31st ICPIG, July 14-19, 2013, Granada, Spain Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry in Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas Y. Aranda Gonzalvo and P. Hatton Plasma & Surface Analysis Division, Hiden Analytical Ltd., 420 Europa Boulevard, Warrington, WA5 7UN, UK There exist many plasma diagnostics for atmospheric plasma discharges but the most direct technique to measure fluxes of ions and neutral species is molecular beam mass spectrometry. It can be used to measure both negative and positive ions including short lived radicals species formed in the atmospheric pressure plasmas. An overview of different source configurations plasma discharges studied with a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) is presented.
4-h show lamb guideAS 3-4.059
Texas Agricultural Extension Service Chester P. Fehlis, Deputy Director The Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas Original cover art by Ross Stultz.
4-H Show Lamb Guide
Frank Craddock and Ross Stultz* You have made the decision — you want to feed and competitively show a market lamb for your 4-H clubproject. The lamb that you purchase will join morethan 9,000 lambs in 4-H projects across the state this year. You will join other 4-H members in devoting many hours over severalmonths to the proper care, feeding and management of a potentiallyaward-winning lamb.
Lambs may be purchased by private treaty at a producer's ranch or through sales. During the late spring and summer, there are usually oneor more sales every week throughout the state. Information on lambsales is available through magazines such as "The Showbox," "ShowTimes" and "The Purple Circle." However, many of the decisions you make regarding the type of feeder lamb to purchase and raise, and how to exercise, feed and carefor the lamb, will depend on the shows you plan to enter. Your first step,then, is to determine which shows to attend. Show schedules, rules andregulations may be obtained from your county Extension agent ordirectly from the shows.
It is your responsibility, as a potential exhibitor, to read the general rules and regulations, as well as special rules governing the shows youwill attend. This information will tell you the number of lambs you mayenter, the type of classification system used, weight limits, ownershipdates and entry deadlines.
Show dates are extremely important. They determine the age and size or weight of the lambs to be entered and at what time of year the lambsshould be purchased. Most shows require that lambs retain their milkteeth. Lambs generally hold their milk teeth until they are 12 to 14months of age. Lambs without baby teeth are ineligible for show.
* Professor and Extension Sheep and Goat Specialist, and former Extension Assistant- Animal Science/Sheep and Goats, The Texas A&M University System.
Contributors: George Ahlschwede, retired Extension Sheep and Goat Specialist; Jack Groff,retired Extension Sheep and Goat Specialist; Carl Hyde, Hyde Family Club Lambs; RexJones, retired Tom Green County Extension Agent; Sam Kuykendall, retired Menard CountyExtension Agent; Billy Reagor, retired Crockett County Extension Agent; Kyle Smith, As-sistant Director for Agriculture and Natural Resources; Rex Stultz, retired Concho CountyExtension Agent; and Joe Ed Wise, First National Bank, Santa Anna.
Lamb shows also have weight limit requirements that must be met.
Under normal conditions, lambs will gain approximately 1/2 pound perday. Not all lambs can be fed to the same final weight because not alllambs have the same size of frame. Large frame lambs may be correctlyfinished at 140 pounds, while small frame lambs may be correctlyfinished at 100 pounds. You must learn to look at indicators of framesize (length of head, neck, cannon bone and body) and determine theweight at which a lamb will be correctly finished. If you know theapproximate weight of a lamb at the time of purchase and the length oftime until a show, you can calculate the feed requirements (light,moderate or heavy) needed to enable that lamb to enter the show at itsproper show weight.
Remember that size does not make a good lamb. There are good little lambs and good big lambs. Your management program is the key.
Facilities and Equipment
One of the major advantages of a club lamb project is that you can feed and manage lambs without elaborate facilities. A barn or shedwhere lambs can retreat from cold, wet conditions and a small pen withoutside exposure are essential. Adequate fencing, a feeder, a watercontainer and an exercise area are required, yet other equipment may beconsidered optional.
The shed or barn should have at least 20 square feet of space for each lamb. The outside pen can be any size that is convenient. The facilityshould be well drained and should open to the east or south. Barntemperature is critical. Structures should be well ventilated so lambswill remain cool and continue to grow during the summer. On the otherhand, when club lambs are slick shorn for shows, barns should bealtered during the winter to keep lambs as warm as possible. This canbe done by closing the front of the barn with a tarp or plastic sheet andby using heat lamps.
The illustration shows the recommended dimensions and layout for a Fence height should be at least 42 inches to discourage lambs from jumping. Fences also should keep out predators.
Self-feeders are often used in the early stages of feeding club lambs.
Self-feeders should be blocked at least 8 inches off the ground. If lambsare hand fed, use movable troughs that hang on the fence at the appro-priate height. A trough should be hung at the same height as the top of LAMB FEEDING FACILITY
Individual feeding stalls
Shed 18' x 46'
Feeding alley 3'
Feeding room 10' x 18'
Pens under shed 12' x 15'
Feeding stalls 1 1/2' x 5'
Pens 12' x 27'
Track 35' x 100'
Track width 5'
the shoulder of the lamb being fed. Movable troughs need to be taken
down and cleaned regularly. Hay and mineral feeders also need to be
elevated. The use of small, individual feeding stalls is an option that
allows you to accurately measure the feed consumption of each lamb.
This requires extra pen space and is time consuming. However, it is an
excellent way to properly feed individual lambs.
Fresh water is the most important ingredient in feeding club lambs.
Water troughs should be small so they can be drained and cleaned on aregular basis. Troughs should be located in the shade to keep water cool.
In the hot summer months, some lambs tend to drink too much waterand appear "full." Water should never be totally removed from a lamb,but rationing water prior to a show will help remove the belly from thelamb and improve its appearance in the show ring.
Exercising lambs is a necessity. One of the best ways to exercise lambs is with the assistance of a dog. If a dog is used to run lambs, a circular oroval shaped track or a square track with rounded corners should beused. The track path should be 5 to 7 feet wide. If the path is any wider,lambs have a tendency to stop or turn back on the dog. The outsidefence should be at least 4 feet tall and constructed of heavy, tightlystretched net wire. The inside fence should be 4 feet tall and made of netwire that has some elasticity and is not tightly stretched. It is importantto remove all rocks or obstacles from the path. Sand, cedar shavings orfresh dirt should be kept in the path to provide a softer running surface.
Overall measurements should be no larger than 100 feet by 100 feet andno smaller than 40 feet by 40 feet. The ideal is approximately 70 feet by70 feet. This is large enough for lambs to get a good workout, but smallenough that you can control or stop your dog in case of an emergency.
If you do not have a dog, you may exercise your lambs using a bicycle or four-wheel, all-terrain vehicle. You may also chase the lambsyourself, however, this is very tiring for you and the lambs probablywill not get enough exercise. Walking lambs with a halter does not givethem enough exercise, but it is better than no exercise at all.
To properly feed and exhibit a club lamb, it is necessary to have the following equipment: • stiff brush to clean water troughs;• shovel to clean pens;• trimming table that measures 45 inches long, 20 inches wide and • electric clippers;• 20- and 23-tooth combs with cutters;• one small wool card or poodle comb;• syringes and needles;• lamb blankets and/or socks;• rope halters;• hoof trimmers;• hand shears;• bolus gun for giving medication;• back-pack drench gun;• small portable feed troughs.
You may want the following optional equipment if you are exhibiting several lambs at major shows: • small animal clippers;• hair head for electric clippers;• show box to hold equipment;• hot air blower or dryer;• portable livestock scales;• electric water heater;• electric sharpener or grinder for combs and cutters;• extension cords;• muzzles;• electric fans.
The selection of a lamb for a project is one of the most important decisions you must make. The type of lamb you select will have a majorinfluence on the project's results. However, remember that a winninglamb is a combination of good selection, good nutritional management,a good exercise program and outstanding showmanship.
People differ in their ability to select animals. Some have a natural eye for selecting young animals of high caliber, while others may neverdevelop this ability. Do not hesitate to ask for help from someone withthese skills. It may be your county Extension agent, Future Farmers ofAmerica instructor, parent or another leader in your county. Also, manybreeders are very willing to assist you in your selection.
When selecting a lamb, be aware of wool length and fat thickness. If possible, select your club lamb after shearing. Young lambs that arebloomy and fat always look good, while young lambs that are thin donot. Learn to look past fat and recognize muscle so that you pick a lambthat is genetically superior.
When purchasing a lamb, it is important to know something about the lamb producer. Do not hesitate to ask questions about the lamb'sbloodlines and the age of the lamb.
Consider the following when selecting a lamb: classification, muscle, structural correctness, style and balance, and growth potential.
Show lamb classification relies not necessarily on the genetic makeup, but upon the animal's physical characteristics. These include colormarkings, physical structure, skeletal shape, and feel (softness) of thepelt. Some genetic traits of a breed are not always the most dominant,and it may be difficult for a lamb show classifier to recognize these traits. When selecting a lamb for purchase, remember that you shouldbe confident that the lamb will classify.
Classification guidelines are clearly established for county, district and state shows. A lamb must be typical for the class in which it isshown. There are four major breed classes shown in the state. They arefinewools, finewool crosses, medium wools and Southdowns. Thefollowing Market Lamb Classification Standards were revised in 1998 by10 lamb classifiers and will go into effect May 1, 1999. These standardsmay be helpful when purchasing lambs.
Finewool Breed CharacteristicsA. Acceptable breed characteristics Rambouillet, Delaine, Debouillet, or a cross between thesebreeds Silky, white face that is narrow and clean cut Silky ears, medium to moderate in size White hooves and legs Horns may be present or absent B. Discriminatory breed characteristics Black or brown spots in the skin or wool on the body of thelamb Freckles or pigmented areas of black or brown skin Black pigmentation in the hooves C. Absolute disqualifications Coarse, chalky, white hair on the face, down the back of thehind legs, and in the flanks Black or brown freckles above the hooves in the hairline Solid black hooves Harsh, coarse pelt Surgical alterations other than redocking Steep hip or tendency to show callipyge gene II. Finewool Cross Breed Characteristics A. Acceptable breed characteristics Must be a cross with evidence of at least 50 percent finewoolbreeding. The other percentage should be predominantlyHampshire and/or Suffolk characteristics.
Soft pelt that is characteristic of 1/2 blood wool (60s, 62sspinning count) Mottling and/or some spotting on face and ears Mottling and/or spotting of legs below the knees and stiflejoint Soft and silky face and ears B. Discriminatory breed characteristics Face, ears and legs should not be extremely dark or solid incolor Colored fiber (black or brown spots) in the wool Absence of wool on the legs below the knees and/or hocks C. Absolute disqualifications Coarse, chalky white hair on the face or ears or legs or in theflanks Harsh, coarse pelt Surgical alterations other than redocking Steep hip or tendency to show callipyge gene III. Southdown Breed Characteristics A. Acceptable breed characteristics Hair color on muzzle should be mouse colored, gray tobrown Nostril pigmentation may be black to purplish-gray Muzzle should be broad, head of moderate length Ears of moderate length, covered with short hair or wool Dark pigmentation on hide and/or birth marks are accept-able B. Discriminatory breed characteristics Solid white color on muzzle Dark chocolate color on muzzle Coarse, chalky hair around eyes extending to and includingthe muzzle Predominately pink nose with few black spots Long, narrow nose Coloration on ears Coarse hair in flank Harsh, coarse pelt Open poll on head 10. Striped hooves11. Black fibers in wool C. Absolute disqualifications Speckled face or legs Horns or solid scurs Changing color of hair or pigmentation on head, legs,hooves or nose Total pink pigmentation of nostrils Surgical alterations other than redocking Steep hip or tendency to show callipyge gene IV. Medium Wool Breed Characteristics: This class generally includes the Suffolk and Hampshire breeds, plus all lambs that do not fit inthe finewool, finewool cross or Southdown breed classes.
Proper lamb selection also depends on muscling. Select a lamb that feels firm or hard muscled. The lamb should have a good expression of
muscle from the shoulder to the rump. It should have a long, level,
square rump with good width at the pin bones (dock). Other good
indicators of muscling are the forearm and leg muscles. The widest part
of the leg, when viewed from behind, should be through the middle of
the leg or the stifle area. Also, a lamb that walks and stands wide is
generally going to be more heavily muscled.
Structural correctness refers to the skeletal system or bone structure of an animal. A lamb should hold its head erect and the neck should
extend out of the top of the shoulder. A lamb should travel and stand
wide and straight on both its front and rear legs and the legs should be
placed squarely under the body. A lamb should have a strong top and a
long, level rump. It should be heavy boned and be strong on its pas-
terns. Avoid open-shouldered, weak-topped, steep-rumped lambs.
Style and balance
Style and balance refer to the way all body parts blend together, how the front end matches the rear end, and how "eye appealing" a lamb is.
When viewed from the side, a lamb should have a clean front, smoothshoulder, level top, level rump, trim middle and straight legs. Becauseall club lambs are shorn smooth, it is absolutely necessary that a lamb have a tight hide and be free of wrinkles. A lamb should never beselected in the wool, if possible. A good, smooth, thin-hided lamb haseye appeal and will handle well when properly finished. A lamb that isbalanced, smooth, pretty, and holds up its head is the first one younotice when you walk in the pen.
The ability of an animal to grow rapidly is very important. Generally, larger framed lambs, as indicated by a long head, neck, cannon bone,and body, will grow faster, be larger, and be more competitive in theshow ring. Lambs that are extremely long in the loin and rump willhave an advantage over others.
There are no magic feeds or rations that make champions. It is the total feeding program, including the feeding schedule, the exerciseprogram, and the careful observation of the lamb during growing andfinishing stages, that makes a champion lamb. To establish a goodfeeding program, study the lamb and use all of the available informa-tion to decide when feed changes should be made. To develop a success-ful feeding program for a particular lamb, it helps to know how lambsfrom similar genetic backgrounds usually develop, and it helps tocarefully observe the lamb during the feeding period.
There are five basic nutrients required by all livestock. They are water, protein, carbohydrates and fats (or energy), minerals and vita-
Lean tissue consists of more than 70 percent water. Clean, fresh water is required on a daily basis to provide the necessary fluids to keep the
body functioning at optimum levels. If water is limited, feed consump-
tion will decline. This can aid feeders at certain periods during the
program by reducing the size of the rumen and making the lamb look
The primary constituent of the animal body is protein. Dietary protein maintains protein in body tissues, provides for carriers of othernutrients, and is a major component of various products such as meat,milk and fiber. Protein requirements for lambs vary according to theirsize, age and maturity. Young, fast growing lambs need rations thatcontain 16 to 18 percent protein to allow them to grow and develop theirmuscle potential. Lambs can be fed lower protein diets during thefattening stage and during the hotter summer months, when feedinghigh protein diets may tend to cause heat stress. Older lambs can befattened on rations containing 11 to 12 percent protein.
Remember that lambs have a daily requirement for protein. If fed more than is required, lambs use excess protein for energy production.
Using protein as an energy source is very expensive. Also, duringperiods when total feed intake is reduced, protein supplementation maybe necessary to provide the adequate daily requirement for lambs.
Carbohydrates and fats
The most common limiting nutrients in lamb rations are energy- producing carbohydrates and fats. Inadequate energy intake will reducegrowth and cause weight loss. An adequate supply of energy is neces-sary for efficient nutrient utilization. Grain and protein supplements arehigh in energy. Hay contains less carbohydrates and fats. In lambrations, too much energy intake can be just as detrimental as notenough.
Important minerals in lamb rations are salt (sodium and chlorine), calcium and phosphorus. It is recommended that loose salt and a loosetrace mineral for ruminants be fed free choice at all times.
Calcium and phosphorus are necessary for proper growth and development. They should be fed in a ratio of approximately 2.5 partscalcium to 1 part phosphorus. Feed rations that contain high levels ofphosphorus in relation to calcium may cause urinary calculi, the forma-tion of stones that block the passage of urine. The addition of ammo-nium chloride at the rate of 10 pounds per ton of feed will preventurinary calculi.
Roughages are generally high in calcium and low in phosphorus.
Grains are generally low in calcium and moderate in phosphorus. Mostprotein supplements are high in phosphorus and moderate in calcium.
High energy lamb rations usually need calcium supplementation, suchas calcium carbonate, to bring the calcium:phosphorus ratio to 2.5:1.
Vitamins are essential for proper body function, but lambs require very small amounts. Only vitamin A is likely to be deficient. If lambs arereceiving alfalfa hay or dehydrated alfalfa hay pellets in the ration, thenvitamin A deficiency should not be a problem. It is a good practice toinoculate lambs with vitamin B complex to enhance their well being.
The key to a healthy lamb is the development of a preventive health program. It is a good practice to assume that the lamb you have pur-chased has had no treatments. Therefore, the health program shouldinclude vaccinations or treatments for a number of potential problems.
One of the main causes of death in club lambs is enterotoxemia, or overeating disease. Symptoms are seldom exhibited. The disease is
caused by a clostridial organism normally present in the intestine of
most sheep. Lambs that experience abrupt changes to their feeding
schedules or that consume large amounts of grain are subject to entero-
toxemia. These changes cause the clostridial organism to grow rapidly
and produce a powerful toxin that causes death in a few hours. There is
a combination vaccine for types C and D enterotoxemia. All club lambs
should be vaccinated with the combination vaccine, and a booster
vaccine should be administered 2 to 3 weeks later. Additional boosters
can be given at 2- to 3-month intervals.
Internal parasites are a continual problem. New lambs should be drenched for internal parasites immediately. A second drenching should
follow about 3 weeks later. Consult your veterinarian for recommended
practices and information on the most effective drenches.
Soremouth is a contagious disease that causes the formation of scabs on the lips and around the mouths of lambs. It is caused by a virus that
can affect humans, so use caution when working with lambs with
soremouth. Iodine can be rubbed into lesions after the scabs are re-
moved and this will help dry up the area and reduce the infection. The
Texas Agricultural Experiment Station manufactures a live-virus vaccine
that will help prevent soremouth.
Lambs affected with tetanus seldom recover and there is no satisfactory treatment. If tetanus has been a problem in your area, or if
you use elastrator bands to dock tails, you should vaccinate for tetanus.
There are combination vaccines for tetanus and enterotoxemia.
Ringworm can become a serious problem because it is contagious and can be transmitted from lamb to lamb, from lamb to human, or frominfected equipment to lamb. A good prevention program is necessary.
The following products have been used with varying results: • Fulvicin® powder — as a bolus or used to top dress feed;• Novasan® — 3 ounces per gallon of water sprayed on lambs, equipment and premises; • Bleach — 10 percent solution sprayed on lambs, equipment and Rectal prolapse, or protrusion of the rectum, is believed to be inher- ited. It also is associated with concentrate feeding, short docking of the
tail or excessive coughing induced by dusty conditions. Prompt treat-
ment by a veterinarian is recommended. If unattended, the prolapsed
rectum will become swollen, inflamed and covered with crusted blood,
fibrin and feces. If a lamb is in otherwise good physical condition,
salvage by slaughter may be the most economically feasible approach.
Chlamydial polyarthritis, or stiff lamb disease, most commonly affects lambs from 3 weeks to 5 months of age. Affected lambs are inac-
tive, reluctant to rise or move, and lose weight or gain weight slowly. If
forced to move, they move with a stiff gait as though in extreme pain.
After moving for a few minutes, however, the lambs will appear almost
normal as the lameness or stiffness diminishes. Treatment relies on the
use of tetracycline antibiotics as prescribed by a veterinarian.
State and federal laws and regulations concerning the use of drugs for livestock and poultry are established to protect human and animalhealth. These laws and regulations state that instructions and restric-tions on product labels must be strictly followed. The labels state thespecies or class of livestock or poultry for which the drug is to be used,the recommended route of administration, the approved dosage rateand specific conditions to be treated. When administering drugs, alwaysfollow label instructions.
The use of a drug in a manner other than stated on its label is regu- lated by the Food and Drug Administration and may be done onlyunder the control of a licensed veterinarian. The veterinarian assumesthe responsibility for making medical judgements and you, the client,agree to strictly follow the instructions.
Most Texas livestock shows have strict policies against the illegal use of drugs and will disqualify animals if such drugs have been used.
Other care considerations
Tail docking, hoof trimming and daily observation are also necessary to a good health management program.
Many lambs that come from large range operations have not had their tails docked short. To prepare a lamb such as this for the show ring, it isnecessary to remove one to four vertebrae from the end of the tail. Thisshould be done as early as possible so that the tail will have time to heal.
You may do it yourself or have it done by a veterinarian.
Hooves need to be trimmed every 4 to 6 weeks. Always trim hooves 1 to 2 weeks before a show in case you accidently cut into the quick and temporarily cripple the lamb. This will give the lamb time to heal beforethe show.
Careful daily observation of lambs also is a good preventive measure.
Lambs that do not feel well generally do not eat as quickly and may notclean up their feed. It is a good idea to routinely check the manure of thelambs in the pen. Lambs with diarrhea generally have had their feedchanged too quickly, have consumed too much high-energy feed, ormay have an internal parasite problem. Check the lambs to see how theywalk and get a good impression of their overall thriftiness. Lambs withtheir ears hanging down and walking abnormally do not feel well.
Daily observations also will help you detect lambs suffering from urinary calculi or water belly. An affected animal will stand with itsback arched and will strain to pass urine, may kick at its belly and showextreme discomfort. It is normal for most lambs to urinate after theystand up and move about for a few minutes. Watch your lambs closelyto make sure they are urinating without problems.
Heat stress also can be a problem for lambs. Heat stressed lambs tend to stand very straight on their hind legs and appear to have the shakesor tremors in their rear quarters. To reduce stress, shear the lambs andprovide a quiet, cool place for rest.
Management and Feeding
You have a choice of feeding a commercially prepared ration, mixing your own, or feeding a county ration that has been mixed and is sold bythe local feed store. If you are raising only one or two lambs, it is notfeasible to buy all the ingredients and hand mix the ration. It is difficultto balance the calcium:phosphorus ratio, add the proper amount ofammonium chloride and properly mix the feed. There are many com-plete commercial rations available that will do a satisfactory job. Re-member that there is no such thing as a "magic" ration. Find a balancedration, learn how to feed it and learn how your lambs respond to it.
At the time of purchase, many young lambs, especially range lambs, will not know how to eat feed from a feeder. These lambs should bestarted on good, leafy alfalfa hay that is top dressed with a precondi-tioning pellet. After 2 or 3 days, slowly change these lambs to theconcentrate that you have chosen. Hay can be fed during the first part ofthe feeding program, but should be eliminated at the later stages toprevent lambs from getting a large stomach.
Breed differences also play a major role in the feeding program. The greater the finewool influence in a lamb, the more timid and wild it willbe and the less likely it will be to eat when people are present. Becauseof these differences, finewools, crossbreds, medium wools and South-downs should be fed separately. When all of your lambs are eating well and are comfortable with their surroundings, you should separate thembased on condition and feed them accordingly.
Initially, lambs may be self fed with excellent results. Self-feeders allow the timid, smaller lambs an opportunity to eat. Once the lambbegin to mature and fatten, a hand-feeding program should be imple-mented. Feeding lambs individually allows you to know how mucheach lamb eats each day.
Fat deposition must be closely monitored throughout the feeding program. The feeding schedule can be adjusted to modify gain andbody composition, but you must check the lambs' progress so thatchanges in the feeding program may be made as necessary. Rations thatare not producing enough finish can be bolstered by adding a highenergy feed during the late stages of the feeding program. This willreduce the overall protein content of the ration and provide the extraenergy needed during cold weather.
Never make abrupt changes in the feeding program. Gradual changes are more desirable so lambs stay on feed and continue to develop.
The feeding program will dictate how your lambs develop and mature. A good program cannot make up for a lack of superior genetics,but it will allow your lambs to reach their genetic potential. A poorfeeding program can cause a lamb with great genetic potential to bewasted. Feeding is a daily responsibility and the program should bechanged as needed to maximize results. To monitor your results, weighlambs on a regular basis. Know whether your lambs are gaining orlosing weight and know how much.
Feeding and exercise go hand in hand. Exercise is an excellent way to condition and tone your lambs, and help control fat deposition. Lambsshould be exercised extremely hard and fast for short distances of 350 to450 yards. In an exercise program, your goal is to run the lambs justlong enough to get adrenalin running through their bodies. This helpsdevelop muscle. If you exercise the lambs too long, you will pass thispoint and start to tear down muscle rather than develop it.
Exercise programs should begin 2 to 3 months before the show, depend- ing upon the ration fed and the condition of the lambs. Do not make themistake of exercising lambs before they are properly conditioned.
Fitting lambs for show requires more than simply shearing them.
Lambs, regardless of breed, should be washed prior to shearing. Theonly exception to this is when lambs are in long fleece. A clean fleece iseasier to shear and extends the life of clipper blades. Any livestock soapor liquid dish washing soap will work extremely well for washinglambs, but be careful to remove all soap when rinsing.
Wash and shear lambs as close to the show day as possible. Most of the major shows do not allow washing after arrival on the showgrounds. Lambs that are sheared frequently have a greater tendency towrinkle or become loose hided.
A blow dryer may be used to hasten drying time. A bath towel is adequate for drying short fleeced lambs in warm weather. Lambs thathave a tendency to wrinkle should not be dried with a blow dryer.
Shearing can be done while the lambs' wool is still damp. Clippers will perform better in loose, damp wool. A pair of electric clippers fittedwith a 20-tooth goat comb and 4-point cutter or a 23-tooth comb and 9-point cutter should be used to ensure smoother, more attractive lambs.
Lambs should be sheared smooth. While shearing, the clippers should run parallel to the length of the body rather than vertically.
Shearing parallel to the length of the body makes lambs appear bal-anced and longer bodied. Wool below the knees and hocks should notbe shorn. This "boot" can be carded out and blended in with handshears or electric clippers. Leaving the wool on the legs also improvesthe balance and "eye appeal" of lambs. Small animal clippers may beneeded to clip closely around the eyes, ears or delicate areas.
Immediately after shearing, cover each lamb with a lamb sock or blanket and hood. A clean, well-bedded pen should be provided to keeplambs clean and dry.
Showing market lambs is an art. Some people have natural abilities to show, but all exhibitors can learn techniques and improve their show-manship skills.
The amount of time required to train a lamb for show depends on the lamb, the physical size and experience of the exhibitor, and the intensityof training. Some lambs are easy to gentle and train for show, whileother lambs are difficult and nearly impossible to train. Most lambs canbe trained if enough time and effort are spent. Larger, more experiencedexhibitors can handle a wilder lamb, while beginners need a gentle,well-trained lamb. Some exhibitors spend time training throughout theprogram, while others start an intensified training program just 2 to 3weeks before the show.
Halter breaking is an excellent way to begin the gentling process, especially if you have several lambs. Lambs should be caught, halteredwith a rope halter, and tied to a fence. Do not tie the lambs where theycan hurt themselves and do not leave tied lambs unattended. While alamb is tied, you can place the lamb's feet properly and get it accus-tomed to setting up.
After the lamb begins to gentle, you can start teaching it to lead. This is done with one hand under its chin and the other hand on the back ofits head. Have someone assist you by patting the lamb on its dockwhenever it stops. When you are comfortable leading the lamb, you canlearn to position your hands in a way that holds the lamb's ears for-ward. This will give the judge the impression that the lamb is longnecked and very stylish. Lead with your arm extended and with yourbody 1 to 2 feet from the lamb.
The next step in the training process is to lead the lamb without a halter and properly set it up. Set the hind legs first, then place the frontlegs, keeping the body and neck straight and the head in a high, proudposition with ears up and forward. You should remain standing at alltimes. Do not squat or kneel.
After a lamb is trained to lead, set up and remain set up while you move around it, the lamb is ready to be taught to brace or push whenpressure is applied to its neck or chest. A lamb must push or brace itselfwhen the judge is handling it. A constant, steady pressure is desirablebecause it helps the judge better evaluate the lamb. Keep the lamb's frontfeet on the ground when bracing. A lamb can be taught to brace bybacking it off a blocking table or by lightly tapping it on the rear when itmoves backward. Do not overpower a lamb when teaching it to brace, orit may develop bad habits such as over driving or kicking its back legstoo far back. Be careful and do not practice too much when teaching alamb how to push.
After training is complete, you may wish to practice showing the lamb. You can set up your lamb and show it while someone else handlesit, making sure the lamb responds. If the lamb responds properly, returnit to the pen and do not overwork it. If it fails to respond, more trainingis necessary.
Realize that you may have only 5 seconds to actually show a lamb in a major show. If your lamb does not stand and push properly when thejudge handles it, you may get overlooked.
Your planning, selection, feeding, fitting, training and grooming have brought you and your lamb this far — to the show ring. Now, your skillin exhibiting your lamb — showmanship — cannot be emphasized toostrongly! It is often the difference between winning and losing.
You should be mentally and physically ready to enter the show ring for competition. By completing the pre-show activities, you should haveconfidence that you can do an effective job in showing your lamb. Youshould be neat in appearance, but not overdressed. Do not wear a hat orcap and do not use a halter in the show ring.
Before the show begins, become familiar with the show ring. When the judging begins, watch the judge if possible and see how he worksthe lambs in the ring. You will feel more comfortable and confident ifyou know what the judge expects of you.
When the appropriate class is called, take your lamb to the show ring.
If the ring stewards do not line up the lambs, find a place where yourlamb will look its best. Avoid corners of the ring and leave plenty ofspace between your lamb and others. Set up your lamb, making sure thelegs are set properly, and keep the body, neck and head in a straight line.
Keep the lamb's head up and alert.
Do not cover your lamb with your body or block the judge's view of your lamb. Have your lamb bracing when the judge begins to handle it.
Remember, a constant, steady pressure that keeps the lamb's front feeton the ground is desirable. After the judge handles your lamb, he willusually step back and look at it. Be sure to keep pressure on the lamband keep its head up and body, neck and head in a straight line. Keepone eye on the judge and one eye on your lamb. It is your responsibilityto watch the judge and not miss a decision.
A good showman must be alert and know where the judge is at all times. Always keep your eye on the judge! Remain calm and concentrateon showing. In large classes, it may take 30 minutes before the judgehandles your lamb. Be patient and let your lamb relax. To keep yourlamb calm, circle it, scratch it on the ear or rub its stomach.
When the lamb is pulled, never back it out of the line. Always move the lamb forward, remembering to keep the lamb between the judge andyourself. If you overpower the lamb and back it out of line, the lambmay stop bracing.
If your lamb is not pulled the first time, keep trying. Continue to keep it set up, remain alert and keep one eye on the judge. If your lamb ispulled, circle it out of line and follow the directions of the ring stewardwhile keeping an eye on the judge. Move your lamb with style and at asteady, moderate pace.
Remember to keep showing at all times, because a class is not over until the ribbons are distributed. Be courteous to fellow exhibitors. Agood showman will emphasize strong points and minimize weak pointsin a lamb. Remain standing at all times and always display a pleasantfacial expression. Be a good sport, a graceful loser and a humble winner.
The information herein is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the Texas Agricultural Extension Service is implied.
Produced by AgriLife Communications & Marketing, The Texas A&M Extension publications can be found on the Web at: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Educational programs of the Texas AgriLife Extension Service are open to all citizens without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age or national origin.
Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics, Acts of Congress of May 8, 1914, as amended, and June 30, 1914, incooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture. Texas AgriLife Extension Service, The Texas A&M System.
LITHIUM, A STRATEGIC ELEMENT FOR ENERGY IN THE WORLD MARKET Robert Bruce Wallace∗ RESERVES AND RESOURCES STRUCTURE OF THE LITHIUM INDUSTRY VIII. MEXICO'S LITHIUM/POTASSIUM SALAR IX. I. INTRODUCTION This paper does not seek to be ground breaking originality, since numerous commentators and researchers, ranging from reporters, geologists, mining engineers, scientists of different fields and organizations, some economists, and official government institutions such as the United States Geologic Survey (USGS), have delved into the intricacies of the sources, production, demand, prices, competitive industrial structure, and even the geopolitics of lithium, its compounds, and its minerals for a good many years. What the paper does seek is to gather together different dispersed sources of information, both technical and economic, and present a coherent, critical general analysis. Furthermore, though there is unfortunately a lack of sufficient hard data regarding a pending development of what appears to be a huge lithium-potassium deposit in Mexico straddling the limits of Zacatecas and San Luis Potosí, I shall include an analysis of what has been divulged publicly via the internet, most of which is hopeful expectation.