Ndma.co.sz


National Multi Hazard Contingency Plan
2012 to 2013
July 2012
KINDGOM OF SWAZILAND
Page 1 of 107

FOREWORD

The impact of global climate change has not spared Swaziland. Climate and weather
experts have predicted that this country, like other countries in the world, will experience
climate change that will inhibit human development and food security in the short and
longer terms. Swaziland has experienced an increase in hazardous events like flash
floods, drought, storms, extreme temperatures, wildfire, disease outbreaks, significant
damage to ecosystems, threats to agriculture production and food security. These
hazards have become more frequent and intense. This year alone, the country
experienced threats from cyclone Dando and Irina, respectively albeit without causing
any significant adverse effects revealing Swaziland's vulnerability to such climate and
weather hazards. Natural hazards such as cyclones cannot be prevented from
occurring, but their effects can be mitigated through early warning systems and effective
emergency preparedness, mitigation, disaster response and early recovery systems.
As a result of extreme climatic events, the country has experienced numerous droughts;
effects of which reduced food production and threatening food security, human, financial
and other losses. It is presented that many countries across the globe will see a fall in
gross domestic product (GDP) with the dry spells cutting down agricultural production.
The fiscal crisis in the country is occurring in the background of a fragile risk profile
resulting from threats of natural hazards such as cyclones, storms, flash floods,
drought/dry spells with possibility of triggering outbreak of epidemics such as cholera,
waterborne diseases and malaria. The fiscal crisis, compounded b y r i s i n g f o o d
p r i c e s , severely impacts p o o r e r households and vulnerable groups such as
households with members living with HIV. All these challenges have motivated the
country to develop the Multi Hazard Contingency plans in order to better prepare and
mitigate the adverse effects of potential weather and climate hazards.
The National Multi Hazard Contingency Plan (MHCP) demonstrates Government's
commitment to preventing and mitigating the effects of natural disasters. Successful
implementation of the plan requires concerted efforts and collaboration from all
stakeholders. I am informed that the plan was developed through a participatory and
inclusive multi-sectoral process involving stakeholders from Government, the United
Nations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the Private Sector.
I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to all stakeholders for their inputs and
collaboration in ensuring effective and successful prevention and mitigation of effects of
natural disasters and protecting livelihoods of the Swazi Nation.
Deputy Prime Minister
Senator Themba N. Masuku

Page 2 of 107
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Office of the Deputy Prime Minister would like to acknowledge the effort of all
stakeholders whose inputs resulted to the production of the National Multi Hazard
Contingency Plan covering the period from May 2012 to April 2013. The plan was
developed through an inclusive and participatory process involving all sectors from
Government, the UN, NGOs and Private Sector representatives.
We are indebted to the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Regional Office for Southern Africa for financial and technical support.
We are so grateful to the United Nations Resident Coordinator's Office, the United
Nations Agencies, NGOs and Private Sector stakeholders who provided various
technical inputs for the drafting of the contingency plan.
Special thanks go to the United Nations World Food Programme for the provision of
technical and financial assistance. Mr. Joseph Mutsigwa, Disaster Risk Reduction
consultant who facilitated preparation of the National Multi Hazard Contingency Plan
was provided through financial support from the United Nations World Food Programme
in collaboration with the National Disaster Management Agency.
Khangeziwe Mabuza
Principal Secretary, DPMO

Page 3 of 107
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

ART
Anti Retroviral Therapy Acute Watery Diarrhoea Central Transport Authority Disaster Management Fund Deputy Prime Minister's Office Emergency Preparedness and Response Early Warning Systems Gender Based Violence Government of Swaziland Household Economy Approach Immediate Disease Notification System January February March Multi-hazard Contingency Plan Ministry of Housing and Urban Development Ministry of Information Communication and Technology Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Education and Training Ministry of Health Ministry of Home Affairs Ministry of Housing and Urban Development Ministry of Public Works and Transport Ministry of Tinkhundla Administration and Development Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Affairs Neighbourhood Care Point National Disaster Management Agency Non Governmental Organisation OCHA-ROSA Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs-Regional Office for Southern October November December Orphans and Vulnerable Children People Living with HIV and Aids People Living with Disability Royal Swaziland Police Rural Water Supply Branch SADC RVAA Southern Africa Development Community Regional Vulnerability Assessment Standard Operating Procedures Sexual and Reproductive Health Sexual Transmitted Infection Swaziland Vulnerability Assessment Committee Swaziland Water Services Corporation United Nations Country Team Page 4 of 107
United Nations Development Programme United Nations Population Fund United Nations Children Emergency Fund United Nations Resident Coordinator United Nations Resident Coordinator's Office Umbutfo Swaziland Defence Forces Water Sanitation and Hygiene World Food Programme World Health Organisation Page 5 of 107
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page 6 of 107
Page 7 of 107
1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
As a result of climate change, Swaziland has, in recent years, experienced cyclic
weather and climate hazards including drought, floods and storms (i.e. windstorms,
hailstorms and cyclones). The weather and climate related hazards which affect
Swaziland are unpreventable but can be mitigated through early warning systems and
putting in place effective preparedness, response mitigation and early recovery
systems. The highest adverse impact from natural hazards is associated with droughts.
As a result of persistent drought, the country has failed to produce enough food to cover
domestic requirements, contributing to food insecurity of an estimated 20-25% of the
population (UN Complementary Country Assessment, 2010). As drought persists across
the country, access to clean water and sanitation remains limited for much of the
population, contributing to mortality and morbidity from diarrhoea and other intestinal
disorders, particularly among children (Ibid).
The weather and climate hazards are occurring in a country facing a fiscal crisis with a
potential to exacerbate the country's already fragile risk profile due to its heavy reliance
on an agro-based economy. It is argued that the fiscal crisis, compounded by rising food
prices, can severely impact poorer households and vulnerable groups such as
households with members living with HIV (UN Rapid Assessment of the Impact of Fiscal
Crisis in Swaziland, 2012). The poor are the net buyers of food and are therefore
particularly vulnerable to food price shocks. The latest census shows that 79% of
Swazis live in rural areas where they are dependent on rain fed agriculture. In recent
years, the level of vulnerability for this group has increased as a result of recurrent
drought.
The National Disaster Management Agency (NDMA) under the Office of the Deputy
Prime Minister (DPMO) with support from Government ministries and departments, the
United Nations system and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has coordinated
the development of the National Multi Hazard Contingency Plan (MHCP). The MHCP
provides a framework for implementing preparedness, response, mitigation and early
recovery measures to potential impact of drought/dry spells, floods and storms (i.e.
windstorms, hailstorms and cyclones) which are likely to cause disasters. The
occurrence of these natural hazards will most likely trigger outbreak of epidemics such
as cholera, malaria and waterborne diseases. Therefore the Contingency Plan
articulates what the Government of Swaziland will do prevent or reduce any potential
adverse impacts emanating from natural and man-made hazards. The plan covers
period from May 2012 to April 2013.
Since most of the natural hazards that affect the country are weather and climate
related, climate and weather forecasts are vital before, during and after the disaster
period. It is therefore important to develop an effective communication and information
system between producers and users of climate and weather information in order to
enhance early warning and preparedness. The impact of climate and weather hazards
affects all sectors. In line with this view, the development of the MHCP followed an
inclusive, participatory and multi-sectoral involving all stakeholders from eight sectors
Page 8 of 107
namely: (1) Agriculture and Food Security; (2) Education; (3) Health and Nutrition; (4) Water, Sanitation and Hygiene; (5) Protection; (6) Logistics; (7) Camp Coordination Management, Emergency Shelter and Non-Food Items; and (8) Emergency ICT. The contingency plan is in line with provisions of the National Disaster Management Act, 2006 and the newly revised National Disaster Risk Management Policy of 2010. This National Multi Hazard Contingency Plan is a living document. While the National Multi Hazard Contingency Plan will be reviewed annually, constant updates by all stakeholders will continue to be provided to address changes in the hazard, risk profile and scenarios. Page 9 of 107
2.0 INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXT

This National Multi Hazard Contingency Plan (MHCP) covers the period of May 2012 to
April 2013. It largely focuses on specific hydro meteorological hazards: drought/dry
spells, floods and storms (i.e. windstorms, rainstorms and cyclones) which are likely to
cause disasters within the next twelve months. It is expected that the occurrence of
such natural hazards will trigger epidemic prone diseases including cholera and malaria.
The plan was developed through a participatory and inclusive multi-stakeholder process
involving stakeholders from Government, the United Nations and non-governmental
organizations (NGOs). It aims to promote a coordinated approach to preparedness and
response before, during and after emergencies. The contingency plan is in line with
provisions of the National Disaster Management Act, 2006 and the National Disaster
Risk Management Policy, 2010.
The National Disaster Risk Management Policy (GoS, 2010) states that each institution
and sector should review and periodically update their disaster risk management and
contingency plans at all levels with particular focus on the most vulnerable areas and
groups. Thus development of this MHCP is in compliance with the policy. It is informed
by vulnerability assessment, analysis of hazard and risk profile of the country in the next
twelve months.
Weather and climate hazards which affect Swaziland are unpreventable but can be
mitigated through early warning systems and putting in place effective preparedness
and response coordination. Drought, lightning, cyclones, windstorms and flash floods
are predominant weather and climate related disasters in Swaziland. The highest
adverse impact is associated with droughts. Weather, climate information and forecasts
are vital before, during and after the disaster period. Since the 1980's, levels of disaster
risk have been on the increase mainly due to the erosion of household assets and
increased morbidity and mortality levels due to HIV/AIDS, deepening food insecurity
due to erratic rainfall, economic shocks, poverty and the declining capacity of national
institutions to effectively respond to hazard events (National Disaster Risk Management
Policy, 2010). The table below is a compilation of some of the hydro meteorological and
epidemiological hazards that have affected Swaziland since 2001.
Page 10 of 107
Table 1: Profile of hazard events

Population Affected
Hydro meteorological Hazards
Strong winds/ Windstorms Hailstorms, thunder & lightning Epidemiological Hazards
 TB incidence rate 1198 per 100,000 population  TB mortality rate 317 Man-made Hazards
Source: EM-DAT (2005; 2007) www.em-dat.net; Swaziland Vulnerability Reports, 2006 & 2007
* NDMA/Baphalali Red Cross, 2008. Bush fire disaster report & Storms assessment reports 2010/11
In addition to persistent poverty, high unemployment, and negative effects of the
HIV/AIDS epidemic, Swaziland is currently facing a fiscal crisis (UN Rapid Assessment
of the Impact of Fiscal Crisis in Swaziland, 2012). It is argued that the fiscal crisis,
compounded by rising food prices, adversely impacts poorer households and vulnerable
groups such as households with members living with HIV. The fiscal crisis is occurring
Page 11 of 107
in the background of a fragile risk profile resulting from threats of natural hazards such
as cyclones, flash floods, drought/dry spells with possibility of triggering outbreak of
epidemics such as cholera and malaria. While the National Multi Hazard Contingency
Plan will be reviewed annually, constant updates by all stakeholders will continue to be
done to address changes in the hazard, risk profile and scenarios.
2.1 Overall Objective

The overall objective of the National Multi Hazard Contingency Plan is to mount a timely
and coordinated response to anticipated hydro meteorological hazards and the resultant
epidemiological hazards from May 2012 to April 2013. This is done in order to minimize
potential humanitarian, economic and environmental consequences.
2.1.1 Specific objectives

1. To mitigate effects of drought/dry spells; flash floods; rainstorms/windstorms 2. To prevent or reduce incidence of epidemiological hazards; and other outbreaks associated with the above stated hydro meteorological hazards; 3. To mount a coordinated emergency preparedness and response system and ensure early recovery to affected communities. 2.2 Contingency Plan Layout

Section 1.0 and 2.0 of the Multi- Hazard Contingency Plan (MHCP) presents the
executive summary followed by introduction and context. The introduction and context
explains the hydro meteorological hazards namely drought/ dry spells; floods and
storms (windstorms/hailstorms and cyclones) which are likely to cause disasters within
the next twelve months timeframe of the plan. The outbreak of such natural hazards is
likely to trigger epidemic prone diseases including cholera and malaria which are also
addressed by the contingency plan (see annex 3 Health sector response plan). The
overall and specific objectives including activation of the MHCP are also discussed
under section 2.0.
Section 3.0 presents vulnerability analysis including possible humanitarian
consequences of the floods, storms (cyclones) and drought on sectors. Section 4.0
presents an overview of national capacity in terms systems and mechanisms to tackle
disasters. Sections 5.0 and 6.0 respectively presents hazard and risk analysis, scenario
planning and development including early warning and monitoring of drought; and
floods, storms and cyclones. This is followed by section 7.0 and 8.0 which respectively
discuss the coordination and management arrangements; roles and responsibilities of
sectors. Section 9.0 presents information management modalities followed by sectors
preparedness and response plans which are presented in annexes.
Page 12 of 107
2.3 Activation of the MHCP

The National Multi Hazard Contingency Plan is activated immediately adoption by the
Government of Swaziland. Activation signifies that all coordination mechanisms, roles
and responsibilities of the various clusters are in effect. Each cluster, in collaboration
with their relevant stakeholders, are responsible for executing actions as stated in
preparing and responding to the identified imminent hazards. Activation of response
activities during the emergency period will be determined by threshold and indicators
set/agreed upon by Sectors (see Sector Response Plans Annex 1-8).
3.0 VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS

3.1 Drought/Dry Spells

As a result of drought, the production of crops and potential livestock is reduced
significantly. Drought may result in the low nutritional status or death of the affected
population. Food insecurity affects the capacity of households to provide food for
themselves and may result in malnutrition, leaving the household susceptible to disease
due to this lowered nutrient uptake. In the most extreme cases, this leads to death.
Children, people living with HIV/AIDS and the elderly are the most at risk population.
Incidents of gender based violence, exploitation, sexual and economic abuse may
increase as a result of food insecurity. The situation is further compounded in Swaziland
by the prevailing financial crisis, HIV/AIDS, chronic poverty and reduction in social
service delivery. According to the seasonal forecast for 2011/2012, the Lubombo
Plateau was most likely to be affected by dry spells (especially in the JFM quarter)
including some areas in the Highveld, Middleveld and Lowveld.
3.2 Floods and Storms/ Cyclones

The areas that are most vulnerable to moderate and severe floods during the rainy
season are those located partly in catchment areas of rivers and dams. According to the
seasonal forecast for 2011/2012 these are areas in the Middleveld and Lowveld of the
country.
3.3 Epidemic Outbreaks

Floods may trigger outbreaks of water borne diseases, cholera, and malaria. Drought
may result in the development of acute malnourishment of children under 5, lactating
and pregnant women, and other vulnerable groups (including PLHIVA and tuberculosis)
at various stages of moderate to severe malnutrition. Antiretroviral medications and
programmes for vulnerable populations may be negatively affected. Disaster may give
rise to incidence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) including the transmission of HIV
through negative coping strategies. Other health and related challenges include a
reduction in access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, increase in GBV,
sexual, economic abuse and neglect especially of women, children, PLWD and other
vulnerable groups.
Page 13 of 107
Polio is another condition that the country can experience re-emergence. As long as virus transmission continues in any part of the world, the possibility of virus importation to polio free regions remains. This importation could be detected by the AFP surveillance system through isolation of wild polio virus in an AFP case (with or without history of travel to a polio endemic area) or through isolation of wild polio virus in sewage or environmental samples. The recent polio outbreaks in other African/ Middle East countries are examples of this. Also, due to down scaling of SIAs, both in terms of size and numbers, coupled with low OPV coverage levels under routine immunization, the possibility of declining community immunity levels against polio virus will be there. Such a situation can facilitate circulation of vaccine virus in the community for prolonged periods with a danger of mutation of vaccine virus to VDPV which in addition to virulence also acquires transmissibility and a possibility of occurrence of clusters of polio cases. Figure 1 & 2: Implications of OND and JFM 2011/12 Forecast for Agriculture & Water
Minimal chances of flooding,
Dry spells less likely to occur,
River flooding likely to be a problem
Minimal chances of river flooding,
Dry spells likely to occur,
Water availability likely to be a problem
Page 14 of 107



Source:
Swazi MET, 2011. Swaziland Seasonal Rainfall Forecast for the year 2011/12 Season
3.4 Possible Humanitarian Impacts of Floods, Storms (cyclones) and
Drought on Sectors

Agriculture and Food Security
 Damage to crops.  Temporary aggravated acute food insecurity due to loss of household food supply, reduced access to food, displacement, and disruption of other food interventions such as NCPs, School feeding programmes.  Medium-term acute food insecurity as a result of loss of assets, livelihoods, crops, livestock, land and coping strategies. Education
 Destruction of school buildings and teaching/learning materials.  Inaccessibility to schools.  Disruption of education.
 Reduction in school attendance and retention.
 Disruption of life skills education.
Health and Nutrition
 Disruption of provision to basic health services.  Increase in communicable diseases, such as cholera, malaria, polio, measles, dysentery and diarrhoeal diseases, acute malnutrition, chronic malnutrition, acute respiratory infections, fever, eye and skin diseases, and conjunctivitis.  May lead to increase in STI and HIV infections. Page 15 of 107
 Destruction and/or inaccessibility to health clinics.  Loss of medical equipment and drugs.  Increased gender-based violence.  Aggravated malnutrition due to acute food shortage.  Increased risk of disease such as malaria, cholera and diarrhoea.  Reduced access to health and social services.  Disruption of HIV/AIDS services such as ART to PLHIVA and Tuberculosis; Therapeutic and Supplementary Feeding, NCP programmes etc.  Increase in maternal mortality and morbidity due to lack of access to health clinics and RH services and an increase in malnutrition rates (which also increase the likelihood of complicated deliveries and miscarriages). Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
 Contamination of water sources.  Inadequate safe water.  Inadequate sanitation and hygiene. Protection (including OVC and Child Protection)
 Loss of life, increase of orphans.  Loss of assets and property.  Increased gender-based violence, exploitation, neglect and abuse.  Internal displacement of people and domestic animals.  Increased sexual exploitation and abuse, particularly of women and children.  Disruption of coping mechanisms or severe coping mechanism/strategies adopted.  Separation of children from parents and caretakers.  Possible trauma and psychological distress.  Work overload for women who are the caretakers of those who are sick and orphans.  Damage to public infrastructure (roads, bridges, power supply, communication).  Temporary loss of shelter.  Damaged buildings (such as schools, houses etc) and property.  Exertion of pressure on available public institutions such as classrooms in schools, police stations and health centres.  Challenges to communal hygienic practices while occupying temporary shelter in communal institutional places. Page 16 of 107
4.0 CAPACITY ANALYSIS

As a result of the financial crisis, the Government of Swaziland (GoS) has insufficient
financial resources to provide relief assistance to affected communities. The National
Disaster Management Agency (NDMA) has E15 million allocated for relief assistance to
affected communities in the 2012/13 financial year. The National Disaster Management
Act of 2006 (S35) states that the NDMA Director is responsible for managing a Disaster
Management Fund (DMF) set up by the Minister of Finance, which includes funds
raised through donations and disbursements for emergency relief purposes (Ibid).
The NDMA has insufficient institutional capacity to provide effective coordination of the
Inter-Cluster coordination system of the Multi Hazard Contingency Plan. Institutional
structures and activities of the NDMA have not been effectively decentralised to the
regional, Inkhundla and community levels. Additionally, the NDMA has insufficient
institutional capacity to provide financial support to communities affected by disasters.
As a result of institutional capacity constraints, the NDMA had an 80% underutilisation
of funds in the 2011/12 financial year meant to assist communities affected by disasters.
Cooperating partners such as the UN System, Non-Governmental Organisations (local
and international) and others have been providing various emergency preparedness
and response (EPR), assessments and early recovery assistance to the Government of
Swaziland through the NDMA and other government line ministries and departments. It
is hoped that the Inter-Cluster Coordination arrangement will assist to complement the
NDMA's capacity in order to effectively provide EPR, assessments and early recovery
assistance to affected communities in the country.
With regards responding to health emergencies/epidemics, the Ministry of Health
(MOH) has a well developed emergency preparedness and response system (EPR)
with a dedicated EPR department responsible for providing leadership and coordination
on health emergencies, providing Emergency Medical Services/Ambulance Service,
shaping the health emergency research agenda, setting norms and standards,
articulating evidence-based policy options for disaster risk management for health,
monitoring disease outbreaks and assessing performance of health system during
emergencies.
The Ministry of Health leads the Health and Nutrition clusters and responds to detected
or suspected events in collaboration with partners operating in this sector, including
communities. The MOH has established an Electronic Immediate Disease Notification
system (IDNS) that reports defined events on detection to the Emergency Preparedness
and Response (EPR) Programme, which then disseminates the information to those
tasked to initiate the response. The cluster remains on high alert whenever events of
public health concern are reported in the region like a cholera outbreak in a
neighbouring country.
The health cluster has a dedicated National Ambulance Service (EMS) which offer
services up to the level of Advanced Life Support countrywide with First Line
Page 17 of 107
Responders in case of emergencies and/or disasters and also play a leading role in mass casualty management. The cluster also has a National Cholera Contingency Plan that received regional acclaim at an UN OCHA regional workshop held in February 2009. For water, sanitation and hygiene, a key trigger will be an increase in the number of cases of Acute Watery Diarrhoea (AWD) as reported by health facilities. The Department of Water Affairs (DWA) in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy (MNRE) leads the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Cluster/Sector. The Swaziland Agriculture Food and Nutrition Security Forum exist but is not fully operational (SVAC, 2011). The forum is mandated to coordinate humanitarian and development assistance aimed at improving household and national food and nutrition security. Similarly, all sectors/clusters have some form of sectoral coordination and management mechanism but are at varying degree of development and operation. It is hoped that the Inter-Cluster Coordination arrangement proposed in the MHCP will be further strengthened with the aim to improve intra and inter-cluster collaboration for effective coordination and management of EPR, assessment and early recovery assistance to affected communities in Swaziland. Page 18 of 107
DROUGHT AND DRY SPELLS

5.0 HAZARD AND RISK ANALYSIS

The following section present drought/dry spells a major natural hazard that was
identified as priority risk during two participatory missions conducted by the UN OCHA-
ROSA in December 2011 and February 2012.
5.1 Drought and dry spells

Despite probability of receiving normal to above normal rainfall in the 2011/2012
seasonal forecast, agriculture production is always challenged in Swaziland by a wide
range of factors. These include access to inputs such as fuel for tractors, seeds and
fertiliser having a negative effect on food production output and food security. The
situation may be compounded by unpredictable dry spells before planting and the
possibility of floods and storms/cyclones damaging crops. The occurrence of drought
may affect growth of pasture/fodder, negatively affecting livestock production. Major
droughts which affected significant portions of Swaziland occurred in 1984, 1991/92,
2001, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010 seasons (See Table 1). As can be noted, the
Droughts have become more frequent in the past decade, as reflected in Table 1.
Drought conditions have resulted in severe environmental impacts including the loss of
vegetation (due to several factors such as deforestation and soil degradation leading to
desertification); loss of forest quality and vegetation migration; reduced water availability
and degradation of aquatic systems and ecosystems with the extinction of local fauna
and flora.
From the foregoing, three scenarios for the 2011/12 season may be presented:
Scenario 1: Localised drought affecting a small number of households. Under this
scenario, not more that 1.1% of the population is affected representing approximately
11,745 people. This is the best case scenario.
Scenario 2: Some parts of the country have below normal rainfall. Drought conditions
are experienced affecting crop production. About 39% of households totalling about
55,095 people are food insecure as a result of the dry spells while 131,909 people are
facing livelihood deficit (SVAC, 2011). The Lubombo region has the highest population
(33,111) people who are food insecure (SVAC, 2011). This is the most likely scenario.
Scenario 3: The whole country receives below normal rainfall as a result of El Nino.
Crops perform badly resulting into widespread food shortages. As a worst case
scenario, where drought is wide spread, this situation compares with that obtained in
2006/2007 where about 345,012 people were affected. Up to 30% of the population is
food insecure, translating to approximately 320,320 people being food insecure.
Page 19 of 107
Results of the 2011/2012 SVAC assessment will be available around July 2012. It is important to make the necessary amendments to the scenarios in line with the SVAC report. Potential Hazard
Justification (Likely impacts)
Drought/ prolonged dry spells
 Prolonged localised dry spells during the crucial maize in certain parts of the country
growing period affecting about 6% of the population.  Significant increase in input and food prices.  Severe shortage of the  Crop estimates projecting a loss of 30% of current yields of availability of water due maize resulting in food shortages at household level. to extended periods  Death of livestock. without rainfall resulting  Destruction of the environment and its resources thus in the loss of life, affecting livelihoods. livelihoods and damage  Reduced access to water for domestic purposes especially to the environment. in the dry Shiselweni and Lubombo Regions.  Drying up of boreholes and smaller water sources such as  Rationing of water use especially in the agriculture sector which is first to be rationed resulting in adverse impacts on  Serious health repercussions manifesting in epidemic prone diseases such as cholera and malaria. The following scenarios are centred on drought emergency as a result of a severe shortage of the availability of water due to extended periods of time without rainfall. Best Case
Worst Case Scenario
Most Likely Scenario
Scenario
 Localised dry  30% loss of current crop  Loss of current crop yields spells affecting a yields resulting in food resulting in food shortages shortages at national at household level. 39% HH totalling about 55,095  Low crop yields  30% of population, people are food insecure. resulting in food approximately 320,320  Destruction of the people being food household level.  Reduced access to water Drought/ dry
 Not more than  Death of livestock. for domestic purposes  Destruction of the especially in the dry environment and its Shiselweni and Lubombo resources thus affecting  Drying up of boreholes and  Reduced access to smaller water sources water for domestic such as springs.  Low livestock  Rationing of water use  Application of rationing especially in the agriculture  Reduced access even for domestic Page 20 of 107
 Outbreak of epidemic  Drying up of boreholes prone diseases such as and water sources such cholera, malaria etc.  Drying up of  Rationing of water use especially in the agriculture sector which is first to be rationed resulting in adverse impacts on the economy.  Serious health repercussions manifesting in epidemic prone diseases such as cholera, malaria etc.  Need to declare national disaster and distribute food to affected communities. Very dry regions of Location and
Lubombo, Shiselweni and Geography
parts of Manzini Duration of
Years to several months Emergency
 Below annual average rainfall recorded. Below annual average rainfall Lack of rains during Triggers
 Water storage the rainy season. reservoirs almost  Meteorological  Meteorological forecasts  Meteorological forecasts  Rainfall recordings  Rainfall recordings  Hydrological data and  Hydrological data and dam dam water levels Early warning
 Hydrological data  Vegetation cover  Vegetation cover  Vegetation cover  Low rainfall  Low rainfall  Low rainfall  Low water levels  Low water levels  Low water levels Indicators
 Dam storage levels  Dam storage levels  Vegetation cover  Vegetation cover Page 21 of 107
Sources of
Information
Response
capacity
Priority needs
 Food parcels for  Food parcels for
5.2 SCENARIO AND PLANNING ASSUMPTIONS

5.2.1 Drought/dry spells

Scenario
Description
Planning Assumption
Best Case Scenario
Localised dry
 Low crop yields resulting in food shortages at household level.  Low livestock productivity. affecting a small
 Reduced access to water for domestic purposes.  Drying up of some boreholes. of households
 GoS has adequate capacity to provide relief assistance to affected communities. Most Likely Scenario
 Significant increase in input and food prices.  Prolonged localised dry spells during the crucial maize growing period affecting about 6% of the population.  Crop estimates projecting a loss of 30% of current yields of Prolonged dry
maize resulting in food shortages at household level. 39% HH spells in
totalling about 55,095 people are food insecure. certain parts of the
 Death of livestock.  Destruction of the environment and natural resources thus affecting livelihoods.  Reduced access to water for domestic purposes especially in the dry Shiselweini and Lubombo Regions.  Drying up of boreholes & smaller water sources such as  Rationing of water use especially in the agriculture sector which is first to be rationed resulting in adverse impacts on the economy. Page 22 of 107
 Outbreak of epidemic prone diseases such as cholera and  The GoS requires implementation capacity from cooperating partners especially those with programmes in affected communities to provide relief assistance.  Support for the households is required for 3 months especially during lean months. Worst Case Scenario
 30% loss of current crop yields resulting in food shortages at national level (more than 2 regions).  30% of population, approximately 320,320 people being food  Death of livestock.  Destruction of the environment and its resources thus affecting  Reduced access to water for domestic purposes. Extensive Drought
 Application of rationing even for domestic purposes.  Drying up of boreholes and water sources such as springs.  Rationing of water use especially in the agriculture sector which is first to be rationed resulting in adverse impacts on the economy.  Serious health repercussions manifesting in epidemic prone diseases such as cholera and malaria.  GoS capacity to respond to the emergency is inadequate.  GoS declares a national disaster and request for relief assistance from the UN, NGOs and other cooperating development partners in country and external. Page 23 of 107
5.3 EARLY WARNING AND MONITORING

5.3.1 Early Warning Indicators for Drought

 Persistent dry conditions
 Low rainfall recordings  Hydrological data and dam showing low water levels  Stunted vegetation cover (velds, bushlands, woodlands etc) 5.3.2 Primary and Other Source of Information for drought
5.3.2.1 Primary source

 The Swaziland Meteorological Services on weather, rainfall forecasting and actual performance such as readings of rainfall amounts.  Swaziland Agro-meteorological Updates on agriculture weather, rainfall, temperature and climate patterns  Weather bulletins and forecasts identifying areas with continuous dry spells  FEWS-Net on likely hazards for the season.
5.3.2.1 Additional Sources

 The Department of Water Affairs (DWA) in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy (MNRE) on water levels in dams and rivers.  Swaziland Meteorological Services, Ministry of Tourism and Environmental  The Southern African Regional Climate Outlook Forum (SARCOF)  Humanitarian Early Warning Service (HEWS  USAID FEWS-Net Africa Weather Hazard Benefits Assessments.  World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) www.worldweather.org.  International Research Institute for Climate Prediction Page 24 of 107
FLOODS AND STORMS
6.0 HAZARD AND RISK ANALYSIS

6.1 Floods and Storms (windstorms/rainstorms/cyclones)

As a result of climate variability and change, the country is faced with recurrent floods
and storms (windstorms/rainstorms/cyclones) resulting in significant humanitarian
consequences (See Table 1). According to the 2011/2012 seasonal rainfall forecast, it
was predicted that there was probability of receiving normal to above normal rainfall. In
the first quarter i.e. from OND, it was predicted that there was probability of river
flooding especially in the Middleveld. The Lowveld was most likely to experience river
flooding in the second quarter i.e. JFM.
The country recently experienced the effects of two cyclones: cyclone Dando and
cyclone Irina. The effects of cyclone Dando were most evident in the rainfall amounts
received as most stations recorded close to 100mm and some recorded above 100mm
of rainfall in one day (24 hours). The rains received in this second dekad were much
above the long term average (MTEA, January 2012). Cyclone Dando was the first storm
since Tropical Storm Domino in 1984 to hit southern Mozambique. Heavy rains across
southern parts of the country triggered significant flooding, prompting officials to urge
residents in flood-prone areas to evacuate. Along the coast, waves up to 6 m (20 ft)
prevented fishermen from leaving port. Rains from the storm also impacted parts of
Zimbabwe and Swaziland (Ibid). As a result of Cyclone Irina, Big Bend in the Lubombo
Plateau (LP) received about (200mm) rainfall and most rivers within the LP were
reported to be flooded. However, there were no significant destructive effects reported.
It is important to update the scenarios once the seasonal rainfall forecast for 2012/2013
is produced.
Potential Hazard
Justification (Likely impacts)
 Over flooding of bridges preventing access to homes and various services.  Drowning of people and livestock.  Displacement of people. Flooding due to heavy rains
 Submergence of property and planted agricultural lands. and cyclones
 Severe damage to property and infrastructure such road networks, telecommunication lines, power lines and water supply networks.  Outbreak of epidemics such as cholera, dysentery and malaria.  Damaged infrastructure such telecommunications lines, power lines, roads etc. Wind storms and hailstorms  Damaged buildings (such as schools, houses etc) and property.
 Displacement of people.  Damaged crops. Page 25 of 107
Even though weather and climate hazards cannot be prevented, their impacts can be mitigated through early warning systems and putting in place effective preparedness and response coordination. The following scenarios are centred on flood emergencies as a result of heavy rains and cyclones. Best Case Scenario
Worst Case Scenario
Most Likely Scenario
Rains above average Cyclone leading to dam Indicators:
Indicators:
Indicators:
 One in five year  One in 50 year floods.  One in 20 year  Flows in the Usuthu  Flows in the Usuthu River at Gauging  Flows in the Usuthu River at Gauging Station 6, (Siphofaneni) River at Gauging are above 13000m3/s. (Siphofaneni) are  Flows in the Komati (Siphofaneni) are downstream Maguga between 2000 m3/s Flooding due to
 Flows in the Komati are above 12 000m3/s. heavy rains and
downstream Maguga  Flows in the Komati cyclones
Flows in the Mbuluzi are below 1 000m3/s. River at Gauging downstream Maguga  Flows in the Mbuluzi station 32 (Mlawula) River at Gauging are greater than station 32 (Mlawula) are below 500m3/s.  Flows in the Mbuluzi River at Gauging station 32 (Mlawula) are between 500m3/s and 3000m3/s. Across a river basin Location and
whose area traverses Rivers that are prone to Geography
administrative regions Duration of
3 days to a few weeks Emergency
 Above average  Very heavy continuous  Heavy continuous rains over an extended  Rains experienced  Spilling of dams up Triggers
 Very high rainfall  Full dams at beginning intensity over short of rainy season.  Full dams at beginning of rainy  Meteorological  Meteorological  Meteorological Early warning
 Rainfall recordings.  Rainfall recordings.  Rainfall recordings.  Hydrological data  Hydrological data and  Hydrological data Page 26 of 107
and dam water levels dam water levels. and dam water levels.  Meteorological  Meteorological  Meteorological  High rainfall  High rainfall  High rainfall  Hydrological  Hydrological  Hydrological Indicators
 Water marks on the  Water marks on the  Water marks on the banks to show water banks to show water banks to show water  Dam levels and  Dam levels and Sources of
 MNRE – DWA  MNRE – DWA  MNRE – DWA Information
Medium: Lack of real
Medium: Lack of real time
Low: lack on real time
time monitoring systems monitoring systems thus monitoring systems thus Response
thus relying on physical relying on physical onsite relying on physical onsite capacity
onsite investigations. investigations which may be impossible during heavy rains.  Updated water  Updated water  Updated water monitoring systems. monitoring systems. monitoring systems.  Dams' preparedness  Dams' preparedness  Beddings and blankets.  Beddings + Blankets Priority needs
 Spare (collapsible)  Spare water tanks sanitation facilities in Best Case Scenario
Worst Case Scenario
Most Likely Scenario
 Damage to buildings (such as schools, infrastructure such infrastructure such houses etc) at a local telecommunications telecommunications lines, power lines, lines, power lines, Windstorms;
 Displacement of roads at regional level roads at community Hailstorms and
below 10 000 people. to national level. to regional level. Cyclones
 Damage to crop sat a  Damage to buildings  Damaged buildings (such as schools, houses) and property Page 27 of 107
property at a regional Inkhundla level.  Large displacement of  Displacement of more than 50 000 between 10 000 to  Damage to crops.  Damage to crops. Location &
Across two or more At an Inkhundla or Community levels Geography
Duration Of
Storm over night or over Storm over night or over a Storm over night or over Emergency
a duration of a few days duration of a few days a duration of a few days  High Speed wind  Very high speed wind  Very high speed wind Triggers
 Huge hailstones.  Huge hailstones.  Huge coverage of the Early warning
Meteorological forecasts Meteorological forecasts Meteorological forecasts  Meteorological data  Meteorological data  Meteorological data  Rainfall received  Rainfall received  Rainfall received Indicators
 Extent of coverage  Extent of coverage  Extent of coverage Sources of
Swaziland Meteorology Swaziland Meteorology Swaziland Meteorology Information
Response
capacity
 Corrugated iron  Corrugated iron sheets.  Corrugated iron Priority needs
Spare water tanks and sanitation facilities in  Spare water tanks preparation for disaster. Page 28 of 107
6.2 SCENARIO AND PLANNING ASSUMPTIONS
6.2.1 Floods, Storms and Cyclones

Scenario
Description
Planning Assumption
Best Case Scenario
 Damage to infrastructure and consequences to human life (casualties, extraordinary outbreak of diseases, traumas, separations, etc.) and livestock  Minimal localised flooding will be limited. and short duration rainfall  Each occurrence will allow for early recovery.  Total population at national level affected will not exceed a cumulative figure of 1, 000 HH.  Most likely vulnerable communities from the Lubombo Plateau and Lowveld.  Displacement of below  Early recovery is probable through provision of 10000 people as result of humanitarian assistance to replenish immediate heavy rain, storms/cyclones. losses at household level.  Affected households will require only temporary assistance from 1 to 3 months.  Response interventions will be managed by Government with support of in-country development partners. Most Likely Scenario
 Significant flooding will occur as a result of heavy rainfall,  Periods of heavy rainfall for more than 2-3 days. storms/cyclones but over a  Flooding and or storms may impact more than longer period of time (2-3  Damage can be severe resulting in destruction of crops and homes.  Displacement of between  International support may be called upon to assist 10 000 to 50 000 people as in providing humanitarian assistance to replenish result of storms/cyclones. immediate losses at household level, and to assist with early recovery. Worst Case Scenario
 Significant flooding will occur as a result of heavy rainfall,  Result of long-lasting rainfall (over 3 days), causing storms/cyclones but over a rapidly rising rivers and dams. longer period of time (over 3  Large areas of land will be affected simultaneously across Tinkhundla and regions.  Flooding and storms will cause damage to crops,  Large displacement of more infrastructure (roads, public buildings and private than 50 000 people as result dwellings) and temporary disruption to access of of storms/cyclones. basic services (health and education).  More than 5 000 HH will experience displacement.  Outbreaks of disease (measles, cholera, malaria) Page 29 of 107
can be expected because of damage to water and sanitation facilities.  Flooding will not occur concurrently in all areas.  Assistance to host communities will be required and degree of emergency will exceed Government capacity.  International support will be necessary but overall response capacity available within country is expected to suffice if additional resources are rapidly acquired.  Recovery assistance is needed beyond initial assistance provided, e.g. materials, reconstruction of infrastructure and schools. Page 30 of 107
6.3 EARLY WARNING AND MONITORING

6.3.1 Early Warning Indicators for Floods and Storms

 Weather bulletins and forecasts identifying areas receiving continuous heavy rainfall/above normal readings in flood prone catchment areas.  Occurrence of tropical cyclones.  Strong winds.  Reports on rapidly rising water levels in major rivers from the Swaziland Meteorological Services and DWA.  Water logging conditions in flood-prone areas. 6.3.2 Primary Sources of Information for Floods and Storms

6.3.2.1 Primary source

 The Swaziland Meteorological Services on weather, rainfall forecasting and actual performance such as readings of rainfall amounts.  The Swaziland Meteorological Services on daily forecasts, 10-day Medium Range Forecasts.  The Department of Water Affairs (DWA) in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy (MNRE) on water levels in dams and rivers.
6.3.2.2 Additional Sources

 Swaziland Meteorological Services, Ministry of Tourism and Environmental  NGO field partners.  KOBWA on opening of flood gates for Driekorpis Dam  The Southern African Regional Climate Outlook Forum (SARCOF)  Humanitarian Early Warning Service (HEWS  USAID FEWS-Net Africa Weather Hazard Benefits Assessments.  World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) www.worldweather.org.  International Research Institute for Climate Prediction  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Page 31 of 107
7.0 COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT ARRANGEMENTS

The MHCP is led, coordinated and managed through an Inter-Cluster/Sector arrangement with the relevant Government
Agency serving as the Lead Agency and the United Nations or relevant NGO Agency as Core Lead Agency (see Table 2).
Some clusters/sectors were merged in view of the size of the country and in order to maximise the strengths of
stakeholders/ organisations. Early recovery is cross-cutting and thus integrated into all Cluster responses. Similarly,
attempts were made to mainstream in all clusters issues such as HIV/AIDS, environment, political unrest and gender
disparity.
The Government of Swaziland has the ultimate mandate and responsibility to led and coordinate all national disaster
preparedness and response actions to prevent and mitigate the effects of disasters. The National Disaster Management
Agency is the overall national coordinator of Disaster Risk Reduction and Disaster Risk Management programmes. The
NDMA thus assumes the role of Inter-Cluster coordinator of the National Multi-Hazard Contingency Plan. The relevant
Government Sector Ministries/Departments have focal points who assist the NDMA in coordinating and managing all
issues pertaining to DRM in line with the Disaster Management Act (2006) and Disaster Risk Management Policy (2011).
The United Nations Resident Coordinator (UNRC) is responsible for coordinating UN emergency preparedness and
response in support of Government plan. Under the guidance of the UNRC, the United Nations Country Team (UNCT is
responsible for effective and efficient implementation of Inter-Agency disaster risk management activities. It provides
overall leadership to the cluster planning, response and recovery and for initiating dialogue with the Government and
donors. The UNCT has established a United Nations Disaster Management Team (UNDMT) which is responsible for
coordinating the United Nation's support to the Government of Swaziland in DRR including Disaster Preparedness and
Response programmes. The UNDMT is the defacto technical team and Agency Focal Point in all matters of DRR within
the UN system. The UN Agencies serve as the Core Lead Agencies and work closely with their relevant counterpart Lead
Agencies in Government.
In the context of an expanded humanitarian country partnership, NGOs such as Red Cross and Save the Children serve
as Core Lead Agencies in collaboration with the relevant UN Agencies. Other NGOs and stakeholders play active roles in
line with their organisation's mandate as stakeholders within the clusters/sector coordination system.
Page 32 of 107
8.0 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
The relevant Government ministry/department and their UN/NGO counterpart Core Lead Agency will lead, coordinate and
manage emergency preparedness and response activities before, during and after the emergency including early
recovery activities. Each Cluster is responsible for ensuring that emergency preparedness and response including early
recovery cascades through all structures i.e. from central level administration to regional, Inkhundla and community level.
Each Cluster is responsible for developing threshold for sector response plan activation including declaration of
emergency.
The Sector Lead Agency, in liaison with Core Lead Agency and concerned stakeholders, will undertake relevant
assessment and or upon monitoring of indicators of impeding hazard reaching and or exceeding the threshold
recommend to the NDMA/DPMO through to the PM's Office for the declaration of emergency.
The specific roles and responsibilities of cluster/sector leads include inter alia the following:
1.
To lead, coordinate and manage the activities of cluster; To lead, coordinate and manage the overall disaster preparedness; To lead, coordinate and manage the overall disaster response and recovery effort; To facilitate communication within cluster and between NDMA; To facilitate the provision of information on early warning and emergency response and recovery between stakeholders involved in the response; To coordinate joint resource mobilization effort; To coordinate joint assessments in line with call-down mechanisms (triggers) which highlight when assessments should be conducted; To facilitate timely and accurate information to donors, media and other interested parties on the response operation; To coordinate the revision of the contingency plan. Page 33 of 107
Table 2: Proposed Inter Cluster/Sector Coordination and Management Mechanism

Swaziland UN/
Key Partners/ Stakeholders
Government Lead Agency
NGO Core Lead
within Cluster
Food Security Consortium; NGOs, Ministry of Agriculture Municipalities & Town Boards, MoTAD, MoF, Private Sector UNFPA, UNICEF, NGOs, Food and Health and Nutrition Ministry of Health-EPR Nutrition partners, Municipalities & Town Boards, Private Sector Ministry of Education and Training UNICEF/ Save the NDMA, WFP, NGOs, Municipalities & Town Boards, Private Sector MNRE-Department of Water Affairs and Ministry of Water, Sanitation WASH Forum, Municipalities & Town Boards, MoTAD, NGOs, Private Sector Camp coordination Deputy Prime Minister's Office-Department of Social MoHUD, MoTAD, MoHA, USDF, RSP, UNICEF, NGOs, Municipalities & Town Emergency Shelter3 Ministry of Home AffairSs Boards, Private Sector MoTAD, USDF, NDMA, NGOs, Ministry of Public Works and Transport Municipalities & Town Boards, Private Sector Early recovery is integrated into all Cluster responses and therefore is not allocated its own cluster Deputy Prime Minister's Office-DSW and Royal MoHA, MoJCA, USDF, RSP, NGOs, Swaziland Police Municipalities & Town Boards, MoTAD Ministry of Information Communication and UNDP, UNDSS, MoFA, PM's Office, MoPWT, Municipalities & Town Boards, Private Sector 1 FAO & WFP will jointly core lead the Agriculture and Food Security Cluster/Sector to maximize strengths of both organizations. WFP will lead in food assistance programmes 2 Education cluster will be jointly core led by UNICEF and Save the Children to maximise advantages of both organisations 3 Camp Coordination and Management & Emergency Shelter have been combined to make best use of available resources. 4 The Protection cluster will be jointly core led by UNICEF and UNFPA to maximize the comparative advantages of both organizations Page 34 of 107
9.0 RESOURCE MOBILISATION

The NDMA has E15 million allocated for relief assistance to affected communities in the
2012/13 financial year. The National Disaster Management Act of 2006 (S35) states
that the NDMA Director is responsible for managing a Disaster Management Fund
(DMF) set up by the Minister of Finance including funds raised through donations and
disbursements of such for emergency relief purposes.
Cooperating partners such as the UN System, NGOs (local and international), the
Private Sector and others are encouraged to indicate to Government through the NDMA
their intentions/pledge to donate relief supplies well in advance in order to enable
Government follow up and plan the utilisation of such resources for emergency relief.
Disasters affect all sectors and therefore it is imperative that every sector in
Government and Non-State must allocate resources for disaster risk reduction and
management.
When a disaster exceeds national capacity to respond and the national authorities
request for international assistance, the United Nations and partner NGOs will request
to utilise existing response tools which include the Central Emergency Response Fund
(CERF) and emergency cash grants to support the government response. The UN
Resident Coordinator leads the process for the CERF application after consultation with
humanitarian organisations involved in response activities. It should be noted that CERF
funding cover only a small portion of the emergency needs mainly to jump start
response while other funding mechanisms are being explored. Depending on the
magnitude and impact of the disaster, the UN and partners in consultation with
government may launch a flash appeal to cover for six months response which may
lead to a flash appeal if the disaster Impacts require response for a longer period of
about one year.
Page 35 of 107
10.0 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

A draft Information Management Strategy (IM) for Emergency Preparedness and
Response (EPR) has been developed that provides a framework for implementing multi-
sectoral rapid assessments (RAs) and data management for use by all relevant
stakeholders. The draft IM Strategy for EPR spells out key roles and responsibilities for
coordinating and conducting RAs including report writing and dissemination of findings
(see Annex 10). Draft Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) were developed but are
yet to be finalized. Coordination and management arrangements of the IM Strategy are
adapted to the National Disaster Risk Management Policy (2010). Effective coordinating
of development and updating of sectoral baseline data is critical to the success of the IM
Strategy. Sector Lead Agencies, in collaboration with their counterpart Core Lead
Agencies, are expected to coordinate development and updating of sectoral EPR
baseline data such as who is doing what and where (3ws). The NDMA is responsible for
coordinating and managing development of the IM Strategy for EPR. It is presently
developing a data base where sectoral EPR baseline data will be deposited.
Page 36 of 107
10.1 CURRENT ASSESSMENT MODALITIES

The Swaziland Vulnerability Assessment Committee (SVAC) has been providing
national assessments on food security and livelihood vulnerability for timely and
accurate early warning information. The SVAC also assess the impact of the emergency
in terms of access to social services. The information gathered from the SVAC
assessments is used for programming purposes to mitigate the impact of droughts or
natural hazards. Using the Household Economy Approach (HEA), the SVAC comes up
with population facing food/survival deficit; livelihood/cash deficit according to Inkhundla
(constituency) and Region. The SVAC is comprised of multi-stakeholders from
Government, the UN, NGOs and the Southern African Development Community
Regional Vulnerability Assessment and Analysis (SADC RVAA).
The Swaziland Red Cross has been collaborating with the NDMA in conducting rapid
assessments (RA) to ascertain the impact of sudden onset hazards on the community.
The Red Cross presents the final findings to the humanitarian community who then
tailor the response in line with their mandates. Some Government ministries have forms
for utilization to assess the impact of a hazard. In order to standardise national rapid
assessment tools, the National Disaster Management Agency (NDMA) through support
of the UN System, NGOs and other cooperating partners has developed a national
framework under which rapid assessments would be undertaken. The NDMA has the
mandate to coordinate multi-sectoral inter-agency assessments at community and
household levels (see Annex 10).
In the context of national contingency planning and implementation framework,
assessment and analysis of emergencies/disasters will be done by multi-sectoral and
multi-stakeholder teams drawn from the sectors (see Table 2 & Annex 11). National
rapid assessment methodology and tools for assessing impact of hazard at community
and household level have been developed in order to facilitate standardising the
assessments; harness and complement stakeholders' strengths; and also allow for
regional (i.e. SADC) comparison of EPR situation.
Summary of observations of current practice
 The humanitarian community does not have a standard form/questionnaire to assess the impact of a hazard on a community.  The Swaziland Red Cross Society has a standard form they have Information/data developed for their purposes  Several Government Ministries have sector specific forms they use to assess impacts specific to their areas of interest,  The Swazi VAC has a standardised form that it administers annually to assess national vulnerabilities with specific focus on food security  Data collection is done by the organisation/department/agency that is carrying out the assessment  There is no standardised methodology for collecting the data  No common methodology exists. This is done by the agency carrying out the assessment Page 37 of 107
 No common methodology exists, it is done by the agency carrying out the assessment  No common strategy exists. The agencies that would have carried out the assessment at times, hand over the results to the NDMA. However, there is no clear strategy as to how the information is to be used by the wider humanitarian community. Source: Draft IM EPR Strategy, 2012

10.1.2 Purpose of the Assessment

The main purpose of national rapid assessment will be to identify the circumstances
existing in the affected areas and quantify the extent of damage caused by disaster to
people, their livelihoods and infrastructure. This information will allow activation of a
coordinated and effective response to the situation if required, and the initial planning of
early recovery measures. In particular the assessment will concentrate on the following
aspects:
 Population affected disaggregated by gender, age, sex, health and social status.  Highlight key findings by sector namely: (1) agriculture and food security; (2) education; (3) health and nutrition; (4) water, sanitation and hygiene; (5) protection; (6) logistics; (7) camp coordination management, (8) emergency shelter and NFI; and emergency ICTs);  Indicate how people (disaggregated by gender, age) & their livelihoods have  Highlight contingency measures that were in place before the disaster;  Highlight response measures already undertaken by different stakeholders;  Highlight any response gaps that need to be filled;  Highlight measures undertaken by affected communities to mitigate/cope with the  Highlight possible early recovery activities;  Provide key recommendations on actions to be taken.
10.1.3 Activation of Assessment Mission

A multi-sectoral/ multi-stakeholder assessment mission will be conducted in the affected
areas within 48 hours if:
 Reports are received from regions through relevant sector/cluster lead in liaison with
the NDMA on occurrence of emergency within the threshold parameter set by sectors affecting a community and or more than one community or region/s within a period of 1 week (rapid onset).  Information on occurrence of emergency is received from the regions and or communities but reports on the extent of damage and number of people affected are not forthcoming (e.g. in case of inaccessibility of the areas involved or other reasons). Page 38 of 107
10.2 Roles and Responsibilities in Multi-sectoral Rapid Assessment

The NDMA has the overall responsibility for leading and coordinating Joint Disaster
Assessment Missions. In view of the present institutional capacity constraints, the
NDMA may delegate a particular cluster/sector lead agency to lead a Joint Assessment
Mission. The assessment teams will be drawn from stakeholders/partners working in the
affected areas and also include relevant Government ministries/departments, UN,
NGOs, the Private and Public sectors.
An information management strategy has been developed that will assist in conducting
of rapid assessments. The strategy has steps on data collection procedures,
processing, analysis and dissemination using the Inter-cluster framework.
10.3 Assessment Tools
Assessment tools, and report templates are provided in annex 10.
10.4 Response timeline for rapid onset disasters

The response outline below is generic for all rapid onset disasters of a national scale.
This systematically defines key activities to be done with NDMA taking leadership.
Responsible
Priority Action
Supporting Agencies
institution
Review and update of Multi-Hazard All sector leads & Contingency Plan Carry out simulation exercises All sector stakeholders Ensure regional plans are up to date and Sector stakeholders within structures are in place Public awareness and EW on possible Sector leads, stakeholders hazards as determined by risk profiling & DRR Focal Points Mobilise necessary resources for Sector stakeholders emergency relief Mobilise assessment teams Sector stakeholders Pre-position humanitarian aid resources Sector stakeholders to affected areas Ensure availability of logistical support for evacuation, rescue & delivery plan which Sector stakeholders can be efficiently accessed as necessary. Plan possible air support operation. Page 39 of 107
Convene meeting of stakeholders/ stakeholders & DRR National Disaster Task Force focal points, UNRCO Review and update scenarios Imminent
Ensure assessment tools are in place Disaster
and team members are ready Update inventory of resources and where NDMA & Sector Sector stakeholders applicable preposition resources Monitor triggers and where applicable Sector stakeholders & ensure early warning information Situation and rapid assessment done Sectors affected by the Advice DPMO on necessary steps Identification of priority sector needs Sector and inter-sector coordination meetings held regularly Sector stakeholders Disaster
Issue situation reports (SITREPS) and updates Provide media briefing and updates Activation of response funding tools Delivery of humanitarian relief assistance Sector stakeholders Monitor emergency threshold and Sector stakeholders & DRR Focal Points Determine if Flash Appeal is needed and Sector stakeholders Request CERF allocation if required, depending on assessment results Carry out post disaster assessments Sector stakeholders Disaster
Co-ordinate & provide early recovery Sector stakeholders assistance to affected communities Ensure that DRR is incorporated into ER Sector stakeholders Page 40 of 107
PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE PLANS

ANNEX 1: Agriculture and Food Security Sector Response Plan
Triggers:
There are a number of potential triggers for this cluster response, including:
1. Significant increase in input and food prices. 2. Crop estimates projecting a loss of 30% of current yields of maize. 3. Swazi Vulnerability Assessments (SVAC) or other food security assessments predict in excess of 300,000 people to be facing food insecurity. Overall Objective
The overall objective is to address immediate and short to medium-term food security
through the provision of targeted assistance. It aims at saving lives and reducing acute
food insecurity, protecting livelihoods and enhancing self-reliance in emergency and
early recovery.
Specific objectives

1. Undertake risk mapping and analysis to identify areas prone to disasters and determine appropriate response measures; 2. Ensure timely identification of food security situations through monitoring and 3. To carry out emergency livestock vaccinations and treatments in order to control possible disease outbreaks. This may be pre-disposed by flood conditions and the mass movement of animals as well as people; 4. To restore agricultural production capacities of flood affected Households through provision of emergency input support; 5. Provide general and targeted food assistance interventions to promote food security at household level; 6. Provide purchasing capacity to affected community through cash transfers as a recovery strategy; 7. Protect and promote existing and sustainable coping mechanisms;
8. Protect and promote feasible livelihood strategies;
9. Ensure appropriate community involvement and awareness.
10. To conduct simulation for provision of ER to population/s affected by natural
Planning Assumptions

1. Government getting external support; 2. Loss (total or partial) of food reserves; 3. Food security coordination mechanisms in place; 4. Sufficient stocks available for the initial response or ability to mobilise sufficient Page 41 of 107
5. Available and sufficient transport available for the delivery of food assistance and agricultural inputs to the affected populations; 6. No proper registration mechanisms / lists of the affected people; 7. Partner's capacities and geographic positions and response capacity identified; 8. Assessments are done immediately to determine numbers, duration and type of interventions necessary. Page 42 of 107
Before the Emergency

Activity
Time Frame
Agencies
Early warning on rainfall patterns. 3 months before the ploughing season Engendered farmer sensitization on measures involving crop 3 months before the season variety selection and farming methodologies. Identification of seed and other input sources. 3 months before the season MoA gets livestock disease information through veterinary services on a monthly basis. Veterinary assistants are already in the communities and can report on outbreaks quickly as they meet every Friday. Program on National Radio on livestock once a week. Surveillance of transmittable livestock diseases interface with If an animal in the community has a disease, it is reported to the regional office, which then reports it to the national offices. With a phone call, outbreaks of animal disease can be reported over the basis of a day and weekly surveillance mounted. Estimate and source the likely agricultural inputs and services and the necessary procurement of seeds/ agricultural inputs as a Will check with superiors. contingency stock for immediate distribution to be required in the event of a disaster. Transport routes are communicated every 3 Develop a mechanism of food seed and input distribution. months between WFP, MoA and FAO. Provide gender sensitive training in good agricultural practices. 2-3 months before the ploughing seasons. Page 43 of 107
During the Emergency

Activity
Time Frame
Agencies
Conduct rapid assessment of affected areas and households on the impact of a disaster. 1-2 weeks depending on the time of Provide agricultural inputs e.g. short season varieties. year the disaster occurred. Advise stakeholders on immediate agriculture inputs required. Prepare distribution plans, implementation budgets and mobilize resources. Coordinate food security assistance by providing food distribution to 72 hours (after assessment) targeted population though a determined mechanism. Coordinate and facilitate provision of agricultural inputs (seeds, fertilizer, vaccines and re – stocking of livestock. Support vaccination campaigns of livestock to reduce disease 1 week (depending on hazard)
After the Emergency

Activity
Time Frame
Agencies
4 weeks after the disaster to Information dissemination on crop variety selection and farming continue throughout the year. It is also determined based on the time of the year of the disaster. Complete post disaster assessments to ensure recipients of food and agricultural inputs are food secure and households are capacitated with appropriate technology to sustain food security and reduce vulnerability to shocks. Continue with monitoring and evaluation for food security to assist in Every 3 months for 12 months after developing long term interventions for affected households. Promote crop diversification and restocking of livestock Page 44 of 107
Ensure coordination and focus in areas where early recovery interventions can assist in building the basis for longer term 2 weeks post disaster event recovery, Facilitate the development and consolidation of an early recovery action plan detailing the implementation of early recovery 2 weeks post disaster event interventions. Ensure that disaster risk reduction is incorporated into early 1 week post disaster event recovery activities. Page 45 of 107
Agriculture stocks

Requirements for 85,000
Quantity in
Unit Price
Resource gap at
85,000 HHs
Maize Seed
50 kg (3 bags/ha 2:3:2(38) Fertilizers
50 kg (6 bags/ha 2:3:2(22) 2, 125, 000
Legume Seeds
Oral Livestock De-wormers
Injections
Page 46 of 107


Swaziland Vulnerability Assessment Committee 2010 Report for 2010/2011 year:

Food/Income Insecurity Affected
Population
160, 989 (There was a decrease of 95, 394
income/food insecure people in Swaziland or 37% decrease between 2009/2010 and
Swaziland Vulnerability Assessment Committee 2010 Report for 2010/2011 year of individuals with Food/Income
Deficits:

Page 47 of 107
Food/Income Insecurity Affected Population in 2010/2011 and Projected Insecure Populations in 2012/2013

Food/Income Insecurity Affected
People Likely to be food insecure in 2012-2013
Population in 2010/2011
Food insecure demographics
Most Likely Scenario
Worst Case Scenario
Total Food
H.Hs. (average
Food insecure
Total Food insecure
Food insecure
insecure
size of 6 people)
Households
Individuals
Households
Individuals
Shiselweni
344, 515 (214%
144, 864 (10%
increase; worst drought
Affected
decrease)
2006 numbers)
Page 48 of 107
ANNEX 2: Education Sector Response Plan

Triggers: This cluster response will be triggered upon MoET request.
1. Response threshold is activated when 54 schools are affected (27, 000 children). 2. Minimum threshold for education cluster to activate response plan is when 2 – 8 schools are affected (4000 children). Overall objective
The Education emergency response operation will ensure that teaching and learning
sessions continue to be held for ECD centres, primary and secondary school children in
areas affected by emergencies.
The specific objectives

1. To provide safe spaces for learning (including access to these spaces), recreation, and psychosocial support; 2. To intensify awareness raising amongst teachers and communities on protecting child rights and preventing abuse in areas affected by emergencies; 3. To continue to provide teaching and learning opportunities, including life skills education and HIV and AIDS prevention; 4. To sustain the school meal programme in all affected schools; 5. To ensure availability of teaching, learning and recreational material. Planning Assumptions

1. Some school infrastructure will be demolished.
2. It will be possible to mobilize the communities and stakeholders.
3. Most of the activities apply when there are floods but some are relevant for
drought situation and epidemics. Page 49 of 107
Hazard Risk Analysis

Criteria
Hazard 1: Floods and Storms (Cyclones)
Most Likely Case
Best Case Scenario
Worst Case Scenario
Scenario
Health, Housing, Impact on specific Agriculture (crops, Health, Housing, sectors and severity livestock), Environment, Agriculture, Environment, Health and agriculture. education, degradation, Areas around dams Mountainous Highveld where flooding is (flash floods/ mudslides) Middleveld and lowveld expected to occur and Rural lowveld with around bodies of where there are normally submersion and property water/collection points. high levels of rainfall and damage with standing During a few central During the expected rainy month in the expected season (October-March) Beyond the expected rainy season, (December) with even rainfall in the normal October- March rainy period. See above. See also See above. See also See above. See also Health and Nutrition Health and Nutrition Health and Nutrition Sector thresholds Sector thresholds Sector thresholds Normally at this time of the year, water capacity is Climate patterns and reduced at Maguga Dam predicted weather because rainfall levels are Widespread notification in changes/patterns are high. There is a high level urban and rural areas with ignored and/or there is no of rainfall in SA that early warning, so plans available funding to affects Swaziland. With are made to prepare. provide the necessary this, we can assume that Damage is minimal and support for managing we have high levels of water levels/flooded Maguga Dam water levels reduced late November (11-28-2011). Response Capacity (high, low, medium and nonexistent) Air rescue, vehicle and Lodging/shelter for those boat transports, divers, Water and food and displaced, food and water outbreak containment and for affected, and management, emergency Page 50 of 107
Criteria
Hazard 2: Drought
Most Likely Case
Best Case Scenario
Worst Case Scenario
Scenario
Cuts or non-payment of Reduction in school Minimal reduction in teacher's salaries and attendance and retention. school attendance and school fees. Withdrawal Government unable to retention. Government of the primary school meet payments for FPE Impact on specific able to meet payments feeding programme. without support from in- sectors and severity of for FPE. Primary Significant impact on country development attendance and retention. partners. Primary School Programme continues No capacity to effectively Feeding Programme respond without external continues with support from development partners. Geographical coverage Duration of the More than 12 months See above. See also See above. See also See above. See also Health and Nutrition Health and Nutrition Health and Nutrition Sector Sector thresholds Sector thresholds (indicators and sources MoET, MET, MoH, MOA MoET, MET, MoH, MOA Low: Resources to assist Response Capacity High: Government has would be limited based on Currently we are not able (high, low, medium and capacity to effectively the current fiscal crisis. to be 100% food security. respond to emergency The government and Government require partners won't respond to support from in-country development partners. Food and nutrition, Food and nutrition, water Food and nutrition, water water and medical and medical assistance and medical assistance Criteria
Hazard 3: Epidemics
Most Likely Case
Best Case Scenario Worst Case Scenario
Scenario
Likelihood of occurrence (excluding MDR TB) Medium to severe on Health, Economic sectors. MDR TB: TB related MDR TB: TB related TB: 15-49 81-82% in 2008- Impact on specific sectors mortality increased to mortality increased to 2009 indicating the and severity of impact 317/100,000 in the 317/100,000 in the disease is affecting the most ‘effective' populations and women in childbearing years. Page 51 of 107
Malaria is common in all reasons except MV. MDR TB is all regions. Location and Geographical Measles in all regions and worst in Lubombo Cholera is most prevalent and severe in Lubombo. Duration of the emergency All others 6-12 months See above. See also See above. See also See above. See also Health and Nutrition Health and Nutrition Health and Nutrition Sector Sector thresholds Sector thresholds thresholds MOH tracks 15 diseases to Early warning (indicators and monitor cholera outbreaks, sources of information) CBO for early warning systems, and WHO warning systems. Response Capacity (high, low, medium and nonexistent) Medication safety Medication safety Medication safety nets, nets, potable water, nets, potable water, strengthening of strengthening of strengthening of surveillance systems. surveillance systems. surveillance systems.
Before the Emergency

Activity
Lead agency
Support Agencies
Time Frame
Identification, stocking and pre – UNICEF, World Vision, positioning of teaching and learning August, September, Save the Children, Red material in the Ministry of Education & UNICEF, World Vision, Procure school materials, August, September, Save the Children, Red teaching/learning kits for rapid distribution Strengthening the capacity of partners UNICEF, World Vision, August, September, involved in the preparedness activities, in Save the Children, Red emergency or disaster response. Increase sensitisation of teachers and UNICEF, World Vision, August, September, communities on the prevention of abuse Save the Children, Red in all regions prone to disasters UNICEF, World Vision, August, September, Support Early Warning Systems Save the Children, Red Page 52 of 107
During the Emergency

Activity
Lead agency
Support Agencies
Time Frame
Mobilise partners and coordinate Save the Children, World Vision, UNICEF, Conduct rapid assessment to identify the UNICEF, World Vision, number , location of affected schools, Save the Children, Red determine the extent of damage to schools infrastructure Provide and distribute teaching/learning UNICEF, World Vision, materials to affected schools, ensuring Save the Children, Red continuation of learning opportunities Collaborate with meal providers for UNICEF, World Vision, displaced school children to ensure the Save the Children, Red programme continues Conduct awareness campaigns to all UNICEF, World Vision, Save the Children, Red
After the Emergency

Activity
Lead Agency
Support Agencies
Time Frame
Assist the communities to undertake UNICEF, World Vision, rehabilitation and repair of school Within two weeks Save the Children, Red infrastructures damaged by disasters after the emergency Cross, Other NGOs when conditions permit Re – establish the normal school UNICEF, World Vision, Within two weeks programme for pre – primary, primary Save the Children, Red after the emergency and secondary education Conduct regular monitoring to ascertain if UNICEF, World Vision, Within two weeks children attend classes and that teaching Save the Children, Red after the emergency and learning takes its shape. Promote resumption of life skills UNICEF, World Vision, Within two weeks Save the Children, Red after the emergency Identify and recruit a standing team of UNICEF, World Vision, Within two weeks local volunteers to teach during the Save the Children, Red after the emergency emergency period. Ensure coordination and focus in areas where early recovery interventions can assist in building the basis for longer term recovery Facilitate the development and consolidation of an early recovery action plan detailing the implementation of early recovery interventions Ensure that disaster risk reduction is incorporated into early recovery activities. Page 53 of 107
Basic Education Requirements and Stocks

One pre-packed kit per 80 children. Each kit contains pencils, ruler, chalk, pens, carrier bags, posters, crayons, wooden clock, flip charts, wooden cubes, measure tape, markers and Each kit contains 1 UNICEF cap, 2 UNICEF decals, 1 UNICEF Tee shirt, 2 Footballs, 4 Frisbees, 4 Hopscotch games, 20 Tabards, 2 volleyballs, 5 Handballs, 2 Inflating kits, 1 Lockable storage, 1 Powdered chalk, 2 Referee whistles, Tape measures, 2 Students slates, 100 Chalk, 1 UNICEF bag, 1 Volleyball net, Skipping ropes, 6 Pickets with flags, Sponge rubber balls.1 box caters for 500 children. Each tent to accommodate between 150-200 children. Minimum of 1 tent per school for 54 5 Min stock of 50 kits provides for 4000 children (8 schools) Page 54 of 107
ANNEX 3: Health and Nutrition Sector Response Plan
Triggers:
This cluster response will be triggered upon reaching threshold and MOH
request.
Infectious diseases continue to cause ill- health and deaths to many people despite
advances made in public health, advances that include the development of vaccines
and antibiotics and improvements in sanitation. Women and children face particular
difficulties in warding off infections because of social and economic obstacles to
accessing health information and services.
The Ministry of Health (EPR) through NDMA and in collaboration with UNICEF and WHO have facilitated the development of a National Emergency Risk Communication Strategy for Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 & H5N1). The draft communication plan is in its final stages and consultation with several partners has been conducted to get their input for the finalization, and to increase ownership of the strategy. In a bid to strengthen national capacity in risk communication, a Training of Trainers (ToT) workshop has been organized targeting communication, information and health education officers/ specialists. The workshop will provide a platform for participants to improve their skills and knowledge on preparing for and responding to outbreaks of epidemic and pandemic diseases, within the context of disaster risk reduction (DRR). It will also provide an opportunity for them to review the draft risk communication plan. 1. Stop, slow, or limit the transmission of the virus strain 2. Promote behaviors that are conducive to limiting the spread of the virus strain 3. Promote the maintenance of communications necessary for essential services, 4. Ensure that facts released nationally and internationally regarding a developing or full pandemic are accurate and immediate. The threshold levels are as highlighted below and as indicated in the National Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response Guidelines. Page 55 of 107
Disease, Conditions And Events
Threshold Levels
Best Case
Moderate
Worst Case
5 localized area Epidemic
Bacillary dysentery Suspected Human Diseases
Viral Hemorrhagic Rift valley fever Acute Malnutrition
Overall Objective

To strengthen national capacity on preparedness, response and recovery to epidemics,
health disasters; nutrition and health consequences of hydro meteorological hazards in
a timely, efficient and coordinated manner.

Specific Objectives

1. To strengthen Immediate Disease Notification System (IDNS), weekly surveillance and monitoring systems; 2. To strengthen Early Warning Systems (EWS); 3. To build and maintain Rapid Response Team capacity to conduct rapid assessments and initiate response to disease outbreaks and other meteorological hazards in a timely manner (24hrs); 4. To build and maintain capacity to respond rapidly to diseases and conditions of public health concern; Page 56 of 107
5. To develop capacity of health care workers in case detection, management and reporting not neglecting the special need of women, children and disabled persons; 6. To provide access to basic health and nutrition services for people affected by disasters and epidemics-The Health cluster is adding value on this objective (Multiple Indicator cluster survey-2010); 7. To reduce the opportunities for human to human transmission of diseases; 8. To build laboratory capacity to detect and confirm epidemic and pandemic 9. To contain the viruses and prevent its spread at source; 10. To sustain ART to PLHIVs in disaster prone areas; 11. To sustain TB treatment in disaster prone areas; 12. To conduct operational research on epidemic and pandemic diseases; 13. Build capacity of the National Laboratory system to diagnose diseases during 14. To facilitate emergency capacity building at community level through simulations 15. To provide Health quality controls in all emergency programming activities. This should be done before, during and after an emergency.
Planning Assumptions

1. Some health facilities are overflowing and or demolished.
2. Mobilization and deployment of additional health workforce
3. Most of the activities apply when there are floods, drought situation and epidemic
4. Minimum stock-piles available
5. Surge capacities in major hospitals initiated
Hazard Risk Analysis

Criteria
Hazard 3: Epidemics
Most Likely Case
Best Case Scenario Worst Case Scenario
Scenario
Likelihood of occurrence (excluding MDR TB) Medium to severe on Health, Economic sectors. MDR TB: TB related MDR TB: TB related TB: 15-49 81-82% in 2008- Impact on specific sectors mortality increased to mortality increased to 2009 indicating the and severity of impact 317/100,000 in the 317/100,000 in the disease is affecting the most ‘effective' populations and women in childbearing years. Malaria is common in all Location and Geographical reasons except MV. MDR TB is all regions. Measles in all regions and Page 57 of 107
worst in Lubombo Cholera is most prevalent and severe in Lubombo. Duration of the emergency All others 6-12 months See above. See also See above. See also See above. See also Health and Nutrition Health and Nutrition Health and Nutrition Sector Sector thresholds Sector thresholds thresholds MOH tracks 15 diseases to Early warning (indicators and Immediate Disease Immediate Disease monitor cholera outbreaks, sources of information) Notification System Notification System CBO for early warning systems, and WHO warning systems. Response Capacity (high, low, medium and nonexistent) Medication safety Medication safety Medication safety nets, nets, potable water, nets, potable water, strengthening of strengthening of strengthening of surveillance systems. surveillance systems. surveillance systems. Page 58 of 107
Before the Emergency
Thematic
Activity
Agencies
Mapping of stakeholders on epidemics and humanitarian health action Sector to include budget line for public health Revive monthly meetings for the National Epidemic Task Force Awareness on preparedness, response and recovery systems Management
Mapping of available stock/Stock-piling (ARVs, TB Drugs, NCDs drugs and nutritional Preposition of material and financial Assess all health facilities to determine their capacity to respond to disease outbreaks Monthly meetings of stakeholders Review and expand Immediate Disease Notification System and protocols monitoring
Page 59 of 107
Development and dissemination of surveillance guidelines Training of call center agents on the system and notifiable diseases guidelines. Distribution of the system's notification forms to all health facilities. Define epidemic surveillance objectives and include in IDSR Establish Ports of entry surveillance and screening Establish heightened vigilance for unusual deaths or clustering of respiratory diseases Training of RHMTs on the active notification system Establish a list of emergency stock items heightened vigilance for unusual stock outs Establish and maintain emergency stock Procure and replenish emergency stock Develop and/Review clinical case management guidelines Active management of stock including expiry Adapt tool for assessing health facility Management
Train Health Care Workers on Case Detection. Management and Reporting Disseminate national protocols on the clinical management of rape, and provision of post- exposure prophylaxis Conduct comprehensive assessment of health facilities' readiness to handle Build capacity of the National Laboratory Laboratory
system to diagnose diseases during Capacity
Page 60 of 107
Train health care workers on laboratory Establish cooperation with regional and international laboratories Finalize the Emergency Risk Communication Promotion
Train Emergency Responders on emergency risk communication Vaccination of vulnerable groups and conduct Research and research
Vaccines

During the Emergency

Thematic
Activity
Time Frame
Agencies
Declaration of the emergency Activation of Disaster Response Teams Activation of Regional Disaster Response Teams Conduct rapid health assessments Management
within24 hours of occurrence of disasters and /emergencies Coordination Report outbreak to WHO
Implement Rapid Response Plans Conduct weekly meetings of Task Forces/health emergency committees Commissioning of clinical rapid response teams and surveillance Conduct active case search monitoring
Conduct epidemiological investigations Dispatch of emergency medical services, medical evacuations teams Management and airlifting services.
Page 61 of 107
Identification and appointment of a coordinator or team leader Surge capacity strengthening in health facilities Deployment and re-deployment of Provide access to safe water and Provide access to food Access to maternal and child health Access to ART, TB Drugs, NCDs Drugs and SRH commodities Activation of emergency risk promotion
communication strategy,
After the Emergency

Thematic
Activity
Agencies
Determine whether the emergency is over or not Maintain vigilance and active surveillance Regular informative situational reports Assessment of resources utilised and do transitioning Management
Replenishment of utilized stock Documentation to medical referral notes for pt hand over and transfers Conduct post epidemic and pandemic assessments Conduct an inventory Conduct evaluation, lessons learnt and review of the sector response plan Replenishment of public health Continue with active surveillance and and monitoring case search
Ensure all emergency players have processes in place on moving on and bounce back to normal life.(Lessons learnt, disposal of asserts, pre- positioning and recommendations for future programming Page 62 of 107
Ensure coordination and focus in areas where early recovery interventions can assist in building the basis for longer Facilitate the development and Early Recovery consolidation of an early recovery
action plan detailing the implementation of early recovery interventions Ensure that disaster risk reduction is incorporated into early recovery Page 63 of 107
Health and Nutrition Stocks

Health Stocks
Page 64 of 107
Nutrition Stocks
Page 65 of 107

Reproductive Health Stocks

Sexual Reproductive Health Contingency (UNFPA) Stocks
 102 trained on Logistics management information system, 264 health care workers were  152 trained on FP trained in Logistics  22 trained on FP and ART Integration Page 66 of 107
ANNEX 4: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Sector Response Plan
Triggers:

1. A key trigger will be an increase in the number of cases of Acute Watery Diarrhoea (AWD) as reported by health facilities.
Overall Objectives
The two main overall objectives for the water sector response plan are:
1. To ensure the provision of potable water supply and sanitation facilities to citizens in order to prevent the out break of water borne diseases such as cholera, malaria and diarrheal diseases in all areas; 2. To prevent the loss of life and property from water related disasters such as floods, droughts and pollution.
Specific Objectives

1. To maintain access to safe water and sanitation / hygiene facilities; 2. To provide temporal water storage facilities to supply affected communities with 3. To provide affected communities with temporary sanitation facilities; 4. To raise awareness on sanitation and hygiene related issues; 5. To ensure timely communication to stakeholders on water related disasters; 6. To raise awareness on safety issues for people settled on flood, drought and disaster prone areas; 7. To develop disaster preparedness plans for major water infrastructure in the 8. To strengthen water resources monitoring systems; 9. To participate with other stakeholders in the disaster management task team; 10. To map out water related disaster prone areas for protection of lives and property 11. Mobilisation of required resources for EPR; 12. To conduct simulation for provision of water, sanitation and hygiene in the context of natural disasters.
Planning Assumptions

1. Disaster may be due to flooding of river systems and over overflow of dams caused by heavy rains and upstream flows. 2. Floods may cause submergence of bridges, property and irrigation lands. 3. Heavy floods may cause destruction of bridges, infrastructure and property. 4. There may be disruption in water supply and sanitation systems. 5. There may be possible need for evacuation and relocation of people 6. Some disasters may be localised, affecting a few households within a community and these are normally caused by heavy wind storms. Page 67 of 107
Before the emergency
Activity
Support Institutions
NDMA, MOET Protection sector Raise awareness on safety issues for people in disaster prone areas annually Water and WASH sector Public sector MNRE,MOT Map out areas that are disaster prone (e.g. flood prone & wind storm areas) Water and WASH sector Public sector MNRE, MOT Map out water sources in disaster prone Water and WASH sector Public sector MNRE, MOT, MICT Timely communication to stakeholders on NDMA Protection sector water related disasters – formulation of a communication structure to relay Water and WASH sector to May information on coming water related Parastatals NGOs MOH, NDMA Make an inventory of available water Protection sector tankers and sanitation facilities from various organisations at regional and Water and WASH sector Public sector Logistics sector NDMA, MoH Protection sector Work together with other partners to ensure all necessary supplies for water Water and WASH sector supply and sanitation facilities are in place before the rainy season Parastatals NGOs UN agencies NDMA MOH-Health Promotion Unit Protection sector Support in the provision of water and Environmental Water and WASH sector On going hygiene education in communities Public and Private sector Parastatals NGOs UN agencies Strengthen our early warning systems and Hydrometric ( meteorological and Water and WASH sector 12 months water resources) monitoring systems Page 68 of 107
Parastatals Private sector MNRE, MOH Protection sector Private sector Mobilization of resources such as Water and WASH sector finances, equipment and staff Public sector Parastatals NGOs UN agencies Map out endemic areas for water borne, Water and WASH sector water related and water based diseases
During the Emergency

Activity
Support Institutions
Protection sector Private sector Water and WASH sector Declaration of disaster Public sector Parastatals NGOs Protection sector Private sector Assembly of disaster management Water and WASH sector committees , stakeholders and partners to assist in disaster prone area Public sector Parastatals NGO Protection sector Logistic sector Health sector Dispatch search and rescue teams Water and WASH sector Public sector Parastatals NGOs Protection sector Logistic sector Health sector Private sector Evacuation and relocation of people Water and WASH sector Public sector Parastatals NGOs UN agencies Attendance to causalities, apply first aid, Protection sector and take patients take to nearby clinics Page 69 of 107
Health sector Private sector Water and WASH sector Public sector Parastatals NGOs Protection sector Logistic sector Health sector Continuous monitoring of disaster variables e.g. hydrometric variables Water and WASH sector Parastatals NGOs Water & WASH sector MOH-Environmental Health Protection sector Logistics sector Provide necessary water, sanitation supply Food & nutrition sector Parastatals NGOs UN agencies Water and WASH sector Logistic sector Health sector Carry out monitoring and evaluation of Protection sector response activities Parastatals NGOs UN agencies Page 70 of 107
After the Emergency

Activity
Support Institutions
Water & WASH sector Logistic sector Health sector Conduct Rapid Assessment for number of households and people affected by Protection sector Public sector Parastatals NGOs UN agencies Water & WASH sector Logistic sector Health sector Private sector Undertake surveys on water and sanitation Protection sector facilities affected Public sector Parastatals NGOs UN agencies 1 to 2 days from Water & WASH sector Provide water for the affected people Protection sector permanent residences Water & WASH sector Logistic sector Provide necessary sanitation facilities for Protection sector the affected people NGOs UN agencies Water & WASH sector Logistic sector Health sector Conduct on a continuous basis water quality monitoring NGOs UN agencies Page 71 of 107
Water & WASH sector Logistic sector Health sector Distribution of all sanitation and hygiene Protection sector supplies to affected people Parastatals NGOs UN agencies Water & WASH sector Logistic sector Health sector Monitor the disaster situation to be able to determine the time to take back the people MNRE- Protection sector to their respective homes Public sector Parastatals NGOs UN agencies Water & WASH sector Logistic sector Health sector Conduct comprehensive assessment of Protection sector Public sector Parastatals NGOs UN agencies Water & WASH sector Logistic sector Ensure coordination and focus in areas where early recovery interventions can assist in building the basis for longer term NGOs UN agencies Water & WASH sector Facilitate the development and consolidation of an early recovery action plan detailing the implementation of early recovery interventions NGOs UN agencies Water & WASH sector Health sector Ensure that disaster risk reduction is incorporated into early recovery activities. NGOs UN agencies Page 72 of 107
Ministry of Health Environmental Health Department Cholera Preparedness Material for 3000 Households
Item Description
Qty in stock
Requirement
Unit Cost (E)
Total Cost (E)
20L Plastic Water Containers/Jerry Potable Water per Day (20L/person/day) Water Tanks (10000l) (20hh/Tank) Water Tankers (1000L) To be sourced from Gov Ministries Temporal/Portable Toilets Toilet Tissues (1 month) Lifeboy/Sunlight Soap (2bars per hh) Plastic Basins/Bowls 10 2L Plastic Jars 11 50kg Cement Bags 12 R10 x Reinforcements 13 Black Vent Pipes (3m) 14 Corrugated Iron Sheets (2.5m) 15 River sand (7M3) Page 73 of 107
ANNEX 5: Protection Sector Response Plan
Introduction
The protection cluster is based on analysis of possible of occurrence of the following
hydro-meteorological hazards:
1. Drought/ dry spells 2. Floods and storms (rainstorms or windstorms or cyclones) The plan covers a twelve months period i.e. from May 2012 to April 2013. It has been
predicted that during this period the country is likely to experience the hazards
mentioned above. These hazards have the potential to cause some humanitarian
consequences such as gender based violence (GBV), sexual and economic abuse, and
exploitation resulting from the outbreak of the hazards. These have motivated the
preparation of this sector response plan as part of the Multi Hazard Contingency Plan
process. The protection cluster response plan details key actions the sector's
stakeholders should undertake before, during and after occurrence of the hazards.

Hazard and Risk Analysis

Levels of gender-based violence (GBV) are high. One in four females between the ages
18- 24 years has experienced physical violence in their lifetime and 9% had
experienced coerced sexual intercourse before the age of 18. In another study by
UNICEF and the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2007, it
was found that one-third of females aged between 13 and 24 years had experienced
sexual violence before the age of 18. This clearly shows how GBV is a severe social
and public health problem. Evidence indicates a link between GBV and vulnerability to
HIV and sexually transmitted infections particularly among young girls, as 9.2% of
youths reported forced sex at the first sexual encounter.
While more research is needed, available evidence suggests that the stress and
disruption caused by limited resources as a result of natural disasters may lead to a rise
in gender-based violence, particularly sexual violence. It is advised that health workers
and other field staff assume that sexual violence may be a problem unless they have
conclusive proof to the contrary.6 This necessitates the need for stronger preventative
measures including ensuring that women and girls are adequately protected against
abuse, women and girls have adequate privacy in shelters and women that are
traditionally stigmatized against on account of their ethnicity, religious preference or
employment are not discriminated against. Sexual violence can result in sexual trauma,
undesired pregnancy, mental health disorders, sexually transmitted infection and HIV
transmission, and stigma among other social consequences.7
6Enarson, Elaine. Surviving Domestic Violence and Disasters. The FREDA Centre for Research on Violence against Women and Children, January 1998 (http://www.harbour.sfu.ca/freda/reports/dviol.htm, accessed 3 January 2005). 7"Gender, Women and Health ." World Health Organization. World Health Organization, 10 Nov. 2008. Web. 2 Nov. 2011. Page 74 of 107
Overall Objective

To provide protection to all survivors, property including vulnerable groups (e.g.
children, OVCs, women, elderly and people living with disability (PLWD) from
exploitation, violence, abuse and neglect resulting from an emergency situation.
Specific objectives

1. To put in place measures for prevention of sexual and economic abuse and exploitation of all vulnerable groups in affected areas; 2. To facilitate the protection, care and well being of survivors displaced and/or separated from caregivers as a result of the disaster or emergency; 3. To facilitate access for all affected groups to basic social services and relief 4. To ensure all government ministries, UN agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in the emergency operations adhere to the Zero Tolerance Clause (Code of Conduct on Protection from Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation); 5. To assist in the provision of psychosocial care and support to traumatized 6. To conduct simulation of protection issues in the context of natural disasters.
Definition of "Affected":
The term "affected" refers to all groups who are at risk of
exploitation, violence, abuse and neglect caused by disasters.
Triggers
1. Increase in incidents of GBV, abuse as a result of emergency. Page 75 of 107
Before the Emergency

Supported
Key Activities
Clarify responsibilities of sector lead agencies, Un agencies and NGO's for advocacy, communication and coordination in emergencies. Educate all groups with special focus on vulnerable groups about impending hazard (Early warning) and its potential effect. Create mechanism to ensure that the Humanitarian response is timely and co ordinate and conforming to humanitarian principles and agreed standard and Conduct hazard mapping of disaster prone areas Conduct a vulnerability capacity assessment (VCA) of hazard prone areas. Conduct a multi-sectoral rapid assessment mechanism and format (including priority awareness raising Ensure system within DPM's Office social welfare department is in place to identify, register, and re-unify survivors displaced in an emergency. Pre-positioning post rape treatment kits. Provide training for all humanitarian workers on prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse in disaster- Provide training for all child protection workers in Page 76 of 107
responding to an emergency. Ensure that psychosocial capacity is in place in all disaster prone areas. Strengthen capacity of Royal Swaziland police service, DSW and relevant partners to handle cases related to children, women and all vulnerable groups Promote school emergency preparedness plans, advocate for safe school structure and include basic disaster risk reduction measures in schools curriculum ( for education cluster) Gender Based Violence
Support the strengthening of the GBV referral system Train health service providers on GBV and on how to address cases of sexual violence
During the Emergency

Supported
Key activities
Lead Agency
Conduct a rapid assessment within 72 hrs to identify and register survivors displaced / affected as a result of Secure the scene (cordoning), control and prevent on lookers, control and direct traffic to ensure protection & safety of survivors and their property Promote and support establishment of safe spaces (heavens) for children and women and other vulnerable Provide support to search and trace affected and lost Provide psychosocial support to children, women and men who are traumatized by the event. Provide first aid assistance to survivors. Strengthen protection of survivors' social basic needs Ensure coordinated response to prevent abuse and exploitation of children, women and other vulnerable groups; and provide support to victims of abuse and Page 77 of 107
Sensitize local community leaders including teachers, church leaders on preventing violence and abuse. Establish focal points for child protection in temporary camps established as a result of and in response to disasters. Set up safe temporary learning space for all age groups in consultation with community leaders Create temporary Neighborhood Care Points in camps and provide emergency support to existing NCPs. Provide appropriate temporary learning spaces Gender Based Violence
Ensure women and girls are informed on the availability of services for survivors of sexual violence through information/communication activities. Establish codes to be used in teaching or disseminating information to survivors on sexual violence. Address all forms of violence, sexual exploitation abuse and discrimination of survivors Coordinate and support the prevention, and care services and systems for GBV's.

After the Emergency (Recovery)

Supported
Key activities
Lead Agency
Support the rehabilitation of affected families (reunification with their caregivers, registration and screening for appropriate assistance) Provide continued support to NCPs and affected families to normalize operations. Ensure sustainable development and appropriate hazard resistant standards/ designs for reconstruction of buildings including schools. Provide ongoing psychosocial counselling for victims of Gender Based Violence
Re-assess and re-establish referral systems for GBV Ensure coordination and focus in areas where early recovery interventions can assist in building the basis for Page 78 of 107
longer term recovery Facilitate the development and consolidation of an early recovery action plan detailing the implementation of early recovery interventions Ensure that disaster risk reduction is incorporated into early recovery activities.
Capacity Analysis
The following table highlights the existing protection cluster's capacity in terms of its ability to
mount effective prevention, preparedness, and response and recovery measures in event of
occurrence of drought / dry spells, floods and storms (rainstorms/ windstorms).
Criteria
Current Status
RSP- there are twenty four (24) police stations and 25 police posts in every region in the country. The organization has also the (OSSU) Support Services Unit which can provide DSW- training of staff on immediate support and can at most reach emergency response emergency scene within 2 hours upon call. DSW- has 31 officers, 11 Manzini, 7 Shiselweni, Hhohho 9, and Lubombo 5. RSP- has trained officers for the Domestic and Violence and Sexual offences in all police stations countrywide. They provide counselling. RSP also has Divers from the OSSU who are Counselling, removal of ready to provide immediate support upon call in survivors to a place of safety case of emergency Sufficient transportation e.g. DSW-Lack of capacity of the DSW staff Lack of transportation Lack of professional counsellors. DSW have eleven (11) offices in the country three of the offices have got no telephone. RSP-All stations have at least one vehicle. RSP- Although stations do Material, financial have motor vehicle but some RSP-The DCS officers do have rape kits. police post do not have. Divers- some do have the diving uniform. RSP- DCS officers have rape Page 79 of 107
The RSP- OSSU have technical cars. kits but some of the kits are not complete.DCS officers have no vehicles only those at DSW- have 7 single caps and one Corolla, (one the Regional level. per region, though not in good condition) cars RSP- Divers- not all of them DSW-national 10 officers have the uniform, boat Regional 31 officers Offices in the entire country-10 regional level DSW- Needed is at least one truck and five (5) twine caps cars, one for each region and one for Head office. Two trucks shred by two regions. DSW- Training –TOT for all officers Community leaders, health motivators, Use the existing structures in Community support community police and relevant community the community and available & existing structures NGO's extension workers RSP have specialized officers and they are decentralized all the regions. RSP have a communication control where all emergency Organization system calls are received and communicated to authorities by the quickest means. SW- improved communication, transportation and IMS DSW- lacking communication, transportation and
Directory of Protection Stakeholders

Telephone & Mobile
24042501, 76088640 Dpngwenya@yahoo.com 3. Dumsane Ndlandla 4. Andreas Dlamini 5. Khetho Dlamini 76529881/24071000 6. Renata Tallarico rtallarico@unfpa.org 7. Phumzile Dlamini pdlamini@unfpa.org 2404-2301 Ext 2538 Page 80 of 107
ANNEX 6: Logistics Sector Response Plan

Overall Objective
To provide logistics support to all emergency response stakeholders in rendering
warehousing and transport services of food, water, shelter and non-food items to
populations affected by disasters, and when necessary assist with relocating people to
safer ground in the case of floods, before, during and after disaster.
Specific Objectives

To verify availability and efficient operation of transport vehicles (trucks, helicopters, boats); To confirm secure access routes are available for delivery of relief items; To provide a safe mode of travel for people being relocated as a result of disasters; To conduct simulation for provision of logistics support in event of natural disasters.
Definition of "Affected":
The term "affected" refers to all groups who are at risk of
exploitation, violence, abuse and neglect caused by disasters.
Page 81 of 107
Before the Emergency

Key Activities
Supported by
Identify best safe and secure delivery routes in UN, NGOs, Private collaboration with relevant ministries and stakeholders. Sector, SNFES, Security Sector Strengthen logistics capacity involving all stakeholders UN, NGOs, Private Conduct a Logistics Capacity Assessment so to identify MPoWT UN, NGOs, Private gaps and capacity needs. Provide updated inventory of available assets from all UN, NGOs, Private Provide updated road inventory, maps with bridges Surveyor General's June 2012 Roads Dept Office Undertake road assessment so to determine which are likely to be inaccessible during an emergency Roads Dept Projects, Security (damaged infrastructure such as bridges or poor road Pre-position "bailey bridges" in the four regions Allocate emergency vehicle pool for disaster preparedness
During the Emergency

Key activities
Supported by
Facilitate transportation of all emergency relief items, Swaziland Railways, When materials and equipment. Civil Aviation, USDF Ensure availability of fuel for disaster response Ensure availability of necessary transport vehicles, Swaziland Railways, including trucks, boats, helicopters and other means of transport such as motorcycles, bicycles, as required. Security sector MoA, MoTAD, MoHUD, MNRE, Ensure access roads are safe, secure and navigable. Security sector, Roads Dept Municipalities & Town Boards MoA, MoTAD, Facilitate the provision of transport for humanitarian cargo to areas still inaccessible, so preserve life Municipalities & Town Boards MoA, MoTAD, MoHUD, Undertake emergency road & bridge repairs to provide Municipalities & temporary access to flood affected areas. Roads Dept Town Boards Page 82 of 107
UN, NGOs, Private Call upon implementing stakeholders as required, to assist with providing logistics capacity. Municipalities & Town Boards MoHUD, MoH, Ensure adherence to safety and health standards during disasters Municipalities & Town Boards
After the Emergency (Recovery)

Key activities
Supported by
Conduct after disaster assessment to ascertain damage to infrastructure and provide necessary capacity on rebuilding. Engage the affected communities in asset building MoPWT & MoHUD, NGOs, programs i.e. Food for Work programs Conduct a post disaster assessment to draw lessons to inform future response Ensure coordination and focus in areas where early recovery interventions can assist in building the basis for longer term recovery NGOs NDMA, UNFPA, Facilitate the development and consolidation of an early recovery action plan detailing the implementation of early UNDP recovery interventions NGOs NDMA, UNFPA, Ensure that disaster risk reduction is incorporated into early recovery activities. UNDSS, UNICEF, event Page 83 of 107
Capacity Analysis
The MoPWT has the following capacity that can be harnessed to provide emergency
relief support to affected communities in event of occurrence of drought / dry spells,
floods and storms (rainstorms/ windstorms/cyclones).
Capacity Analysis Logistics
The following table highlights the existing logistics cluster's capacity in terms of its ability
to mount effective mitigation, preparedness, and response and recovery measures in
event of occurrence of drought / dry spells, floods and storms (rainstorms/ windstorms).
Criteria
Current Status
Adequate personnel with specialised skills drawn from Roads Dept, Fire & Emergency About E20m for road Emergency funds for reconstruction can be sourced from other ministries (e.g. MoH, MoET, MoHUD, NDMA and development cooperating Ref to table with summary of Inadequate water plant/ distribution tankers, trucks, 3 Front end loaders Ref to table of central pool No bailey bridges 4 Bailey bridges Fire & Emergency MoPWT is decentralised in all Services only at regions. The Fire & Emergency Services is in all regions but needs to be decentralised to cover Big Bend, Lavumisa, Simunye, Mankayane. NDMA should have strategic fuel tanks at Review fuel management system to align with emergency/ disaster response requirements. Page 84 of 107
Central Pool Trucks
The central pool has the following fleet that can be requisitioned and immediately
dispatched to provide emergency preparedness and response support.
NUMBER OF FLEET
ISUZU FLAT TRUCKS ISUZU WATER TIPPER NISSAN UD TIPPER NISSAN UD W/TANKER Page 85 of 107
SUMMARY PLANT LOCATION /DISTRIBUTION
SUMMARY PLANT LOCATION /DISTRIBUTION (ROADS DEPARTMENT) AS AT 1st APRIL 2012 (SERVICEABLE PLANT)
Location
Nhlangano Lubulini GravelN GravelS Bitumen
Page 86 of 107
ANNEX 7: Camp Coordination Management and Emergency Shelter &
NFI Sector Response Plan
Introduction
The camp coordination, emergency shelter and NFI sector is based on analysis of
possible occurrence of the following hydro-meteorological hazards:
1. Cyclones 2. Floods and storms 3. Migration related situations The Camp coordination management, Emergency Shelter and NFI cluster response
plan details key actions the sector's stakeholders should undertake before, during, and
after occurrence of the hazards.
Triggers

1. Reported cases of communities affected and or displaced by disaster.
2. Reported cases of migration or displacements (IDP) as a result of natural
disasters or triggered by regional situations or disputes including xenophobic attacks that cause more than 100 people to be rendered internally displaced or enter the country as refugees. Overall Objective

To provide temporary decent and adequate shelter to people affected by disasters
whose homes have been destroyed or rendered uninhabitable.
Specific Objectives

1. To conduct mapping of temporary relief homes that would be used during 2. To ensure availability of early warning structures in all areas likely to be affected and that communities adhere to it upon activation; 3. To conduct a mapping exercise for identification of disaster prone areas; 4. To conduct community resilience exercises to all communities in disaster prone 5. To ensure pre-positioning of stock in disaster prone areas for prompt response when the situation so demands; 6. To assist in the provision of psychosocial care and support to traumatized 7. To conduct simulation for provision of Camp Management, Shelter & NFI support in the case of natural disasters; 8. To conduct simulation for provision of camp, shelter and NFI support to people affected by natural and man-made disasters. Page 87 of 107
Hazard and Risk Analysis

Depending on the hazard that has hit, levels of humanitarian consequences as stated
above are high. In most cases female or male family members either sleep together or
seek refugee with neighbours that are less affected8. The lack of privacy in these and
other situations (e.g. in temporary shelters) often lead to an increase in domestic
violence and sexual abuse. In some cases particularly during the collapsing of the
household structures, food and blankets are buried leaving the affected families with
multiple challenges. The challenges are that of not having blankets and that of having
nothing to eat. School children from the affected households often suffer the
consequences of having their school books buried by the household structures during
the collapse. Records indicate that the above hazards particularly cyclones, floods and
storms strike three or four times a year while migration situations that results in
displacements of human beings occur once or twice per year. This however does not
mean that migration cases will remain low as early warning signs indicate that there is
likelihood to witness an increase in such cases. This may be due to the upcoming
elections in the SADC countries and the "political instability" in the country. Records
also indicate that a total of plus minus 200 families have their households completely
demolished by storms per year and about 400 beneficiaries are normally left homeless.
HAZARD: Cyclones
Thematic Area
Best case
Worst case
Most likely case
Likelihood of occurrence 2 times per year 3 times per year Household roofing is Households roofing, Impact on specific sectors Households roofing is blown off and some cars windscreens and and severity of impact structures collapse crops are affected Hhohho, Manzini, Location and Geographical Shiselweni regions Shiselweni regions. Duration of the emergency very hot weather very hot weather very hot weather patterns Met, very hot weather Met, very hot weather Met, very hot weather Early warning (indicators pattern, and news pattern, and news from pattern, and news from and sources of information) from foreign radio foreign radio and TV foreign radio and TV Response capacity (high, low, medium, none existent) Response materials Response materials Response materials such as tents, tarpaulins, food, tarpaulins, food, and tarpaulins, food, and 8 Gender, Women and Health ." World Health Organization. World Health Organization, 10 Nov. 2008. Web. 2 Nov. 2011. Page 88 of 107
HAZARD: Floods and Storms
Thematic Area
Best case
Worst case
Most likely case
Likelihood of occurrence 4 times per year Rivers overflow, people drown, and cholera and Impact on specific sectors Rivers overflow and malaria epidemics Rivers overflow. and severity of impact outbreaks. Structures Only the big rivers such All seven major rivers Location and Geographical as the great Usuthu and rivers of the country of the country are Mkhondvo rivers overflow About 14 days as most rivers overflow before About 7 days as and the actual rains due to About 3 days as very little Duration of the emergency that includes the release of water from occurs to people and dams in SA and that the is collapse of Heavy rains, hot Heavy rains, hot temp, Heavy rains, release of release of water from water from dams in SA, water from dams in and very hot temp. Met, hot temperatures Sudden increase of water Early warning (indicators temperatures and and sudden increase of levels in rivers without and sources of information) sudden increase of water levels in rivers. water levels in rivers Response capacity (high, low, medium, none existent) Response materials Response materials Response materials such as tents, tarpaulins tarpaulins and rescue and rescue divers HAZARD: Migration related situations
Thematic Area
Best case
Worst case
Most likely case
Likelihood of occurrence Relatives separate, Relatives separate, Relatives separate, Women and children Women and children Impact on specific sectors Women and children get get raped and killed get raped and killed and severity of impact raped and killed Increase in abuse Increase in abuse Increase in abuse cases Most displaced persons persons come through persons come through Location and Geographical come through the Lubombo and northern Page 89 of 107
Duration of the emergency Political and economic Political and economic Political and economic instability in some instability in some instability in some Increase in basic Increase in basic Increase in basic commodities, and commodities, and commodities, and fuel, Early warning (indicators fuel, news of political fuel, news of political news of political party and sources of information) clash, introduction of introduction of fiscal introduction of fiscal fiscal adjustments by IMF adjustments by IMF adjustments by IMF Response capacity (high, low, medium, none existent) Tents, Food and clothes Page 90 of 107
Before the Emergency

Supported
Key Activities
Lead Agency
Educate the vulnerable communities about impending hazards in their areas (Early warning) and potential Conduct hazard mapping of disaster prone areas Conduct a vulnerability capacity assessment (VCA) of hazard prone areas Ensure availability of disaster emergency response teams in all disaster prone areas and that they have the necessary response skills and ready at all times. Ensure availability of tracing and restoration of family link kits in all legal and illegal entry points in the Ensure availability and updating of contingency plans for activation during emergencies
During the Emergency

Supported
Key Activities
Lead Agency
Conduct a rapid assessment within 24 hrs to determine the magnitude of the disaster and also identify emergency requirements Brief report to NDMA on findings on the ground and required emergency requirements. Distribute relief materials to affected beneficiaries Provide psychosocial support to children and women who are traumatized by the event. EPR, Fire and During Provide first aid assistance to survivors. Provide tracing and restoration of family links services to those in need Red Cross, CARITAS, and Provide necessary assistance to all displaced persons Page 91 of 107
After the Emergency (Recovery)

Supported
Key Activities
Lead Agency
Ensure retrieval of relief materials loaned to victims of the disaster such as tents and Tarpaulins Provide continued support to all affected families to normalize operations Provide ongoing psychosocial counselling services to all requiring such. Re-assess and re-establish referral systems for GBV NDMA, WFP, UNFPA, WFP, 2 weeks Ensure coordination and focus in areas where early recovery interventions can assist in building the basis for longer term recovery NGOs NDMA, WFP, UNFPA, WFP, 2 weeks Facilitate the development and consolidation of an early recovery action plan detailing the implementation of early recovery interventions NGOs NDMA, WFP, UNFPA, WFP, 2 weeks Ensure that disaster risk reduction is incorporated into early recovery activities. Page 92 of 107
Emergency Shelter and Camp Management Stocks

Tents (x 50 people) Family Tents (x5 people sleeper) Tarpaulin (5x4 m) Kitchen Sets – pots, pans, utensils Jerry Cans (20 l) Shelter tool Kits Page 93 of 107
ANNEX 8: Emergency ICT Sector Response Plan

Triggers

1. Reported case of public ICT affected and or damaged by disaster.
Overall Objective
Provide clearly defined services to ensure predictable and effective ICT to support
humanitarian operations.
Specific Objectives
1. Provide telecommunications infrastructure and services covering both data and
security, which are essential for efficient and effective operations; 2. Provide standard, interoperable ICT platforms and procedures to avoid duplication and ensure cost effective services; 3. Provide information dissemination mechanisms and guidelines for effective content communications to affected areas; 4. Engage Media institutions' participation in information dissemination; 5. Ensure a smooth transition to post disaster reconstruction; 6. To conduct simulation for provision of ICT support in event of natural disasters. Page 94 of 107
Before the Emergency

Key Activities
Lead Agency
Supported by
Sensitize both print and electronic communication players on the annual electronic media contingency plan SPTC, MTN Police, Assess electronic communications Army, NFES, SBIS, needs country wide Channel S SPTC, MTN Police, Army, NFES, SBIS, Develop strategies and plans for the deployment of communications Channel S (field network to meet annual disaster agents provided with contingency plan portable radios and transmitters). Develop strategies and plans for ICT (Information Print and electronic information dissemination to meet annual disaster contingency plan NDMA and local community Army, Police, both Simulation of an emergency exercise TV stations, SBIS,
During the Emergency

Key Activities
Lead Agency
Supported by
ICT, SPTC, MTN, Army, Police, both Convene emergency meeting TV stations, SBIS, NFES and VOC ICT, SPTC, MTN, Activation and operationalization of Army, Police, both electronic systems and network TV stations, SBIS, NFES and VOC ICT, SPTC, MTN, Activation of information content Army, Police, both production and dissemination TV stations, SBIS Page 95 of 107
After the Emergency (Recovery)

Key Activities
Lead Agency
Supported by
SPTC, MTN, Army, Assessment and report on effectiveness of ICT systems on stations, SBIS and disaster operations Within one month after Rehabilitation of ICT systems Ensure coordination and focus in areas where early recovery interventions can assist in building the basis for longer term recovery Facilitate the development and consolidation of an early recovery action plan detailing the implementation of early recovery UNICEF, NGOs MICT, MoPWT, Ensure that disaster risk reduction is incorporated into early recovery UNAIDS, UNDSS, UNICEF, NGOs Page 96 of 107
ANNEX 9: Draft Inter-Cluster/Sector Coordination TORs

DRAFT Terms of Reference
Emergency Preparedness and Response (EPR) Inter-Sector Coordination

The Government of Swaziland through the National Disaster Management Agency
(NDMA) retains the primary role in the initiation, organisation, coordination, and
implementation of humanitarian assistance in the country. In support of and in
coordination with national and local authorities, the Humanitarian Community in
Swaziland works to ensure that humanitarian action in-country is principled, timely,
effective, concerted and efficient, and contributes to long-term recovery.
The NDMA in collaboration with the Humanitarian Community has adopted the
sector/cluster approach as the coordination structure for all emergencies resulting from
natural or man-made causes. The structure is in line with humanitarian reform so as to
ensure that the requisite coordination mechanisms are in place at the national, regional
and community levels. An integral part of these coordination arrangements are the
establishment of Sector Lead Agencies to be led by Government and Core Lead
Agencies drawn from the Humanitarian Community to be lead by the UN and or
designated NGOs, forming an Inter-Sector Coordination Group (ISCG)9. The main
responsibility of the sector leads together with their core lead Agencies is to ensure a
coherent strategy and operational response across all sectors, during all phases of the
common humanitarian programme cycle. The NDMA chairs the ISCG.
Purpose

Ensure that there is a clearly articulated humanitarian response, reflecting individual sector strategies and priorities. Ensure that areas of activity are coordinated, gaps identified and responded to, and overall operational response is prioritised across sectors. Promote adherence by organizations and sectors with humanitarian principles10, the Principles of Partnership11, IASC guidelines, and polices and strategies adopted by the Humanitarian Partners. Promote the consistent mainstreaming of cross-cutting issues (gender equality, HIV/AIDS, environment and early recovery) all sector strategies.
Strategic objectives

Ensure timely and robust coordination between sectors operating in the country to optimize support for the Government-led response. Maintain an overview of the humanitarian response and gap analysis (update of the 3W form); 9 The Inter-Sector Coordination Group (ISCG) has not yet been officially launched. 10 Humanity, neutrality, impartiality and independence. 11 Equality, transparency, result-oriented approach, responsibility, and complementarities. They were endorsed by the Global Humanitarian Platform in July 2007. See www.globalhumanitarianplatform.org Page 97 of 107
Provide guidance to ensure that Sectors contribute to building capacity of sector stakeholders/members, including national authorities and civil society, in terms of response and compliance with international principles; Develop Response Plans/Frameworks, and conduct periodic reviews to refine the strategic direction of the humanitarian response; Prepare the response/funding frameworks such as CAP/Flash Appeal; Facilitate standard tools to assist the members make sound strategic/operational decisions, including information management tools; Ensure that multi-sector mapping of humanitarian needs and response capacity is consolidated and updated regularly (3W lists/databases); Identify that programmatic synergies and thematic issues which overlap or affect more than one sector are addressed by multi-sectoral response; Ensure sharing of best practice and lessons learned to boost the performance of sectors; Ensure inter-sector contingency planning, including and the use of early warning indicators; Identify core advocacy concerns.
Composition

Composition is determined by the sectors as adopted by the country (Refer to Sector/Cluster Framework); Focal points for cross cutting issues, other institutions and agencies may be invited to participate in meetings when the agenda calls for their input.
Chair

Meetings are chaired by the NDMA. Regional Disaster Risk Managers12 will chair, coordinate and support regional emergency preparedness and response programmes (EPR). Meeting schedule

The NDMA will schedule meetings accordingly.
Modus operandi

The modus operandi is governed by the Principles of Partnership; Meetings are strategic in purpose, focused on clear objectives, action-oriented, and produce reality-based decisions that are followed up. 12 The NDMA is recruiting regional Disaster Risk Managers who will lead regional coordination of all emergency programmes at regional, Inkhundla/Constituency and community level. Page 98 of 107
ANNEX 10: National Rapid Assessment Tools

Multi-sectoral Rapid Assessment Team: Roles and responsibilities
Assessment
Is in charge of the whole assessment and ensures that it is carried out supported by Coordinator
the logistics and data coordinator (NDMA supported by the RCO) Coordinates the logistics of the people going to the field (NDMA supported by the RCO). Working closely with the field team leaders they coordinator will Logistics
Coordinator
 Ensure the payment of DSAs  Make vehicles/ fuel/ drivers available for the different field team Supervises all technical aspects of the data collection i.e  data collection – coordinates the data collection activities of the field teams  data entry – supervises the data entry team and its activities  data processing – supervises all data processing procedures Coordinator
 data analyses – supervises and coordinates the data analysis  product development - supervises the different people supporting product  dissemination – ensures the timely, targeted dissemination of the products Database/IT
Setting up and troubleshooting the database and IT systems in use under the direct Technician
supervision of the data coordinator. Supervises the field team the leader is in charge of, and;  ensures that data in the field is collected and handed to the data coordinator Field Team
 ensures the production of a field report and hands it in on the last day of the data collection process  ensures the review of the data collection process by the team he/she supervises and hands in the review together with the final field report  coordinates all activities of the field team in the field. Members of a field team chosen in such a manner that each member has a specific sector or Sectors that they oversee. Each member will ensure that data for the Field Team
sector/sector they are in charge of is collected and handed over to the team leader in a timely manner. This includes the collection of baseline data at the TA or district level during the assessment process. Data analyses – a team, which will analyse data collected and present the findings to sector members who will draw conclusions and recommendations from the findings per sector. It should be made up of statisticians or people skilled in analysing data. Analysis Team
The data analysis team can be the data entry team. Composed of representatives from the Sectors at the very least one person from Education, Health, Water and Sanitation, Protection, Food Aid, Agriculture, Shelter and Non Food Items Data capture clerks who clean the data before entering it into a central database Data Entry
making it ready for analysis People who will be producing certain kinds of products. At the very least, a report writer, who will be tasked with the production of a daily situational report, a media person who will be producing press releases and a GIS technician who will be Development
producing maps and different infographics Page 99 of 107
ANNEX 11: Disaster Response Timeline

Day 1: When Early Warning information
predicts an imminent hazard/the day the
disaster has occurred.
The Cabinet uses this
information to issue a
Declaration. The Declaration is
The Cabinet acknowledges having one notifying Swaziland that a received the report and provides the The Assessment Teams is in the field The assessment is carried out for NDMA calls sector leads to an emergency meeting. Regional and/or National NDMA with the necessary support at the site of the disaster. the entirety of Day 5. Disaster have occurred. A Declaration is necessary to amass other resources available in Swaziland. Continuously throughout the The assessment is carried out for assessment, information is being the entirety of Day 4 depending relayed from the Assessment NDMA and sector leads mobilize the Assessment The Assessment Teams are amassed The assessment is carried out for the on the magnitude of the disaster Teams in the field to the and dispatched to the field. entirety of Day 3. and the capacity of the Analysis Team in a centralized assessment teams to complete convenient location (most likely Mbabane but dependent on the disaster). Continuously throughout the Continuously throughout the As information is arriving from assessment, information is being assessment, information is being The NDMA director submits brief initial preparedness the Assessment Teams, it is relayed from the Assessment Teams relayed from the Assessment assessment report to the Cabinet stating what is required being analyzed and highlights The CERF application is submitted. in the field to the Analysis Team in a Team in the field to the Analysis (i.e. the conducting of an assessment which would then are being compiled into brief centralized convenient location (most Team in a centralized convenient require fuel, food for Assessment Team, stationary etc.). situational reports (SITREPS) likely Mbabane but dependent on the location (most likely Mbabane but dependent on the disaster). As information is arriving from the As information is arriving from The director of the NDMA uses Sector leads and the UN Disaster Management Team Assessment Teams, it is being the Assessment Team, it is being SITREPS to communicate with use baseline data and the Multi-hazard Contingency analyzed and highlights are being analyzed and highlights are being the Cabinet about the current Plan to apply for CERF funding, which is submitted through the UN Resident Coordinator's compiled into brief situational reports compiled into brief situational status of the disaster and any (SITREPS) and updates. reports (SITREPS) and updates. required materials. These SITREPS are given to the The NDMA director in liaison with sector leads director of the NDMA. These (SITREPS) and updates The Rapid Assessment report identifies and confirms priority sectors and projects. Use are given to the director of the begins to be compiled. MHCP to review and decide on priority sectors and The NDMA director in liaison with sector leads advice the DPMO on priority sectors The director of the NDMA uses these The director of the NDMA uses Preparations for a Flash Appeal reports to communicate with the these reports to communicate begin with the compiled Cabinet about the current status of with the Cabinet about the information from the Rapid the disaster and any required current status of the disaster and Assessment Report. Page 100 of 107
materials. The director of the NDMA any required materials. takes this report to the Cabinet and in
liaison with the relevant
sector/ministry recommend for a
declaration of disaster. The
Declaration is one notifying
Swaziland that a Regional and/or
National Disaster have occurred. A
Declaration is necessary to amass
other resources available in
Swaziland.
CERF funds are received and managed by the RC's Office and the NDMA. Page 101 of 107
ANNEX 12: National Disaster Preparedness & Response Sector Lead Focal Points

Food and Agriculture
Contact details
Tel/ Mobile
Government Lead Agencies
Ministry of Agriculture Main Contact Person
Mr. Tembumenzi Dube menzi_dube@yahoo.co.uk Alternate Contact Person
Mr. Ambrose Dlamini UN/ NGO Core Lead Agencies
Mr. Bheki Ginindza Bheki.Ginindza@fao.org 2404-3299/2404-7220 (w) Main Contact Person/s
Ms. Ntombi Mkhwanazi 2404-4962 Ext 2300 (w) Mr. Sibusiso Mondlane Ms. Laura Reynolds Laura.Reynolds@wfp.org Alternate Contact Person/s
Ms. Nana Dlamini Nana.Dlamini@wfp.org Health and Nutrition14
Contact details
Tel/ Mobile
Ministry of Health-EPR & Swaziland Government Lead Agency
National Nutrition Council masitsela@epr.co.sz Main Contact Person
Mr. Masitsela Mhlanga Alternate Contact Person
Mr. Brian Cindzi cindzibn@yahoo.co.nz UN/ NGO Core Lead Agency
gamab@sz.afro.who.int Main Contact Person
Dr. Benjamin Gama 2404-9635/ 2404-2928 (w) Alternate Contact Person
Mrs. Khosie Mthethwa 2404-9635/ 2404-2928 (w) Education
Contact details
13 FAO & WFP will jointly core lead the Agriculture and Food Security Cluster/Sector to maximize strengths of both organizations. WFP will lead in Food Assistance programmes. 14 WHO will core lead the health and nutrition cluster/sector. UNICEF will provide the necessary support. Page 102 of 107
Tel/ Mobile
Government Lead Agency
Ministry of Education and Training Main Contact Person
Mr. Mfanfikile Mabuza Mhs_mabuza@yahoo.com Alternate Contact Person
Ms. Magdalene Sisana Thwala magdathwala@yahoo.co.uk UN/ NGO Core Lead Agencies
UNICEF/ Save the Children vnkambule@unicef.org Mr. Victor Nkambule brians.mdluli@gmail.com Main Contact Person
Mr. Sifiso Mdluli Mr. Nathi Vilakati Alternate Contact Person
Ms. Muriel Mafico mmafico@unicef.org Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
Contact details
Tel/ Mobile
Government Lead Agency
MNRE-Department of Water Affairs Mr. Obed Ngwenya Main Contact Person/s
wrb-wcon@realnet.co.sz Mr. Jameson Mkhonta Ms. Nompumelelo Ntshalintshali nompie25@gmail.com Ms. Emelda Magagula dlaminimapule@gov.sz Alternate Contact Person/s
Mr. Daniel Sithole UN/ NGO Core Lead Agency
Main Contact Person
Mr. Boniswa Dladla 2407-1000 Ext 1055 bdladla@unicef.org Direct: 24071055 (w) 7602-4136 (m) Alternate Contact Person
Ms. Muriel Mafico mmafico@unicef.org Camp coordination and management; Emergency Shelter15 & NFI
Contact details
Tel/ Mobile
DPM-Department of Social Welfare Government Lead Agencies
Ministry of Home Affairs Main Contact Person
Ms. Sibongile Hlatshwayo 15 Camp Coordination and Management & Emergency Shelter have been combined to make best use of available resources. Page 103 of 107
Alternate Contact Person
Mrs. Ncenekile Gama ncenekileg203@gmail.com UN/ NGO Core Lead Agencies
Main Contact Person
Ms. Ntombi Mkhwanazi 2404-4962 Ext 2300 (w) Laura.Reynolds@wfp.org Ms. Laura Reynolds Nana.Dlamini@wfp.org Alternate Contact Person/s
Ms. Nana Dlamini Mr. Andreas Dlamini mziredcross@swazi.net Logistics
Contact details
Tel/ Mobile
Government Lead Agency
Ministry of Public Works & Transport Main Contact Person
Mr. Vukani Dlamini 24099241 (w) 76084793 (m) Alternate Contact Person
Mr. Amos Longwe-CTA Mr. Vusi Dlamini-Roads UN/ NGO Core Lead Agency
Main Contact Person
Ms. Ntombi Mkhwanazi 2404-4962 Ext 2300 (w) Ms. Laura Reynolds Laura.Reynolds@wfp.org Alternate Contact Person/s
Ms. Nana Dlamini Nana.Dlamini@wfp.org Contact details
Tel/ Mobile
DPM-Department of Social Welfare Government Lead Agencies
and Royal Swaziland Police Main Contact Person
Ms. Sibongile Hlatshwayo Mr. Pitsoe Ndlandla pitsoe@yahoo.com Alternate Contact Person/s
Ms. Dudu Ngwenya dpngwenya@yahoo.com UN/ NGO Core Lead Agency
Ms. Renata Tallarico rtallarico@unfpa.org Main Contact Person/s
2404-2301 Ext 2560 (w) Mr. Khetho Dlamini kdlamini@unicef.org 16 The Protection cluster will be jointly core led by UNICEF & UNFPA to maximize the comparative advantages of both organizations Page 104 of 107
Alternate Contact Person/s
Ms. Phumzile Dlamini 2404-2301 Ext 2538 (w) pdlamini@unfpa.org Ms. Muriel Mafico mmafico@unicef.org Emergency ICT
Contact details
Tel/ Mobile
Ministry of Information Government Lead Agency
Communication and Technology Main Contact Person
Alternate Contact Person
Ms. Nqobile Ndzinisa UN/ NGO Core Lead Agency
Main Contact Person
Ms. Ntombi Mkhwanazi 2404-4962 Ext 2300 (w) Ms. Laura Reynolds Laura.Reynolds@wfp.org Alternate Contact Person
Ms. Nana Dlamini Nana.Dlamini@wfp.org Refugees17
Contact details
Tel/ Mobile
Government Lead Agency
Ministry of Home Affairs Main Contact Person
Mrs. Ncenekile Gama ncenekileg203@gmail.com Alternate Contact Person
Resident Coordinator's Office/ UN/ NGO Core Lead Agency
Main Contact Person
Ms. Lolo Mkhabela 2404-2301-3 Ext 2508 (w) 76023500 (m) Alternate Contact Person
Mr. Jabu Matsebula Early Recovery
Contact details
17 Due to the absence of UNHCR in the country and based on previous experiences, the RC's office will act as cluster core lead Agency with Red Cross as core lead for Refugees but calling upon the regional UNHCR office based in Johannesburg should any refugee emergency occur 18 Early Recovery (ER) is integrated into all Cluster/Sector responses and therefore is not allocated its own cluster. But the people indicated above should ensure that that ER activities are integrated in all Cluster/Sector plans Page 105 of 107
Tel/ Mobile
National Disaster Management Government Lead Agency
Main Contact Person
Mr. Samkeliso Dlamini Samkeliso95@yahoo.com Alternate Contact Person
Mr. Thokozani Ngwenya Thokozanin227@gmail.com UN/ NGO Core Lead Agency
Main Contact Person
Ms. Sithembiso Hlatshwako 2404-2301 Ext 2505 (w) 7602-6356 (m) Alternate Contact Person
Ms. Nomaswazi Dlamini 2404-2301 Ext 2507 (w) Page 106 of 107
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Agrometeorological Unit/MoTEA, 2012. Agrometeorological Update, Issue No. 11, 2011/2012
GoS, 2006. Disaster Management Act, 2006
GoS, 2010. National Disaster Risk Management Policy, 2010
GoS, 2011. Swaziland Annual Vulnerability Assessment and Analysis Report
GoS/DPMO & UNDP, 2009. National Multi-sectoral Bushfire Contingency Plan
GoS/MOH, 2009. National Contingency Plan for Cholera
GoS/NDMA, 2012. Draft Information Management Strategy (IM) for Emergency Preparedness
and Response (EPR) produced in collaboration with UNCHA-ROSA, February 2012 Government of Malawi, 2009. National Contingency Plan 2009-2010 Swaziland Meteorological Services, 2011. Swaziland Seasonal Rainfall Forecast for the 2011/2012 Season Swaziland Information Management Strategy for Emergency Preparedness and Response (Draft). February 2012 United Nations, 2010. Complementary Country Analysis: The Kingdom of Swaziland, UNRCO, United Nations, 2011. United Nations Country Team Disaster Preparedness and Response Plan United Nations, 2012. Rapid Assessment of the Impact of Fiscal Crisis in Swaziland, UNCT, Page 107 of 107

Source: http://ndma.co.sz/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Multi-Hazard-Contingency-Plan-MHCP-Consolidated-ZERO-Final-Draft_001.pdf

Microsoft word - rosacea for online january 2010-good version.rtf

REVIEW ARTICLE Current topical and systemic approaches to treatment of rosacea HC Korting,* C Schöllmann Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany *Correspondence: HC Korting. E-mail: h.c.korting@lrz.uni-muenchen.de Abstract Rosacea is a common, often overlooked, chronic facial dermatosis characterized by intermittent periods of exacerbation and remission. Clinical subtypes and grading of the disease have been defined in the literature. On the basis of a genetic predisposition, there are several intrinsic and extrinsic factors possibly correlating with the phenotypic expression of the disease. Although rosacea cannot be cured, there are several recommended treatment strategies appropriate to control the corresponding symptoms/signs. In addition to adequate skin care, these include topical and systemic medications particularly suitable for the papulopustular subtype of rosacea with moderate to severe intensity. The most commonly used and most established therapeutic regimens are topical metronidazole and topical azelaic acid as well as oral doxycycline. Conventionally, 100–200 mg per day have been used. Today also a controlled release formulation is available, delivering 40 mg per day using non-antibiotic, anti-inflammatory activities of the drug. Anti-inflammatory dose doxycycline in particular allows for a safe and effective short- and long-term therapy of rosacea. Topical metronidazole and topical azelaic acid also appear to be safe and effective for short-term use. There are indications that a combined therapy of anti-inflammatory dose doxycycline and topical metronidazole could possibly have synergy effects. Further interesting therapy options for the short- and long-term therapy of rosacea could be low-dose minocycline and isotretinoin; however, too little data are available with regard to the effectiveness, safety, optimal dosage and appropriate length of treatment for these medications to draw final conclusions. Received: 21 December 2007; Accepted 9 December 2008

B8˵Ã÷Êéµ¥

Thank you for purchasing IMAX B8 charger. This is h i g h - s p e e d r e c h a r g e / d i s c h a r g e e q u i p m e n t manufactured with high technology & professional control software. It enables you maintain your battery with optimal status with high level of safety. Optimized user interface When charging or discharging, B8 has an function that sets the feeding

Copyright © 2008-2016 No Medical Care