Robin, Ron, The Making of the Cold War Enemy: Culture and Politics in the Military
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).
Simpson, Christopher, Science of Coercion: Communication Research and Psychological
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1994).
Osgood, Kenneth, Total Cold War: Eisenhower's Secret Propaganda Battle at Home and
(Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2006).
Copyright ! 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology Printed in the USA. All rights reserved 0301-5629/$ - see front matter d Original Contribution RADIAL EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE THERAPY (RESWT) INDUCES NEW BONE FORMATION IN VIVO: RESULTS OF AN ANIMAL STUDY IN RABBITS HANS GOLLWITZER,TIMO GLOECKMICHAELA ROESSNER,RUPERT LANGER,y CARSTEN HORN,z UDGER GERDESMEYER,x and PETER DIEHL
232330 Scient Oms 03 05-04-21 08.00 Sida 3 Scientific Backgrounder, updated 2005Produced by Aerocrine provider of NIOX® and NIOX MINO™ Exhaled Nitric OxideA Noninvasive Marker for Inflammation 232330 Scient Oms 03 05-04-26 12.41 Sida 4 Table of Contents D. Detection of Steroid Unresponsiveness E. Prediction of Loss of Control of Asthma