Original Research Health Services Research andManagerial Epidemiology Medicines Compliance and 1-5ª The Author(s) 2015 Reimbursement Level in Portugal Reprints and permission:DOI: 10.1177/2333392815601972 Maria da Conceic¸a˜o Constantino Portela1and Adalberto Campos Fernandes2 AbstractDuring a severe financial crisis, it is a priority to use scientific evidence to identify factors that enable therapeutic complianceby patients. This study aimed to evaluate a possible association between the number of patients who attended a medicalappointment and had medicine prescribed and the number of these same patients who purchased the prescribed medicine andwhether the level of reimbursement was a deciding factor. We perform a correlation analysis at primary care centers in Portugal,between 2010 and 2012 (n ¼ 96). We found a moderate to high positive association, which is statistical significant, between thenumber of the patients with medicines dispensing and medicines reimbursement levels. The correlation coefficient varies from.5 to .63 (P < .01). The compliance increases along with the increase in the reimbursement levels.
VpCI® Lithium EP Bio-Based Premium Food Machinery Lubri- Corrosion Inhibitor Heavy Duty Grease CorrLube™ VpCI® Lithium EP Lubricant: VpCI®-369 EcoLine® Heavy Duty Grease is EcoLine® Food Machinery Lubricat- Grease is a lithium complex grease formulated with American-grown ing Grease is a high-quality, corrosion formulated with a premium quality, VpCI®-369 is our best inhibitor natural seed oil that surpasses the inhibiting lubricant formulated with severely hydrotreated base stock. for use as an oil additive and/or lubricity of most conventional pe- American-grown natural seed oil. It provides excellent resistance temporary coating. The protective troleum based greases. Utilizing This environmentally friendly lubricat- to oxidation and has good high film is self-healing and moisture- the latest biotechnology, EcoLine® ing and rust preventative grease, was temperature stability. CorrLube™ displacing, providing superior Heavy Duty Grease is an envi- specifically formulated to meet and VpCI® Lithium EP Grease is suit- protection against aggressive en- ronmentally friendly replacement exceed the demands of major food able for both operating and lay- vironments. VpCI®-369 is also for harmful greases. In addition and meat processing plants. It con- up conditions. CorrLube™ VpCI® excellent when used as an oil ad- to lubricating, self-healing, and forms to USDA H-2 criteria and USDA Lithium EP Grease is specifically ditive for mothballing, shipping, or moisture displacing properties regulations 21CFR. The combination formulated with superior corrosion storage of parts and equipment. In this biodegradable grease pro- of FDA compliant corrosion inhibi- inhibiting properties against salt small percentages, VpCI®-369 has vides a powerful combination of tors and the specially formulated alu- water, brine, H S, HCl, and other a minimal effect on viscosities. contact and vapor phase corro- minum based thickener, provides corrosive agents. In addition, Cor- VpCI®-369 is available prediluted sion protection. EcoLine® Heavy superior protection and lubricity. In rLube™ VpCI® Lithium EP Grease with mineral spirits at the ratio 1:1 Duty Grease can protect bearings addition to lubricating, self-healing, incorporates Vapor phase Corro- as VpCI®-369 H, which is recom- and other equipment from corro- and high flash point properties, this sion Inhibitors for areas not in di- mended for spray can applica- sion during operation and lay-up biodegradable lubricating grease rect contact with the grease.
without harming the environment.
provides a powerful combination of contact and vapor phase corrosion METALWORKING FLUIDS - Cutting, Grinding, Stamping
EcoLine® Bio-Based Metalworking Fluid EcoLine® Metalworking Fluid formulated EcoLine® Cutting Fluid is a multifunctional VpCI®-344 is a concentrated corrosion pre- with biobased oil, additives, and emulsifiers biodegradable concentrate for metal cut- ventive liquid/metalworking lubricant for wet is an excellent replacement for chlorinated ting operations. This liquid cools the work tempering galvanized and cold-rolled steel, products. This product is designed to work pieces and tools, prevents welding of met- difficult-to-produce metal stampings, wire in a variety of soft and hard water qualities als during the metalworking process and rope, tubular products, and machine parts. and offers long-term protection for machine provides excellent corrosion protection and This water-based product utilizes Vapor and components. Low maintenance and lubrication during the cutting process.
phase Corrosion Inhibitor (VpCI®) technol- inherently stable, EcoLine® Metalworking High-performance characteristics make ogy for maximum protection. VpCI®-344 Fluid is designed for machine shops where EcoLine® Cutting Fluid ideally suited for gives very good protection when coated long service life, excellent machining perfor- heavy-duty cutting, milling, turning, drilling, on metal surfaces, and has a unique va- mance, health, and environmental concerns broaching and other machining operations. por phase action which protects uncoated are important factors for increased produc- EcoLine® Cutting Fluid is available in bulk and difficult-to-reach areas on casting and tivity. This multifunctional biodegradable concentrate which can be diluted from 1:40 stamping equipment. When used as direct- product is supplied in concentrated form to 1:20. EcoLine® Cutting Fluid is also pack- ed, VpCI®-344 prevents corrosion indoors and requires mixing with water before use.
aged in a pre-diluted "ready-to-use" 16 oz. for up to two years. VpCI®-344 forms a clear bottle with squirt top applicator.
solution in water. If needed, this product is designed to be removed with conventional alkaline cleaners.
VpCI®-345 is a premium water-based metalworking lubricant concentrate for difficult-to-produce metal stampings, tubular products, and machined parts. VpCI®-345 is superior to petroleum-based coolant rust preventives. When used as directed, VpCI®-345 prevents corrosion during in-plant processing, storage, and export shipment up to 24 months. VpCI®-345 is ideally suited lonic Action of VpCI® Creates a for light-duty machined and polished parts requiring long-term corrosion and surface protection. VpCI®-345 can be effectively used as a coolant in Molecular, Inhibiting Layer. machining applications where maximum cooling is employed. High-per- formance characteristics of VpCI®-345 make it ideally suited for light-duty cutting, milling, turning, drilling, boring, broaching, gear cutting, and other • Vaporizes.
machining operations. VpCI®-345 can replace neat oils and semi-synthetics when there is a requirement for maximum coating and superior rust inhibiting • Conditions enclosed atmosphere with a stability. VpCI®-345 is resistant to rancid attack by bacteria. Product life is the same or longer than similar machining fluids.
• Vapor migrates to all recessed areas and cavities.
• Vapor condenses on all metal surfaces.
VpCI®-347 is a multifunctional corrosion inhibitor/ • Ions dissolve in moisture layer heavy-duty lubricant concentrate for metalworking operations. VpCI®-347 is superior to heavy-duty petro- leum-based rust preventives. High performance char- • Protective ions are attracted to metal acteristics make VpCI®-347 ideally suited for heavy- duty cutting, milling, turning, drilling, boring, broaching, gear cutting, and other machining operations. VpCI®- VpCI® in gaseous phase 347 contains lubricating and corrosion inhibiting com- • Ions form a thin, monomolecular pounds, and is extremely resistant to rancid attack by protective layer at the metal surface.
bacteria. When used as directed, VpCI®-347 prevents corrosion during in-plant processing, storage, and ex- port shipment for up to 24 months.
• Protective layer re-heals and self-replenishes through further condensation of the vapor. VpCI®-322 Oil Concentrate VpCI®-322 oil-based concentrate adds corrosion protec- VpCI®-329 is a vapor corrosion inhib- tion to lubricating or hydraulic oils. VpCI®- 322 provides iting oil-based concentrate designed excellent protection in indoor or open air conditions. for use with lubricating, hydraulic, and First, oil-soluble corrosion inhibitors offer a tenacious preservation oils, and provides excel- film which clings to metal surfaces, giving excellent con- lent protection in sheltered outdoor/ tact corrosion protection. In addition to this film barrier, indoor conditions. VpCI®-329 pro- VpCI®-322 releases Vapor phase Corrosion Inhibitors tects in two unique ways by offering into the air above the oil. These VpCIs attach to metal a tenacious film, which clings to metal surfaces for additional corrosion protection.
surfaces, as well as vapor phase in- hibitors into the air above the oil. The vapors condense and form a protec- tive barrier on metal surfaces that are not in contact with the oil. This com- bination allows complete protection to internal system parts.
VpCI®-326VpCI®-326 is a corrosion inhibitor oil additive for hydraulic oil and gearbox assemblies. VpCI®-326 performs effectively under the adverse conditions of 100% relative humidity, and in the presence of such corrosive species as chlorides, sulfur compounds, or hydrogen sulfide. VpCI-326 contains no hazardous chromates, nitrites, or phosphate inhibitors. VpCI®-326 utilizes the finest paraffinic petroleum distillates as carriers. VpCI®-326 possesses an exceedingly high flash point, enhancing in-plant safety when compared to common oil protectants. VpCI®-326 is supplied in concentrate form, which is easily diluted with lubricating, hydraulic, or preservative oils; sav- ing shipping and inventory expense. VpCI®-326 is a broad range corrosion inhibitor not only effective on ferrous metals, but also effective on zinc, alu- minum, galvanized steel, copper, cadmium, silver, brass, and many other alloys. Conforms to MIL P-46002B and MIL I-85062.
Industrial Gear Oil CorrLubeTM Industrial Gear Oil is based on the unique blend of PAO (polyalphaolefins) and Ketjenlube polymeresters. This blend gives excellent thermo-oxidative stability (longer service life), neutral seal behavior, superior viscosity characteristics at low temperatures, and superior load carrying capability. CorrLubeTM Industrial Gear Oil contains additives that lubricate gears, pre- vent scoring and welding, reduce friction and wear, and protects against corrosion - all while working under high temperatures and heavy loads. Moreover, CorrLubeTM Industrial Gear Oil provides superior corrosion protection in any humid environment.
VpCI® Super Penetrant EcoLine® CLP is a "green" version of a multi- VpCI® Super Penetrant offers a deep penetrating formulation that loosens frozen parts locked in functional penetrant/lubricant, which provides rust. Its deep penetrating capabilities allow the user to go through as much as 1/2 inch (13 mm) the following properties: lubrication, penetration, of rust in 30 minutes. VpCI® Super Penetrant can be applied by a variety of convenient methods corrosion protection in humid and harsh environ- to meet any application needs including brush, hand pump spray, aerosol, spray application, or ments, and cleaning. This product is designed for dipping. As VpCI® Super Penetrant breaks through deep rust, it displaces moisture and water. industrial, shop, and home use. EcoLine® CLP is Its superior surface wetting and moisture displacing properties allow it to spread rapidly and get perfect for indoor and outdoor application and underneath the moisture layer normally present on metal under atmospheric conditions. While safe for use on all metals and most plastics. This loosening the rust, it lubricates metal so frozen parts can move freely. Utilizing patented Cortec® EcoLine® product is based on a combination of VpCI® technology, VpCI® Super Penetrant forms an ultra thin film on metal that offers 6 canola oil and canola methyl ester as a carrier. Be- months of protection from corrosion in extreme conditions.
ing 89% biobased, this product provides excellent Cortec® VpCI® Super Penetrant can be used for indoor and outdoor lubricity and biodegradability. EcoLine® CLP is applications. Its superior water displacing characteristics make it environmentally friendly and leaves behind a very an ideal choice for applications on equipment and components persistant layer that protects against corrosion.
that are exposed to outside weather. It also conforms to Fed- eral Specifications for VV- P-216 Penetrating Oil for Loosen- ing Frozen Metallic Parts and ASTM D-971 Test for Interfacial Tension of Oil against water.
All Purpose Lubricant CorrLubeTM Hydraulic Fluid EcoLine® All Purpose Lubricant is designed for in- CorrLubeTM Hydraulic Fluid is a fully for- dustrial, shop, and home use. It contains a friction mulated anti-wear, environmentally friendly, modifier and extreme pressure additive. It is safe ecologically responsive, non-toxic fluid. It is for use on all metals and most plastics. EcoLine® designed for use in high pressure industrial, All Purpose Lubricant is perfect for both indoor and marine, construction, and mobile hydraulic outdoor applications. EcoLine® products are based systems, as well as turbines and circulating oil on soybean derivatives and soybean methyl esters. systems that are operated in environmentally Methyl esters are used in this revolutionary, low- sensitive areas, or in high humidity conditions.
impact technology as solvents. These soya-based CorrLubeTM Hydraulic Fluid is blended from a products provide excellent lubricity and biode- unique combination of a biodegradable synthetic gradability. EcoLine® products are environmentally fluid, extreme pressure lubricity additives, and Vapor friendly and leave behind a high-performance VpCI® phase Corrosion Inhibitors (VpCI's). This unique com- corrosion protecting layer. bination provides CorrLubeTM Hydraulic Fluid with the performance required in modern high pressure hydraulic BUYER'S GUIDE Visit our website for more information on Cortec® Vapor phase Corrosion Inhibitors CortecVCI.com
This product is available in 14.5 CorrLubeTM
CorrLube™ VpCI® Lithium EP Grease is lithium complex grease formulated with a ounce cartridges (10 per case), 5 gal- Lubricating sleeves, ball and roller bearings,Vehicle/equipment chassis, fans, areas greases VpCI® Lithium EP premium quality, severely hydrotreated base stock. It provides excellent resistance lon (19 liter) pails, and 55 gallon (208 are applied, bushings, pulley bearings, sliding high-friction areas, generator end bearings
to oxidation and has good high temperature stability.
5 gallon (19 liter) plastic pails, 55 gal- Wire rope, electrical connections/wiring, sheltered coating, gear protectant/lubricant, long- VpCI®-369 is our best inhibitor for use as an oil additive and/or temporary coating. The protective film is self-healing and moisture-displacing, providing superior lon (208 liter) drums and 11 oz. (312 term (5+ years) equipment lay-up, stamping oil additive, drawing oil additive, cylinders, protection against aggressive environments. g) aerosol cans.
working/moving parts EcoLine® Heavy EcoLine® Bio-Based/Bio-Degradable Heavy Duty Grease is formulated with
14 oz. cartridge, 5 gallon pail, 55 American-grown natural seed oil that surpasses the lubricity of most conventional Replaces traditional mineral oil based food grade greases. Multi-metal protection.
petroleum based greases. EcoLine® Food
This environmentally friendly lubricating and rust preventative grease, specifically formulated EcoLine® Bio-Based/Bio-Degradable Food Machinery Lubricating Grease is a 16 oz. (453.6 g) EcoLine® tub, to meet and exceed the demands of major food and meat processing plants, conforms to Machinery
high-quality, corrosion inhibiting lubricant formulated with American-grown 14 oz. cartridge, 5 gallon pail, 55 USDA H-2 criteria and USDA regulations 21CFR as a lubricant where there is no possibility of Lubricating
natural seed oil. food contact in and around food processing areas. EcoLine®
Metalworking EcoLine® Metalworking Fluid is formulated with biobased oil, additives, and emul- Gallon (19 liter) pails, 55 gallon (208 Add EcoLine® Metalworking Fluid to water using a high dispersion-mixing blade. Mix for
5-10 minutes. The emulsion should remain stable indefinitely. In case of separation, emulsion sifiers and is an excellent replacement for chlorinated products.
liter) drums, liquid totes, and bulk can be remixed.
This liquid cools the work pieces and tools, prevents welding of metals during the metalwork- EcoLine®
16 oz. (455 ml) squirt container, 5 ® Bio-Based/Bio-Degradable Cutting Fluid is a multifunctional biodegrad- ing process and provides excellent corrosion protection and lubrication during the cutting able concentrate for metal cutting operations. gallon pail, 55 gallon drum process. The shelf life of EcoLine® Bio-Based/Bio-Degradable Cutting Fluid is up to 24 months. Agitate before each use.
Environmentally friendly concentrated corrosion preventive liquid/metalworking 5 gallon (19 liter) pails, 55 gallon Wet tempering, protection of hot-rolled, cold-rolled, and galvanized steel, coolant, quenching lubricant for wet tempering of galvanized and cold-rolled steel, difficult-to-produce (208 liter) drums, liquid totes, metal stampings, wire rope, tubular products and machine parts. In-plant machining, protection of hot-rolled, cold-rolled, galvanized, and aluminized steel, VpCI®-345 is a semi-synthetic coolant/lubricant for light-duty cutting and grinding. 5 gallon (19 liter) pails, 55 gallon (208 For difficult-to-produce metal stampings, tubular products and machined parts. coolant for machining of castings, highly polished pieces, and other parts; providing superior liter) drums, liquid totes, and bulk.
Superior to petroleum-based coolant rust preventives. protection between machining operations and further processing or assembly Lubricant for heavy-duty rolling, drawing, extruding, stamping and cutting, in-plant machining, Liquid that provides corrosion protection for multimetals. Dilutable with water protection of hot-rolled, cold-rolled, galvanized, and aluminized steel, hydrostatic testing, up to 1:40. Excellent lubricating and corrosion inhibiting properties. Replaces 5 gallon (19 liter) pails, 55 gallon (208 corrosion protection for bearings, piping and tubular parts, housings, stampings, bar and roll slushing oils on cold rolled and galvanized steel. For use as a metal-forming liter) drums, liquid totes, and bulk.
stock, and structural steel during in-plant storage or domestic and export shipments, coolant lubricant and synthetic machining coolant. VpCI®-347 is formulated for deep-draw for machining of castings, highly polished pieces and other parts; providing superior protec- tion between machining operations and further processing or assembly Provides corrosion protection to lubricating or hydraulic oils in indoor or open air 5 gallon (19 liter) pails, 55 gallon (208 Add VpCI®-322 to oil at a ratio of 1 part VpCI®-322 to 9 parts oil for 24 months protection. conditions. Conforms to MIL P-46002B, MIL I-85062, MIL C-16173D (Grade 3), liter) drums, liquid totes, and bulk.
Tanks, gearboxes, differentials - stored or shipped dry: Fog cavity interior with VpCI®-322 and MIL I-85062.
concentrate using 1 quart (1 liter) per 35 ft3 (1.1 m3) of enclosed space.
32 oz. (0.92L) containers, 5 gallon VpCI®-326
(19 liter) pails, 55 gallon (208 liter) Corrosion inhibitor oil additive for hydraulic oil and gearbox assemblies Fog interiors with VpCI®-326 concentrate at 1 liter/m3 (1 oz/ft3) of enclosed space.
metal drums, liquid totes, and bulk.
VpCI®-329 is a vapor corrosion inhibiting concentrate for use with lubricating, Add VpCI®-329 to oil at a ratio of 1 part VpCI-329 to 9 parts oil for 24 months protection. 5 gallon (19 liter) pails, 55 gallon (208 hydraulic and preservation oils. Conforms to MIL-P-46002B, MIL-I-85062, MIL- Tanks, gearboxes, differentials - stored or shipped dry: Fog cavity interior with VpCI®-329 C-16173D (Grade 3).
liter) drums, liquid totes, and bulk concentrate using 1 quart (1 liter) per 35 ft3 (1.1 m3) of enclosed space.
Lubrication oils used for a wide range of open and closed gear sets: helical, herringbone, spur, Industrial Gear CorrLubeTM Industrial Gear oil is a premium quality gear oil with viscosity grade 5 gallon (19 liter) pails, 55 gallon (28
bevel, and worn gears, steel and aluminum processing and power plants, mining equipment, liter) drums, liquid totes, and bulk.
off-road machinery, marine application EcoLine® CLP is a "green" version of a multifunctional penetrant/ lubricant, which 16 oz. (455 ml) spray bottles, 5 gallon In-plant machining, bar and chain oil, flange lubricant, biodegradable and preservative oil for provides lubrication, penetration, corrosion protection in humid and harsh environ- (19 liter) pails, 55 gallon (208 liter) ments and cleaning machinery, locks and hinges, nuts and bolts, office machinery, penetrating oil/lubricant drums, liquid totes and bulk 5 gallon (19 liter) pails,55 gallon (208 Maintenance, lubrication, temporary storage - spray a light coating on flat metal before VpCI® Super VpCI® Super Penetrant offers a deep penetrating formulation that loosens frozen liter) metal drums, liquid totes and or after metalworking, small or complex metal parts - spray on or dip in, general surface
parts from locked in rust. Its deep penetrating capabilities allow the user to go through as much as 1/2 inch of rust in 30 minutes. bulk. It isalso available in aerosol treatment - spray, dip or brush surfaces to be protected for up to 24 months, home repairs form net weight 5.25oz (148.84g).
EcoLine® Bio-Based/Bio-Degradable All Purpose Lubricant is designed for indus- 16 oz. (455 mL), 5 gallon (19 liter) All Purpose
Provides greaseless lubricity and has been modified for use with extreme pressure loads. All trial, shop and home use. It contains a friction modifier and extreme pressure pails, 55 gallon (208 liter) drums, additive. It is safe for use on all metals and most plastics purpose lubricant is also non-flammable.
liquid totes, and bulk. CorrLubeTM
CorrLubeTM Hydraulic Fluid is a fully formulated anti-wear, environmentally friendly, 5 gallon (19 liter) pails, 55 gallon (28 Hydraulic Fluid ecologically responsive, non-toxic fluid.
Automotive brakes, machine tools, air lines, pumps, bearings, circulating oil liter) drums, liquid totes, and bulk.
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believes to be reliable, but the accuracy or completeness thereof is not guaranteed.
USE, AND USER ASSUMES ALL RISK AND LIABILITY WHAT SOEVER IN CONNECTION THEREWITH. No
Cortec® Corporation warrants Cortec® products will be free from defects when shipped to representation or recommendation not contained herein shall have any force or effect unless in a written document customer. Cortec® Corporation's obligation under this warranty shal be limited to replacement of signed by an officer of Cortec Corporation.THE FOREGOING WARRANTY IS EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF
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the customer must notify Cortec Corporation of the claimed defect within six months after shipment IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO
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® Environmentally Safe VpCI®/MCI® Technologies 4119 White Bear Parkway, St. Paul, MN 55110 USA Phone (651) 429-1100, Fax (651) 429-1122 Toll Free (800) 4-CORTEC, E-mail: [email protected] cortecvci.com Revised: 02/15. Cortec®, VpCI®, VmCI-307®, Migrating Corrosion Inhibitors™, MCI®, MCI Grenade®, Eco Works®, EcoAir®, Eco-Corr®, EcoLine®, EcoClean®, EcoShield®, EcoWeave®, EcoEmitter®, EcoSol™, Eco-Tie™, EcoShrink®, Eco Wrap®, Eco Film™, Cor-Pak®, CorShield®, Corrosorbers®, CorWipe®, CorrVerter®, Corr Seal®, CorrLam®, Corr-Fill™, Corrlube™, ElectriCorr®, MilCorr®, GalvaCorr®, Super Corr®, HPRS®, Boiler Lizard®, Cooling Tower Frog®, Closed Loop Toad®, Cooling Loop Gator®, Metacor™, and RustHunter® are trademarks of Cortec Corporation 2013. All rights reserved.
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Payments and Quality of Ante-NatalCare in Two Rural Districts ofTanzania Paper 4 from the Ethics, Payments, and P.O. Box 33223, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Maternal Survival Project 157 Mgombani Street, Regent EstateTel: +255 (0) 22 2700083 / 2772556Fax: +255 (0) 22 2775738 Paula Tibandebage, Maureen Mackintosh, Tausi Kida,