Educational strategies for children with emotional and behavioural problems.pdf
EDUCATIONAL STRATEGIES FOR
CHILDREN WITH EMOTIONAL AND
CENTER FOR EFFECTIVE COLLABORATION AND PRACTICE
AMERICAN INSTITUTES FOR RESEARCH
Mary Magee Quinn
Beth DeHaven Bader
Published byCenter for Effective Collaboration and PracticeAmerican Institutes for ResearchWashington, DC
Reproduction of this book for distribution to educators is authorized providing reproductions acknowledge theauthors and the publisher, and the following statement is clearly displayed:
The development, writing, and initial production of this book were supported by the Department of Education,Office of Special Education Programs The Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice: Improving Services forChildren and Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Problems is funded under a cooperative agreement (Grant#H237T60005) with the Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education, with additionalsupport from the Child, Adolescent, and Family Branch; Center for Mental Health Services; and Substance Abuseand Mental Health Administration all of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The views herein donot necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Education or any other Federal agency and should notbe regarded as such. The Center can be contacted at The American Institutes for Research, 1000 Thomas JeffersonStreet, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20007, or Center staff can be reached toll-free at 1-888-457-1551 (in DCcall 202-944-5400) or via E-mail at <cente[email protected]>. Our web site address is <www.air.org/cecp>.
I am pleased to endorse this handbook for
As public school teachers, it is our most
working with students with emotional and
fundamental belief — and primary motivation
behavioral difficulties. It represents a great deal
— that each and every child is capable of
of intense collaborative work by members and
learning and deserves the very best education we
staff from both the AFT and the NEA, the Office
can provide. But we also believe, deeply, that no
of Special Education Programs and many others.
one student, however troubled, has the right to
Clearly, the decision of the Office of Special
disrupt the learning of other students.
Education Programs to ask for the input andinvolvement of so many people in the trenches
A student with emotional and behavioral
as they developed the handbook was well worth
problems is one of the greatest challenges a
teacher faces. Teachers who are ill prepared toteach the emotionally disturbed and disruptive
We all know that students who have emotional
child often find themselves befuddled. They
and behavioral difficulties are capable of
either devote too much time and attention to
contributing in important ways to the
that one student, at the expense of all the other
community and the society. We also know that
students in their classroom — or they fail to
helping them reach the potential can be very
prevent the troubled student from constantly
difficult and frustrating. However, we now have
disrupting their classroom. In either case, the
available many strategies shown to be effective
education of all students suffers. We know that
through rigorous research — that teachers,
education can only flourish in an atmosphere of
paraprofessionals, and other service providers
order and respect for all students.
can use to help these students learn new andpositive ways to function in school and in the
We could of course turn back the clock and seek
to banish every troubled student from theregular classroom. Such a swift and simple
You as educators — teachers, paraprofessionals,
action would certainly be applauded by some.
and service providers —are crucial in assisting
But under the law, public school educators do
these students so they can succeed. This
not have that option, nor do we want it.
handbook is intended to provide additionalsupport to you as you provide support to
Teachers and paraprofessionals want to make a
students. It contains both general strategies and
difference in the lives of their students —
specialized approaches, and it answers questions
indeed, that's why we went into education in the
often asked by classroom practitioners who deal
first place. Given adequate preparation and
every day with students' learning and behavioral
support, teachers can educate students with
needs. I hope that you will not only read this
emotional and behavioral problems to high
book, but keep it within reach where you work
academic standards. The instances where our
so that it can provide the help it is intended to
best efforts fall short are uncommon. And when
our best efforts fail, the student who continuesto cause disorder in a classroom must be
I wish you growing success and satisfaction as
removed and placed in an alternative
you use the information in this handbook to
educational setting. We see such an action as a
enhance your work with students who have
last resort, however.
emotional and behavioral difficulties.
Designed to enable teachers and paraprofession-
als to give their best effort, this handbook was a
Sandra Feldman, President
collaborative effort. Teachers and staff fromNEA and the American Federation of Teachersworked with special education experts in theDepartment of Education assisted by the Center
for Effective Collaboration and Practice. Hereyou will find the common sense guidance andspecific information needed both to accessavailable
classroom management practices.
Since the mid-1970s when the Education of theHandicapped
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) wasenacted, we have made extraordinary strides inthe education of students with special needs,including those with emotional and behavioralproblems. Millions of children are no longerexcluded from our mainstream schools. Theyare no longer stigmatized or ostracized.
But we know we still have a long way to go —and we know teachers and paraprofessionalscannot do the job alone. We need the support ofour school districts and other professionals. I seethis publication as yet another enabling steptoward our goal of every child becoming aproductive and fully contributing adult in oursociety.
Sincerely,Bob Chase, PresidentNational Education Association
The authors extend their sincere thanks to those who helped conceptualize, design, review,
and improve this document at every step. Without their enthusiasm and assistance, this projectcould never have been brought to fruition. Many people from a variety of backgrounds served asmembers of focus groups or review panels, including the fields of regular and special education,mental health, social work, and from families. While too numerous to mention by name, we areindebted to them for their time and talent, as they provided us with critical input and valuableinsight. Their efforts should send a strong message to all school districts that the resolution ofstudent behavior problems in American schools must be a collaborative effort that involvesspecial and regular educators, families, and communities in all schools and districts.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1: Overview.1
Chapter 2: Building a knowledge base.5
Children with Emotional Disturbance and Behavioral Problems .5Causes of Emotional Disturbance and Behavioral Problems.6The Educator's Role in Identifying and Referring Students.6Identifying behavior that is interfering with learning.7Referring Students.7Documenting Behaviors .8A Word About Cultural Differences.9Working with Students Who Have Been Identified as Needing Support.9What Educators Need to Know About Students Taking Medication .11Getting Support From Others.12Moving Forward .13
Chapter 3: Fostering Positive Learning Opportunities .15
Planning for Academic Success.16Task Difficulty.16Lesson Presentation .17Motivational Strategies .18Work Assignments.19Involving Others .19Moving Forward .20
Chapter 4: Instituting a Sound Classroom Management System .21
I. Arranging the Physical Environment .22II. setting Rules and Expectations .22III. Helping Students Comply with Rules and Expectations.23IV. Scheduling the Day.24V. Establishing Routines and Procedures.24VI. Building a positive classroom climate .24Summary .25Helping To Manage Behavior .26Increasing Appropriate Behaviors.26Decreasing Inappropriate Behaviors.27Logging the Time-out .30Teaching New Behaviors .30Teaching Social Skills.30Supporting Appropriate Behavior.31Summary .31Managing Aggressive Behaviors.31Enlisting Help at School .33Working Together with Families .33
Moving Forward .34
Chapter 5: School-Based Supports .35
Reconfiguring Services.35Alternative Settings .37Developing Effective Collaborative Teams.40Providing Opportunities for Professional Development .40Moving Forward .41
Chapter 6: Support and Resources.43
The Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice (CECP). 43The Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence (CSPV).43Blueprints for Violence Prevention.44Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support .44The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) .44The Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD).45The Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health (FFCMH) .45The Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior .45Effective Behavior Support (EBS) .45National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY) .46National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) .46National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).46Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) .47Parent Advocacy Coalition for Educational Rights (PACER) Center .47The Associations of Service Providers Implementing IDEA Reforms in Education (ASPIIRE)Partnership, and The IDEA Local Implementation by Local Administrators (ILIAD)Partnership .47
State Consultants .48
State Children's Mental Health Contacts.49
Materials for Further Study .51
Appendix A: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (P.L. 105-17):.55
Appendix B: Glossary of Terms used in Exhibit I: Components of a System of Care.62
1. Mental Health Services .622. Social Services .633. Educational Services .644. Health Services.645. Vocational Services .656. Recreational Services.657. Operational Services .66
Most teachers can tell stories of their
These additions to the IDEA offer
own "Clark." In fact, students like Clark
support to educators who see the value of
challenge best practices, and contribute their
taking a proactive and collaborative
own brand of worry and stress to adults and
approach when designing successful learning
other students. Teachers care about such
experiences for students like Clark.
students, but care as well about others', andtheir own, peace of mind. Many teachers,
It goes without saying that there are no
administrators, school professionals, and
easy answers or "quick fixes" when working
parents are left wondering what to do.
with students with emotional disturbanceand behavioral problems. However, over theyears,
PROVISIONS OF THE IDEA
accumulated a wealth of information about
Provisions of the IDEA include:
how to work with these students; while thereis much that remains unknown, both
q increased involvement by general
practitioners and researchers have much to
education teachers in planning educational
say about how to provide learning
opportunities for just such students. For
the use of a variety of services,supplemental aids and services, and other
every "Clark," practitioners have found a
accommodations and modifications that
way to reach a "Trisha" or a "Clyde" or a
must be in place for children with disabili-
q the use of functional behavioral
Perhaps it also goes without saying that
assessment to identify the appropriate
teachers, paraprofessionals, and school
positive behavioral supports and strategies;
psychologists (whom we sometimes refer to
q provisions for training personnel (both
collectively as educators) are on the front
special and general educators) to appropri-
lines when it comes to ensuring that
ately provide services to children with
students with emotional disturbance and
disabilities consistent with the requirements
behavioral problems are given every
of the IDEA.
opportunity to learn. Hence, this bookletwas designed to provide educators with a
At a basic level, the good news is that the
place to start—a base of practical ideas for
1997 Reauthorization of the Individuals with
helping students to build a successful
Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) has
addressed many classroom concerns thathave arisen over the years. The new statute,
Many of the strategies educators find
in fact, includes provisions designed to: (1)
most successful do much to improve the
improve services for all students with
classroom experience for all students. For
disabilities, including those with emotional
that reason, this booklet contains general
disturbance and behavioral problems, (2)
strategies, as well as specialized approaches,
address their problem behaviors, and (3)
and it answers questions often asked by
foster an effective learning environment for
classroom practitioners who must address
all students (see: Provisions of the IDEA).
the learning and behavioral needs of allstudents.
Strategies and techniques used success-
early interventions directed at
fully in real classrooms are offered as
students who are at risk of devel-
examples for practitioners to consider. Also
oping emotional disturbance or be-
included are strategies and approaches that
havioral problems; and
reflect the guidelines set out in the NationalAgenda for Achieving Better Results for
more intensive services targeted at
Children and Youth with Serious Emotional
students with emotional distur-
Disturbance, developed by the, U.S.
bance or more serious behavioral
Department of Education's Office of Special
Education Programs (OSEP), with assistancefrom the American Institutes for Research.
Some characteristics of schools that
Examples used throughout the booklet were
successfully employ this model appear in the
gathered from schools across the country
that embrace the spirit and intent of theprinciples espoused in the National Agenda.
Classroom teachers, paraprofessionals,
school psychologists, and other schoolpersonnel play important roles in developing
This booklet is predicated on a
and implementing strategies that embrace
strengths-based approach that
considers the whole child.
Schools that successfully employ primaryprevention strategies display several
This booklet is predicated on a strengths-
based approach that considers the whole
q expression of the value of all members of
child. The instructional practices presented
the school community,
herein reflect the understanding that all
q school environments marked by high
students have strengths that can provide a
academic expectations and clear and
basis for curriculum planning, instructional
positive behavioral expectations,
programming, and classroom management.
Effective teaching makes use of students'
positive and proactive approaches toschool discipline,
strengths and builds instructional programs
q collaboration with family, community, and
that capitalize on what students are able to
other service providers, and
achieve, and help them to meet high
q support for students, teachers, staff, and
academic standards and high standards of
families that enables them to help students
to meet expectations.
Research funded by the U.S. Department
of Education, Office of Special Education
To ensure that this booklet addresses the
Programs suggests that schools consider a
information needs of educators who work with
three-tiered prevention model for addressing
students with emotional disturbance or
the behavior of all students. This three-
behavioral problems, we have consulted with
tiered prevention model includes:
and engaged teachers, paraprofessionals—bothspecial
school-wide primary prevention
psychologists, and other school personnel
efforts to teach expected behaviors
throughout the drafting and writing process.
We are grateful for the willingness ofpractitioners to share their experiences of
"what works." The organization of this bookletis described below.
Based upon sound professional advice, we haveorganized the chapters as follows:
Chapter 2: Building A Knowledge Base.
There are obvious advantages to sharing
knowledge on issues related to educating
students with emotional disturbance and
behavioral problems. This chapter contains
basic information to help build that knowledge
base, and to help provide an enhanced
understanding of the topic.
Chapter 3: Fostering Positive Learning
Opportunities. This chapter contains
strategies for structuring curriculum and
instruction so that they have the most positive
impact possible on student performance.
Chapter 4: Instituting a Sound Classroom-
Management System. Students learn best
when there is order in their learning
environment and they feel at ease. This
chapter offers tips and ideas for strengthening
classroom-management practices. It also
describes techniques to help educators interact
with students in a manner that creates a
positive classroom environment.
Chapter 5: Advocating for School-Based
Supports. Because the success of
instructional and classroom-management
programs can be enhanced by colleagues,
families, and others, this chapter describes
promising practices that many schools and
districts now use to support classroom
teachers and other instructional staff.
Chapter 6: Support and Resources. For
readers who want to know more about the
topics covered in the booklet, this chapter lists
additional sources of information and contact
information for organizations that may be of
BUILDING A KNOWLEDGE BASE
Understanding the nature of students'
d isord ers over a lon g p eriod of
emotional and behavioral problems assists
teachers and paraprofessionals in planning
ad versely af f ect t h e ab ilit y t o learn .
instructional programs that better meet
School-based, multidisciplinary teams
students' needs. Working on teams and in
identify some students as having emotional
collaborative partnerships means that all
disturbance—one of the disability classifica-
members must share a basic understanding
tions recognized under the IDEA. Although
of the characteristics and educational
state definitions and terminology may vary, the
challenges confronting these students.
Federal definition targets students who exhibitbehavior disorders over a long period of time,
This chapter answers questions
and to a marked degree, that adversely affect the
frequently asked by teachers and
ability to learn. Factors that contribute to this
paraprofessionals about educating
definition appear below.
students with emotional and
The term includes schizophrenia, but
does not apply to students who are "sociallymaladjusted, unless it is determined that
CHILDREN WITH EMOTIONAL
they have an emotional disturbance"
DISTURBANCE AND BEHAVIORAL
It is believed that students with emotional
disturbance who are currently eligible to
Students with emotional disturbance and
receive special education services represent
behavioral problems exhibit a wide range of
only a small portion of the students with
characteristics. The intensity of the disorder
mental health needs. While most mental
varies, as does the manner in which a
health experts estimate that 3 to 8 percent of all
disability or problem presents itself. While
school-age children and youth have emotional
some students have mood disorders, such as
or behavioral disorders severe enough to
depression, others may experience intense
require treatment, less than 1 percent (only
feelings of anger or frustration. Further,
0.74 percent of the school-age population in
individual students react to feelings of
1996 and 1997) are identified by schools as
depression, anger or frustration in very
having emotional disturbance. By contacting
different ways. For example, some students
the Center for Effective Collaboration and
internalize these feelings, acting shy and
Practice, listed in Chapter 6, you can access
withdrawn; others may externalize their
more information on prevalence rates.
feelings, becoming violent or aggressivetoward others.
Factors contributing to the Federal definition of
A brief description of contributing factors
emotional disturbance (34 CFR §300.7(b)(4))
Biological factors. Certain biological conditions
have been associated with emotional
q An inability to learn that cannot be
disturbance and behavioral problems, as there
explained in terms of intellectual, sensory,
appear to be genetic links to depression and
or health factors;
schizophrenia, as well as to nutritional deficits,certain physical illnesses and injuries, and some
q An inability to build or maintain satisfactory
interpersonal relationships with peers andteachers;
Family factors. The environment in which
children live can either help or hurt healthy
q Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings
development, just as a child's behavior may
under normal circumstances;
have both negative and positive influences upon
q A general, pervasive mood of unhappiness
other family members. Certain elements, too,
or diagnosed depression; and
within a child's family may increase his or herrisk for developing emotional disturbance or
q A tendency to develop physical symptoms
behavioral problems. (Physical abuse, child
or fears associated with personal or school
neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional
maltreatment have all been associated with"troubling behaviors" in children.)
CAUSES OF EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE
School factors. Generally, students with
emotional disturbance and behavioral problems
AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS
tend to "underachieve," in school. Learningproblems put them at a disadvantage in any
Professionals in the field of emotional
school environment, particularly since many of
disturbance use various approaches to
these students have not developed adequate
explain the causes of what are often called
social skills by the time they enter school, and
"behavioral difficulties." Knowledge about
poor social skills may result in social rejection byboth peers and teachers. This rejection leads to
further disinterest in school and even greater
disturbance and behavioral problems can
underachievement and failure.
assist schools, teachers, and paraprofession-
Community factors. Children are often
als in understanding how such factors
exposed to stressors within their communities.
actually affect student performance.
Exposure to crime and gang violence has oftenbeen linked to a tendency to behave in waysassociated with emotional disturbance and
Teachers and paraprofessionals can
frequently use their knowledge of thesefactors to evaluate and improve a student's
educational experience. If it is suspected that
HE EDUCATOR'S ROLE IN IDENTIFYING
a child's problem behavior is related to a
AND REFERRING STUDENTS
biological factor, for instance, the childshould not be "penalized" for what he or she
School personnel, especially teachers and
cannot control; or, if a student's hyperactiv-
paraprofessionals, serve a critical role in
ity and distractibility are related to a
referral, diagnosis, and program planning. In
neurological condition, activities requiring
fact, it is often the classroom teacher, and
sustained attention should be modified and
sometimes the paraprofessional, who begins
attempts made to expand the child's capacity
the process of getting help for a student.
IDENTIFYING BEHAVIOR THAT IS
seek help in working with a child who has
INTERFERING WITH LEARNING
problems. As part of the assistance process,
Teachers and paraprofessionals often are
the first to recognize a student's lack of
frequently asked to document the presenting
success with assignments, and his or her
problem, along with the different strategies
continuous problems with peer or adult
that have been used to ameliorate it.
relationships. While this fact may eventually
Colleagues can then review such informa-
result in a formal referral, a teacher's
tion with the teacher, and make suggestions.
primary goal is to identify interferingbehaviors and help students to overcome them.
Teachers and paraprofessionals begin thisprocess by analyzing the kinds of behavior
In the event that preventive interventions
that put students at risk.
are not working, and collegial help has runits course, it may be necessary to initiate a
While some emotional and behavioral
formal referral. When school officials begin
problems lend themselves to relatively
to suspect that a child has a disability, the
simple classroom intervention, others may
child must be referred for appropriate
require an adjustment of the child's entire
evaluation. Keeping in mind that the
instructional program. When the latter is
purpose of such a referral is to determine
necessary, the first point of inquiry is with
whether a disability or condition is, in fact,
others who know the child well. It is a good
linked to the observed problem behavior. A
idea to consult with administrators, school
teacher's role at the referral stage is not to
make a diagnosis, but to be a part of the
counselors, other staff, and family members
team that develops and implements a formal
whenever problems disrupt teaching and
evaluation. Teachers will likely be asked to
learning. In addition, a growing number of
present concrete information describing the
schools have formed assistance teams that
student's behavior, the situations in which
offer help in validating observations and
that behavior occurs, and any interventions
that may have already been tried.
these strategies cannot be used to delay
appropriate referral to a child suspected of
paraprofessional, or other school staff may
having a disability. Families can usually
have made will be helpful in this process.
provide insight regarding their children'sstrengths, special needs, and stressful
As part of the referral process, teachers are
situations that may be occurring in their
sometimes asked to provide additional
children's daily lives.
documentation of the student's behavior,paying attention to particular details. Such a
Over the last few decades, many districts
practice is helpful, as it reveals characteristics
have established pre-referral systems—the
that ultimately may result in a more effective
goal being to serve the student's and
behavioral intervention plan. In considering a
teacher's needs before a more formal
student's behavior, it is important to use a
approach is undertaken. Again, however,
strengths-based approach, which means that in
these systems cannot be used to delay
addition to identifying challenging behaviors,
appropriate referral of a child suspected of
behaviors supporting learning and other
having a disability. In such systems, teachers
student strengths also are identified.
It is valuable to specify strengths. That is,
most commonly used techniques are described
to identify instances when the child is
in the box entitled Common Observational
engaged or well-behaved.
Questions that may help to guide a strengths-
COMMON OBSERVATIONAL STRATEGIES
based assessment include:
Identifying Patterns. This technique is used to
q Are there any recurrent behavior patterns?
identify possible patterns of behavior by
For example, the teacher may note that the
pinpointing the specific events that precede
behavior does not occur all day, but only
(also called antecedents) or follow (also called
during activities in which the student must
consequences) the problem behavior that may
read and comprehend information.
serve to maintain it. Observers keep a written
q Under what conditions is the student most
record of everything they see and hear, and
successful? For example, the student may
note the entire context in which the target
do well in highly structured tasks in which
behavior occurs during those time periods.
the expectations and directions are clearly
Observation narratives are most useful when
they are completed in several settings over aperiod of time.
q What conditions tend to trigger the problem
behavior? For example, after recording
Measuring Frequency. This technique is used
outbursts for a week, the paraprofessional
to measure the number of times a behavior
finds that most problem behavior occurs
occurs during a designated period. The teacher
when the student is asked to work with
defines the behavior, observes the student at
specified times, and notes how often thebehavior occurs (e.g., the number of times a
q What tends to hold the student's attention?
student uses profanity during a class lecture).
For example, a teacher may discover thata student can concentrate for more than 30
Measuring Duration. This technique is used to
minutes when engaged in manipulative
measure the length of time that a student
engages in the particular behavior of interest(e.g., the amount of time a student engages indaydreaming behavior during math activities).
Generally, the first step in identifying
associated with referral, many teachers find
behaviors is to define the behavior being
that classroom-based observational data can
measured in concrete and observable terms.
uncover the source of many problems and
Defining behavior as "disruptive" or
lead to their correction. An educator may
"dangerous" does not specify the behavior,
discover, for instance, that a student swears
and therefore will not be helpful when
only when in the presence of certain peers.
planning interventions. A better definition
In some cases, too, the student's behavior
might be "loud yelling in the classroom,"
may be shown to be a response—albeit,
"pushing a classmate" or "tapping a pencil
inappropriate—to the provocations of
continuously"—behaviors that can be
others. Data, in brief, provide educators with
objectively observed and measured.
new avenues to explore in addressingstudents' behavioral needs.
typically used in school settings to document
Careful evaluation of a child suspected of
behavior. In some cases, multiple techniques
being emotionally disturbed also involves an
are more helpful in understanding a student's
assessment of the student's behavior if his or
behavior patterns. Keeping this in mind, the
her behavior interferes with their learning, or
the learning of others. Districts and states
should have established procedures for student
religious beliefs, age, or gender). When
evaluation and assessment that ensure
educators become concerned about a child's
compliance with the 1997 Amendments to the
behavior they must make a determination as
IDEA and with Section 504 of the Rehabilita-
to whether the behavior may be the result of
tion Act of 1973. Once such procedures are
a cultural difference rather than a behavioral
established, the evaluation of students with
deficit. In some cases, behaviors are merely
emotional disturbance should be multifaceted,
different from those of the educator's or
culturally non-biased, and include:
school system's culture.
• classroom observations by evaluat-
Educators should discuss with the
student and his or her family members thepossibility that behaviors may be influenced
• results of all interventions (e.g.,
by culture (e.g., some Native American
teacher documentation and team
cultures frown on competition so children
will not give answers in class that mightmake them look like they are smarter than
• interviews, checklists, and question-
their classmates) and how or if they should
naires completed by teachers, family
be addressed. The educators and family
members, and the child, as appropri-
members together should decide whether a
ate, including developmental, health,
replacement behavior should be taught (e.g.,
and sensory data,
teaching the child to be competitive), if thechild should be taught to use different
• psychological or psychiatric evalua-
behaviors in different situations (e.g.,
teaching the child that competition isappropriate under certain circumstances), or
if the school should make accommodations
including work samples, and
to respect the child's cultural differences(e.g., use cooperative learning rather than
• a review of the child's school history.
competitive techniques). In any case,educators need to be cognizant of how their
Classroom teachers, because of their
cultural beliefs influence their own behavior
direct experience, often are called upon by
and how they perceive the behavior of
the group of persons responsible for the
evaluation of the student to completeassessment tasks, and to share what they
WORKING WITH STUDENTS WHO HAVE
know about a student. Information gained
BEEN IDENTIFIED AS NEEDING SUPPORT
from experience, after all, is invaluable ininterpreting student behavior, or in crafting
A student will often arrive in school
a successful intervention.
already identified as qualifying for specially
A WORD ABOUT CULTURAL
designed instruction or services under the
IDEA. Still, even though a student may
already be receiving special education andrelated services, teachers and paraprofes-
It is important to remember that
everyone's behavior is influenced by his or
sionals have major responsibility for
educating the student.
There remain, even today, many questions
m ore t h an 45 d ays if —
about where students with emotional
(I) t h e ch ild carries a w eap on t o
disturbance are to receive their education.
sch ool or t o a sch ool f u n ct ion …; or
Federal regulations, however, are clear, andspecify that:
(II) t h e ch ild kn ow in g ly p ossesses oru ses illeg al d ru g s or sells or solicit s
m axim u m
t h e sale of a con t rolled su b st an ce
ap p rop riat e,
ch ild ren
w h ile at sch ool or a sch ool
d isab ilit ies, in clu d in g ch ild ren in
f u n ct ion ….(Sec. 615(k)(1)(A)(ii)).
p u b lic or p rivat e in st it u t ion s orot h er care f acilit ies, are ed u cat ed
A Hearings Officer may also order a
w it h ch ild ren w h o are n on -d isab led
change in educational placement to an
(34 CFR §300.550 (b )(1)).
interim, alternative educational setting fornot more than 45 days if … [a child's
This requirement does not mandate that
behavior is] substantially likely to result in
students be served in regular school
injury to the child or to others (Sec.
environments if such placements are
inappropriate. In fact, Federal regulationsmandate that each public agency ensure
(These and other relevant sections of the
Individuals with Disabilities Education Actappear in Appendix A of this document.)
con t in u u m
alt ern at ive
p lacem en t s is availab le t o m eet t h e
In general, when making placement
n eed s of ch ild ren w it h d isab ilit ies
decisions, school districts must give
f or sp ecial ed u cat ion an d relat ed
consideration to the full range of
services (34 CFR §300.551 (a)), [an dp rovid e] …su p p lem en t ary services
supplementary supports and services that
(su ch as resou rce room or [aid s]), t o
could be provided to accommodate the
b e p rovid ed in con ju n ct ion w it h
needs of individual students with disabilities.
reg u lar class p lacem en t (34 CFR§300.551 (b )(2)).
If it is decided that the least restrictive
environment for a child is the regular
Nevertheless, removal of children with
classroom, the child's teacher has the right
disabilities from the regular educational
to be informed. Such information should
environment—including removal to special
include a description of the child's strengths
classes or separate schools—must occur only
and needs, as well as any information
"when the nature or severity of the disability is
helpful in planning an instructional
such that education in regular classes with the
program. Similarly, because the student's
use of supplementary aids and services cannot
regular classroom teacher will be responsible
be achieved satisfactorily" (34 CFR §300.550
for implementing the student's IEP, IDEA
regulations ensure that: the child's IEP isaccessible to each regular … [and] special
In addition, IDEA (1997) states that the
education teacher, related service provider,
Local Education Agency can place a child
and other service provider who is responsible
with a disability in an appropriate interim,
for its implementation (34 CFR §300.342
alternative educational setting:
(b)(2)). As above, each teacher and provider
working knowledge about this type of
must be informed of: his or her specific
responsibilities related to implementing thechild's IEP; and the specific accommodations,
Qualified medical professionals prescribe
modifications, and supports that must be
provided for the child in accordance with the
professionals should help in administering
IEP (34 CFR §300.342 (b)(3)).
and monitoring a student's medication.
Educators, however, can and do have a
If a child in a regular education class-
valuable role and a vested interest in their
room has an individualized education
students' medical treatment. Educators can:
program (IEP), the classroom teacherbecomes a partner in carrying out the IEP,
• Make certain that students receive
and, under law, at least one of the child's
medication on schedule. Generally,
teachers now becomes a member of the
this means reminding students to go
child's IEP team. In fact, once an IEP is
to the nurse's office to take their
completed, it is the classroom teacher who is
often responsible for monitoring thestudent's achievement with the help of other
• Observe the student's behavior and
members of the team. Classroom teachers
note instances that support the use of
and paraprofessionals may express concerns
medication or suggest the presence of
when necessary; and to be successful,
medication side effects. If a possible
teachers must have sufficient support to
side effect manifests itself, a teacher
or other school staff should notifythe school nurse or other appropriate
When a student exhibits behaviors that
school personnel and/or the family.
interfere with his or her learning or the
If necessary, the teacher should seek
learning of others, the IEP team must consider,
help; appropriate personnel, for ex-
when appropriate, strategies, including positive
ample a psychologist and/or nurse,
behavioral interventions, strategies, and
should be available to assist with
supports to address that behavior. These
evaluating the effects of medication
strategies and supports should be based on a
on a student's learning.
functional behavioral assessment, shouldestablish clear expectations about appropriate
The use of a medication to address
behavior, and should be designed to help the
behavior assumes some behaviors that
student succeed. The team monitors the
interfere with learning and classroom
student's behavior regularly, and if it is not
participation can be chemically controlled.
satisfactory, the team modifies the strategies
Central nervous system stimulants, for
example, are sometimes used to treatchildren with attention deficit hyperactivity
WHAT EDUCATORS NEED TO KNOW
disorder (AD/HD). When working properly,
ABOUT STUDENTS TAKING MEDICATION
these stimulants can temporarily reduce thesymptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity,
Because some students are on a regular
while increasing concentration. However,
regimen of authorized medication, teachers
even when medication is working properly,
and paraprofessionals should acquire a
behavioral supports, are still needed to
fact, a key ingredient in supporting these
students, both in regular educationclassrooms and in other environments.
Some drugs used in treatment plans for students
Many schools already have teacher
with emotional disturbance include:
support teams, prereferral teams, or child
q Stimulants, such as Cylert, Dexedrine,
study teams that can offer suggestions for
Ritalin, and Benzedrine, all of which are
remediating classroom dilemmas. Many
clinically used to focus attention andenergy while decreasing impulsive
special educators, behavior specialists, and
school psychologists are well-versed in
emotional and behavioral strategies and,
Tranquilizers, such as Thorazine, Mellaril,and Haldol, which are used to suppress
thus, may be an invaluable source of ideas
hyperactivity, aggressiveness, self-injurious
and information. Properly trained and
behaviors, and hallucinations.
supervised paraprofessionals can also be
q Antidepressants, such as lithium, Tofranil,
invaluable in implementing small-group and
Prozac, and Elavil, which are clinically
used to alter moods, reduce hyperactivity
Administrators also can be consulted for
and aggression, and treat school phobias.
recommendations and resources.
q Anticonvulsants, such as Phenobarbital,
Mysoline, Dilantin, and Valium, which are
Other professionals might be available to
clinically used to control seizures and
assist the teacher or student, either on a
permanent or an as-needed basis.
Possible drug side effects represent
Special education teachers, paraprofes-
major treatment drawbacks. When working
sionals, school social workers, and school
with a student on medication, it is important
psychologists all have skills that can support
to be aware of the side effects associated with
students with emotional disturbance. In
the drug, as such awareness will aid the
addition, these students might receive
teacher in recognizing which behaviors the
additional supports, described below, which
student cannot control. Furthermore, such
are sometimes identified in the student's
knowledge will enable educators to alert
IEP, and which are often provided by a
other educators, school officials, and family
members should the student demonstrate
functions that different support service
behaviors associated with recognizable side
personnel perform can help teachers to take
advantage of all available resources.
GETTING SUPPORT FROM OTHERS
Across the country, families, school
psychologists, mental health specialists, andother special service providers are starting towork with teachers and paraprofessionals tofoster cooperative and positive learningopportunities for students with emotionaldisturbance and behavioral problems.
Building collaborative partnerships is, in
cases, intensive services must be brought to
TYPICAL FUNCTIONS OF A SUPPORT
bear to assist the student. The IEP team will
probably want to consider the full
q Psychiatric counseling
continuum of services and placements as
q Behavioral and therapeutic management
described in the IDEA regulations. See the
sidebar on this page for the language of the
q Liaison between the school, the child and
his or her family, and community agencies(Social Services Facilitator or CaseManager).
SOME WAYS OF ACCESSING INFORMATION
q Coordination for students who are currently
involved with the juvenile justice system
q Find out if the school offers teacher
(Juvenile Justice Caseworker).
support or assistance teams;
q Contact available support personnel and
meet with them on a regular basis; and
Educators also can learn about students
with emotional disturbance and behavioral
q Ask administrators to provide classroom
problems from their families. The family is,
release time so that educators can attendrelevant meetings.
after all, the most obvious source ofinformation about a student's behavior. Asdefined here, a family extends beyond the
birth, adoptive, or foster parents; it includesall adults who influence the day-to-day care
When teachers and paraprofessionals
of the student, as well as other members of
understand the nature of their students'
the family unit. In some families,
grandparents or aunts and uncles may serve
instructional programs have a much better
a primary care role in the child's life.
chance of producing academic progress.
Including families in the child's educationprogram can enhance its relevance and
Basic knowledge concerning identification
chance for success.
and diagnosis can go a long way in broadeningperspective. Most teachers will seek to apply
Educators who have formed partnerships
this knowledge directly to the classroom quite
with other professionals and family members
simply because teaching informed by the
are discovering effective ways to serve the
research on quality instruction is perhaps the
educational needs of students with emotional
best intervention. Some approaches are worth
disturbance and behavioral problems, while
considering, however, as they have proven to
expanding their repertoire of successful
enhance the classroom learning of students
strategies appropriate for all students.
with emotional disturbance and behavioral
However, given the scheduling constraints in
problems. The next chapter describes some of
many schools, collaboration may require
creative juggling of time. Sometimes it is bestto initiate a request for support (including thetime necessary to get things done).
Some students have needs that transcend
the classroom, as well as the time andcapabilities of classroom teachers. In these
§ 300.551 CONTINUUM OF ALTERNATIVE
(a) Each public agency shall ensure that acontinuum of alternative placements isavailable to meet the needs of children withdisabilities for special education and relatedservices.
(b) The continuum required in paragraph (a) ofthis section must—
(1) Include the alternative placements listed inthe definition of special education under §300.26 (instruction in regular classes, specialclasses, special schools, home instruction, andinstruction in hospitals and institutions); and
(2) Make provision for supplementary services(such as resource room or itinerant instruction)to be provided in conjunction with regular classplacement.
(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1412(a)(5))
FOSTERING POSITIVE LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES
Effective instructional strategies assume
experiences, while simultaneously providing
that educators take into account the
positive learning opportunities.
strengths and needs of their students whendesigning any lesson. Like their classmates,students with emotional disturbance and
…students with emotional
disturbance and behavioral
problems learn best in classrooms
characterized by effective instruc-
routines. As educators know, students
tion and behavior-management
benefit most when academic tasks and
instructional strategies are carefully designedto engage them and support their learning,and when expectations and rules are clearly
Designing successful opportunities for
communicated to them.
students with emotional disturbance andbehavioral problems may require that
When working with students with
educators change how they plan and
organize their instruction, manage their
problems in the classroom, it is important to
classrooms, and arrange the physical layout
remember that when the curriculum and
of the classroom. These additional efforts
instructional strategies do not capitalize on
will not only benefit students with emotional
the child's strengths and address learning
disturbance and behavior problems; they
needs, frustration may result in acting-out or
will likely help other students realize more
withdrawn behaviors. The challenge is to
success as well.
most students will avoid tasks if they believe
This chapter explores how teachers can structure
they will fail. It is, therefore, important to
both curriculum and instruction to have a positiveimpact upon student performance. Chapter 4
ensure that students are not only challenged,
addresses how teachers can strengthen their
but are capable of succeeding. Fear of failure
classroom-management practices to support
is particularly relevant when dealing with
students with emotional disturbance and
students with emotional disturbance and
behavioral problems, as so many have ahistory of failure. The problems that such
PLANNING FOR ACADEMIC SUCCESS
students experience in school often lead togaps in their skill levels, or "splinter skills,"
Like all children and youth, students
which makes schoolwork even more difficult
with emotional disturbance and behavioral
for these students.
problems vary in their characteristics and
One strategy helpful in building oppor-
needs, in their likes and dislikes, and in their
tunities for success is targeting the necessary
reactions to classroom events. A student's
skills the student may need to improve. For
cultural background also may affect how he
example, directions may be written at a
or she reacts to some academic situations.
sixth-grade level, but a student may have
While there are many ways to modify a
only third-grade reading skills. Vigorous
lesson in order to accommodate all students,
attempts must be made to try to bring the
a good place to start is with those aspects of
student's reading skills up to grade level, and
the learning setting that pose the most
until that happens modifications could be
challenges, such as:
introduced to prevent the student fromexperiencing difficulty in reading the
• task difficulty,
assignment. The key is to predict, modify, or
• lesson presentation,
avoid situations in which the student mayencounter problems to help the student
• motivation, and
meet the challenges and cope with theproblems. This procedure is referred to as
• work assignments.
The following strategies are suggestions
Predicting where students may have
that can be used to benefit the learning of all
difficulty permits educators to build in
students, not merely those with emotional
instructional supports. One area in which
disturbance and behavioral problems. Also,
students with emotional disturbance and
because no two classrooms are alike, it is
behavioral problems continue to struggle is
assumed that teachers and other profession-
working in small groups. Social skills—
als will use their own expert judgment
listening, waiting one's turn, asking
regarding whether a particular strategy may
questions, taking responsibility, interrupting
or may not be useful in their own settings.
appropriately, dealing with mistakes—areskills that students need to be successful in
group interactions. Because many studentswith emotional disturbance or behavioral
Teachers usually review curriculum
problems have not mastered social skills
materials before planning instruction. They
such as these, and because students from
have discovered through experience that
diverse cultures may have learned different
skills for group interactions, they may
not defeated by it; etc.). Specific suggestions
require additional support or training before
for increasing student engagement appear in
they are able to participate fully in group
the box below.
Planning short review lessons or readi-
ness activities can help orient the student to
Suggestions for maintaining student engagement
a particular learning task.
in the lesson include:
q Keeping lesson objectives clear;
Whenever possible, it is also important
q Delivering lessons in a lively manner and
to build on students' experiences in
making sure that students are engaged;
presenting new information. This helps
q Using concrete vocabulary and clear and
everyone to see the value of learning new
skills. Students who learn to share their
q Modeling cognitive strategies, such as
experiences with their classmates are able to
"thinking aloud," that encourage students to
learn from and about one another. This, in
verbalize the thought processes required
turn, can enhance their ability to form
positive peer relationships.
q Giving all students immediate encourage-
ment and specific feedback;
Possible modifications that can be used to
q Using meaningful materials and
increase a student's academic engaged time:
manipulatives, and providing examples thatstudents can relate to;
Break long presentations into shorter
segments. At the end of each segment, have
q Having students recite in unison;
students respond in some way.
q Varying tone of voice and modeling
Extend the amount of time that a student is
given to complete a particular task.
q Prompting student answers, allowing an
Break down assignments into smaller ones.
appropriate amount of "wait time" (i.e., to
As students finish each mini-assignment, build
encourage participation, which may vary
in reinforcement for task completion. Wait to
according to the cultural background of the
distribute the next assignment until students
have been successful with the current one.
q Avoiding digressions as much as is
Reduce the number of practice items that a
student must complete, once the student has
q Using interesting visual and auditory
presentations to entice students to attend
When students make mistakes, help them
to learn from those mistakes. Be careful not
to "overcorrect," or require compensation
beyond the point where the student can
demonstrate mastery, and praise any progresstoward the desired behavior change.
If students are actively engaged in
Follow low-interest activities with high-
learning, they are less likely to misbehave.
interest activities so that students get breaks
Teachers and paraprofessionals can increase
from difficult or less interesting activities from
engagement by incorporating the principles
time to time.
of effective instruction into their lessons(e.g. efficient classroom management;
If students have difficulty staying
students frequently given opportunities to
engaged in the lesson, modifications can be
respond; students challenged by work, but
made. To accommodate the learningcharacteristics of a short attention span, for
STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING STUDENT
example, some teachers vary the length ofthe material presented.
Build upon student interests. Students often
learn by relating material to real-life situations
Holding students' interest and attention
that they find interesting. Building interestfactors into projects, activities, and illustrative
can be challenging under the best
examples is important for increasing students'
conditions; therefore, it is desirable to
experiment and ask colleagues for ideas and
Allow students to make choices. Let
students decide between two tasks or selectthe order in which they complete assigned
Use age-appropriate materials and
The linchpin to motivation is to increase
activities. Students often balk at performing
student participation in learning activities.
tasks they perceive to be geared toward
With the proper incentives, sometimes
students younger than themselves.
called reinforcers, even students who show
Vary activities and the pace at which those
little interest can be coaxed into performing.
activities are presented, so that students can
Incentives need not be restricted to tangible
maintain interest and focus. When working with
reinforcers (such as points that can be
students with language difficulties, for example,
traded in for rewards, stickers, food, and so
alternate activities that require writing skills(e.g., describing a single-celled organism) with
on.) Many teachers successfully rely more
those that require other modes of responding
on social, intangible incentives/reinforcers
and learning (e.g., diagramming a single-celled
such as highly relevant content, social praise,
organism), to help students sustain
positive and corrective feedback, and his/her
own enthusiasm, and an interesting
Employ appropriate technology
applications (e.g., computer-assisted
instruction programs, CD-ROM demonstra-
There are other strategies that teachers can
tions, videotape presentations) that can
employ to make their lessons interesting,
engage student interest and increase
relevant, and motivating, which have particular
application to students with emotional
Use hands-on, experiential learning
disturbance and behavioral problems. These
activities to enable students to apply learning
are listed below.
to the real world. This is one of a teacher'smost powerful tools.
In addition to infusing motivational
techniques into lessons, teachers cancelebrate student progress by building ameans to recognize and encourage not onlyparticipation, but intellectual accomplish-ments, as well. Some means of reaching thatend appear below.
when they are praised for their behavioral
WAYS TO RECOGNIZE AND ENCOURAGE
Awards. Certificates or symbolic objects can
be used as awards for task completion.
Bonus points. Some students benefit from
Many students with emotional distur-
working toward a tangible goal on an hourly,
bance and behavioral problems need special
daily, or weekly basis. With a bonus points
help learning "how to learn," as many lack
system, students earn points that can be saved
study or organizational skills that would
up and cashed in for rewards at a later time.
enable them to work independently at tasks
When designing a point system for students
over a sustained period of time. Strategies
with emotional disturbance and behavioralproblems, it is important to design the task and
for fostering these skills in students appear
its timeframe to fit the points. If the payoff is
too far into the future, the student may give upon the task.
Accomplishment sheets. Having students
record their progress on a chart or record sheet
There is much that educators can do to
enables them to see their progress toward a
foster positive learning experiences; and
there is a great deal that other professionals
Personal notes. Some students like notes
and those knowledgeable about the student
from teachers or paraprofessionals. Such notes
can contribute, as well. If the student, for
provide encouragement to both the student and
instance, is receiving some form of
his or her family.
therapeutic support, it is almost always a
Novel rewards. The process by which a
good idea for the therapist to solicit input
student acquires a reward can be motivating in
from other service providers, such as the
itself, if it is age appropriate. "Dot-to-dot
drawings" can be used to collect points, forexample, with the student earning the right to
counselor, on a regular basis.
"connect the dots" by accomplishing specifiedtasks; or students may receive shapes
When planning new lessons, teachers
representing pizza ingredients—and once the
have found it productive to capitalize on the
"dough" is covered, they earn a pizza party.
insights and support that family memberscan bring to the education of their children.
Family input and support should be solicitedand families should be informed of theirchildren's progress on a regular basis. This
Whenever tangible forms of recognition
point is emphasized, because, too often,
are paired with social reinforcement such as
families are asked to participate only when
social praise, and positive and corrective
their children are having difficulties.
feedback, it is important to explain exactlywhat the student has accomplished and how
Sharing responsibility for the student's
that accomplishment will help achieve long-
academic progress often results in a network
term goals in school and in the world
of support. By sharing knowledge, expertise,
outside school. At the same time, it must be
and support, educators have a much better
kept in mind that some students (particu-
chance of reaching students with emotional
larly shy students or some teenagers) prefer
disturbance and behavioral problems.
to keep their rewards private, especially
emotional disturbance and behavioral
It is often helpful for teachers or paraprofessionals
q Teach students to keep track of
assignments, grades, and targetedbehaviors—with reminders such asassignment sheets, daily schedules, andto-do lists.
q Highlight behavioral and academic
successes with some form of daily recordof work assignments and accomplish-ments. When collected over time, suchrecords document student progress andbecome motivators for more student effort.
q Have students take notes from both oral
presentations and textbooks in order togive students a means for sorting out andreviewing what they are learning.
q Help students manage their time by
establishing routines for making transitionsbetween lessons, getting and putting awaymaterials, and requesting assistance.
q Reduce the amount of materials that may
cause distractions during work time byhaving students put away unnecessaryitems in a designated place for storingtools, materials, and books.
q Provide time-management reminders, such
as 10-, 5-, or 2-minute warnings beforeclean-up time, to establish time limitationsfor completing work.
q Make sure that students actually
understand all directions before they beginindependent work.
The classroom practitioner's major
responsibility is to provide a high-qualityacademic program for all students, includingstudents with emotional disturbance andbehavioral problems. Hand-in-hand withsound instructional planning is classroommanagement. The next chapter describeshow teachers and other instructionalpersonnel can strengthen their behavioralmanagement and discipline systems tosupport all students, especially those with
INSTITUTING A SOUND CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Although not panaceas for all behavioral
Teachers can enhance education for all
problems, classroom management systems,
students by establishing a sound classroom-
including individual or group behavior plans
that provide clear behavioral expectations
articulating expectations and goals. Students
and are taught and implemented on a
may also need to have positive behavioral
school-wide basis do provide a supportive
supports as part of their IEPs—as Cristina did.
structure for students. At a minimum,
Based upon a careful assessment of the
educators, through concentrating on a limited
conditions associated with the student's
number of rules, provide the essential
troublesome behavior (through tools such as a
foundation for improving student behavior
functional behavioral assessment), positive
and promoting student success. All students,
behavioral supports can prevent behavior
especially students with emotional disturbance
problems by establishing clear expectations
and behavioral problems, need to know what
about appropriate behavior and providing the
is expected of them.
supports necessary for the student to be
students to have the classroom space divided
into places that have clear purposes.
Controlling the degree of stimulation.
This chapter explores how teachers and
Teachers have significant influence over the
paraprofessionals can strengthen their classroom-management systems to provide a positive
amount of visual and auditory stimulation
environment and accommodate the special needs
students receive within the classroom, and,
of students with emotional disturbance and
therefore, they should be aware that students
who are easily distracted may require lessstimulation than is typical. Examples ofrelatively easy steps to accommodate suchstudents include covering storage areas,
MANAGING THE CLASSROOM
removing unused equipment from sight,
A sound classroom management system can
replacing a loud fish-tank motor with a
provide exactly the structure students (especially
quiet one, and keeping classroom displays
those with emotional disturbance and behavioral
problems) need for managing their ownbehaviors. All components of a management
Monitoring "high traffic areas." There
system are important, but the following are most
tends to be a lot of movement in areas such
as the pencil sharpener, water faucet,
I. Arranging the physical environment;
trashcan, and the teacher's desk. Students
II. Setting rules and expectations;
who are easily distracted should be seated
III. Helping students comply with rules and
away from such areas while still within the
proximity or at least eyesight of the teacher
IV. Scheduling the day;
or paraprofessional. In addition, proceduresfor using these areas should be developed
V. Establishing routines and procedures; and
VI. Building a positive classroom climate that
provides all students with a variety of
Establishing a quiet place. Some stu-
opportunities for success.
dents may need a quiet, "safe" place to sitand work or to calm down after an
I. ARRANGING THE PHYSICAL
emotional outburst. Study carrels, desk
blinders (three-paneled cardboard piecesthat students can use at their seats for
Educators can discourage challenging
privacy), or an area behind a bookcase are
behavior by the way they manage space. A
examples of such quiet places. It is
number of suggestions for arranging
important to note, however, that all students
students' space include:
should remain in full view of the teacher orparaprofessional at all times. Also, students
Delineating space. Some
benefit from feeling ownership of their
intuitively read the subtle cues that define
belongings, and thus benefit from having a
the purposes for different spaces and how
personal space for storing them.
they should behave in those spaces;however, others need to be taught how to
II. SETTING RULES AND EXPECTATIONS
navigate the classroom. It often helps these
At the beginning of the year, teachers
typically establish rules for classroom
behavior. One technique that may increasecompliance with such rules is to express
The following points may be considered whendeveloping classroom rules:
them in positive, concrete terms thatdescribe the behavior that is expected of
q Rules need to be stated in clear and
them (e.g., "raise your hand to be called
explicit behavioral terms, as it is difficult toabide by rules that must be interpreted. For
upon to talk"), rather than defining what
instance, what does it mean to be "respon-
behavior is not acceptable (e.g., "no
sible" or to be "nice"? Children, especially
talking"). Similarly, consequences for failing
younger children, need concrete terms and
to meet expectations should be logical, fair,
examples they can understand, such as
predictable, directed at the inappropriate
raising a hand to speak.
behavior, and, of course, explained before an
q Rules must be concise in order for
students to remember them. Remindersalso may be posted in the learning area;
Once five or six rules have been stated
clearly, it is important to teach students how
q Students, themselves, might be
to follow them.
encouraged to suggest rules to help createa sense of ownership and accountability,
III. HELPING STUDENTS COMPLY
although good research shows that this isnot essential to good classroom manage-
WITH RULES AND EXPECTATIONS
Educators sometimes assume that
students know how to carry out directives,
Although educators can prevent many
when, in fact, they cannot. Students with
minor behavioral infractions by ensuring
emotional disturbance and behavioral
that rules are clearly stated, fairly enforced,
problems are especially prone to being
and completely understood, there are often
punished for rule breaking, even though
additional issues posed by students with
they sometimes lack the skills necessary to
serious behavioral problems. These are
follow the rules. If, for example, the
students who, after all, may have difficulty
classroom rule is to "listen when others are
following even the most clearly stated and
talking," then some students will need to be
fairly enforced rules. For a teacher or
taught the skills necessary for listening.
paraprofessional to be fair and consistent,then, he or she must know whether or notthe student has the necessary skills to
From the beginning of their educational
comply with the rules.
experience, students should know theconsequences of breaking rules; and the
The next section of this chapter discusses
consequences must be fair and consistently
ways educators can support students'
enforced. Typically, students with emotional
appropriate behavior. When all good faith
disturbance and behavioral problems have
efforts and best-practice procedures do not
difficulty understanding the consequences of
produce desired results, however, it may be
their behavior. If a student breaks a rule,
time to enlist the support of the school
then, it is wise to ask that student to explain
psychologist, behavior specialist, the IEP
the consequence of his or her actions.
team, special educator, and/or other supportpersonnel. It may be that the IEP team needsto be reconvened to modify the existingbehavior intervention plan or academicobjectives.
Depending on the effect of the behavior
on the safety and learning opportunities for
Educators may want to support students inaccomplishing routine tasks by using the following
the student and for other students in the
classroom, the IEP team should consider achange
Student cue cards. Small, wallet-sized cards
on which transition steps are written can serve
documented efforts to modify serious
as visual cues, which can be taped to the
behavior problems prove to be unsuccessful.
student's desk, written in a notebook, or carriedin a pocket. The teacher or paraprofessional
IV. SCHEDULING THE DAY
may, in practice, direct students' attention tothe card before moving on to a transition
For students with emotional disturbance
or behavioral problems, several considera-
Reflection time. Many educators find that
tions might be useful when scheduling
having students stop all activity for a moment
activities throughout the day. For instance, a
and reflect upon what they are going to do nextgoes a long way in preparing them for an
time for students to get calmed down while
in a state of transition to a more structuredactivity can be built into the day's schedule.
Advance notice. Because some students find
it difficult to cognitively or emotionally
Also, since many students who have
disengage from an activity in which they are
behavioral challenges find it difficult to
immersed, advance notice (such as a five-
maintain attention for long periods of
minute warning prior to the activity's end)
physically inactive work time, it can be
prepares them for disengagement and
helpful to break large tasks into several
movement toward the next activity.
smaller tasks with short breaks between
Peer support. When a student is learning a
new routine or is having difficulty following aprocedure, many teachers assign a peer buddy
V. ESTABLISHING ROUTINES AND
to reinforce and guide the student through the
required steps of transition.
Subtle prompts. Pointing to a clock or putting
away materials can cue students that it is time
Establishing routines for how things are
for a change. Praise or encouragement also
done and teaching those routines can help
can be used effectively to prepare for a
students stay on target in a classroom. For
transition. For example, saying "Ginny, you
example, it is important to implement
have really worked hard on your paper," or,
consistent routines for those times when
"Look how much you have written today," helps
students have to make a transition from one
to focus the student's attention on "wrappingup" the activity.
lesson to another, or for times when theyhave to get and put away materials, and soon. Routines can, of course, be taught, and
VI. BUILDING A POSITIVE CLASSROOM
students can be rewarded for following
Allison rarely spoke in class, and when
she did, it was in a whisper. Concerned, Ms.
Davis, the language arts teacher, built apositive rapport with her silent student. Eachday, Ms. Davis initiated a conversation withAllison (as did Ms. Peters, the paraprofes-sional). Patient efforts paid off, and Allison
gradually began giving more than one-word
problems, building a positive rapport throughmutual respect and acceptance is, in fact, thefirst step toward establishing trust.
Techniques teachers have used, andrecommended, to communicate respect duringnonacademic discussions:
Once established, it is vital to work
toward maintaining rapport. Oftentimes;
Actively listen. Teachers need to let students
rapport breaks down when teachers need to
know that they are being listened to. Eyecontact and paraphrasing what the student
discipline students; therefore, a teacher
says are two simple ways to demonstrate that
should let a student know that it is his or her
the teacher is, indeed, listening. However, it is
behavior that is problematic, not the student
important to understand that in many cultures,
as an individual. Some teachers have found
it is considered rude for children to make eye
that "I-messages" allow them to maintain
contact with adults.
rapport while addressing behavior. An I-
Use non-threatening questions. When
message is a statement of the behavior,
students have misbehaved, questions that
followed by the effect that it had, and
focus on "what" (e.g., "What went through your
mind just before you kicked your shoes into thehallway?") and "how" (e.g., "How did your math
consequences of the behavior. For example,
book end up in the trash?") are easier to
"When you get out of your seat while I am
answer than those that focus on "why" (e.g.,
giving directions (the behavior), you distract
"Why did you throw your book in the trash?").
me and other students (the effect), which
Moreover, students with a history of behavioral
means we all have to stop what we are doing
difficulties have learned that "why questions"
until I can get back everyone's attention (the
often accompany disciplinary interventions and,as a result, often react to any such questions
as if they are being put on the spot. Tone ofvoice is also important. Questions should be
asked as a genuine effort to help the studentunderstand the behavior.
Knowing how to prevent behavior
Use open-ended questions. For students
problems enables educators to move away
with a history of failure, questions that have,
from a reactive, punitive environment
what they perceive as, a "right" or "wrong"
toward a more proactive environment.
answer make them feel uncomfortable (e.g.,
There is much that teachers and paraprofes-
"Did you follow all the directions during the
sionals can do to establish a classroom
science lab today?"). Open-ended questionscan be used, instead, especially when
environment that allows all students to
engaging the student in conversation (e.g.,
maximize their learning potential. At a
"What did you do in science class today?").
minimum, educators can provide a
Show personal interest in the student. It is
foundation for improving student behavior,
important for students to talk about
and for promoting student success, by
themselves. Sharing details about likes and
dislikes can open the door to broader
achievements in the classroom.
Preventing disturbing behavior through
Communicating respect, in addition to
predictable means is clearly a major ingredient
setting high but attainable expectations for
in fostering any kind of success in the
academic performance, is central to supporting
classroom. There are times, however, when
growth in the classroom. For students with
more corrective approaches are called for.
Students in the best of classrooms will lose
of problematic behavior is essential. For
control of their actions on occasion, some
years, teachers and paraprofessionals have
acting out and others withdrawing. Knowing
successfully applied behavioral management
how to help students manage these challenging
techniques to increase positive behaviors
behaviors gives teachers additional techniques
and to decrease inappropriate ones. As they
have learned, the key to success is not to try
disturbance and behavioral problems.
to control behavior reactively, per se, but toproactively manage it consistently and
HELPING TO MANAGE BEHAVIOR
Kevin , a n ew st u d en t in Mr.
INCREASING APPROPRIATE BEHAVIORS
Blan ch ard 's f if t h g rad e class, w ascon st an t ly ou t of h is seat an d
It is important to respond to student
com p let ed very f ew assig n m en t s.
behavior in positive ways; and it is important
Du rin g on e h alf -h ou r p eriod , Mr.
to resist any temptation to focus only (or
Blan ch ard
even predominantly) on the inappropriate
sh arp en ed h is p en cil f ive t im es, g ot
behavior. The first step in modifying
behavior is to identify the behavior that
Det erm in ed t o d ecrease Kevin 's
should occur, instead of merely focusing on
"roam in g ," Mr. Blan ch ard review ed
the inappropriate behavior. Once desirable
all assig n m en t s, t o en su re t h at
behaviors are selected for reinforcement, the
Kevin w as cap ab le of com p let in g
following strategies can be used to increase
Eq u ip p ed
the likelihood that the student will use them.
Positive reinforcement. Point systems,
stickers, smiles, and public recognition for a
d on e t o h elp Kevin su cceed in t h e
job well done are all examples of positive
reinforcement. When a desired behavior is
The special education teacher observed
followed by something that the student finds
Kevin in the classroom, and interviewed
rewarding, the likelihood that the desired
him, to determine whether or not he knew
behavior will occur more often increases.
and understood classroom rules. Convinced
Educators find that setting up positive
that Kevin did, indeed, understand, the
consequences for some students helps them
school psychologist and Mr. Blanchard
learn to use new behaviors. Consequences
developed a contract with Kevin: If he stayed
that are dependent upon the performance of
in his seat, Kevin earned points toward a
appropriate behaviors (also known as
reward of his own choosing (fifteen minutes
response contingencies) help students
of computer time).
improve their behaviors, particularly whenthe student is not intrinsically motivated to
Within a few weeks, Kevin had increased
staying in his seat by about 20 percent, andhe was completing 50 percent of his work.
If students with emotional disturbance
and behavioral problems are to reach theirfull academic potential, reducing incidences
• Positive consequences for demon-
Some tips for accomplishing the transition from
strating expected behavior;
tangible reinforcers to social reinforcers:
q Reinforce immediately, (especially when
• A statement of everyone's roles (e.g.,
working with new behaviors or young or
"Mr. Jameson will monitor the rate
immature students) as any delay mayresult in ambiguity over what behavior is
of homework completion during the
duration of the contract"); and
q If immediate reinforcement is not possible,
acknowledge the behavior and remind the
• A statement of commitment from
student that the reinforcement will be
Token economies (point systems) are other
Give a verbal description of the behaviorbeing reinforced so that the student knows
examples of response contingencies. Within
exactly which behaviors have led to the
these systems, students are asked to perform
appropriate behaviors for which they receive
q Use social (e.g., praise or recognition) and
tokens (or points), to be exchanged later for
activity reinforcers (e.g., time on a
a reward. As students become proficient in
computer) in conjunction with tangible
demonstrating acceptable behavior, points
are given less frequently. When using point
q Phase out tangible and contrived
systems it is sometimes useful for the
reinforcers as soon as possible;
student to see a visual chart that represents
q Gradually increase the time between the
progress toward reaching a goal.
behavior and the reinforcer; and
q Be sensitive to peer pressure, and be
Negative reinforcement. Negative
careful not to embarrass a student when
reinforcement theory says that a student will
perform appropriate behaviors to avoid orescape negative consequences. For example,students complete their homework to avoid
While many students are intrinsically
failing, or students sit appropriately in order to
rewarded by social recognition (e.g., adult or
stop a teacher from "nagging" them. Such
peer praise) for their appropriate behavior,
strategies should be used sparingly, because
other students will initially need tangible
they focus attention on inappropriate
reinforcers, such as those described on page
behaviors. When they are used, however, they
67. It is important, though, to pair these
should always be paired with the reinforcement
rewards with social reinforcement so that
of an appropriate, alternative behavior (e.g.
occasionally rewarding the student for sitting
the social reinforcement, itself, will
appropriately or for completing his or her
ultimately become rewarding and the
homework). Students need to know what they
tangible reinforcer can gradually be
should be doing, not just what will not be
A behavioral contract is a good example
of making a reward depend upon a desired
response. Most effective contracts usually
contain the following:
For most students, an increase in
• Concrete definitions of expected
appropriate behaviors will replace the need
for interventions that focus on decreasing
inappropriate behaviors. However, some
that result in punishment are highly
inappropriate behaviors may necessitate the
frustrating to educators. It is important to
use of "behavior-decreasing consequences,"
react to frustrating behaviors in a calm and
rational manner, so as not to increase thestudent's negative behavior.
Planned Ignoring. The use of planned
ignoring (extinction) is based upon the theorythat, if the inappropriate behavior is used to
gain attention, ignoring the behavior will result
Punishment should only be considered under
in its becoming "extinct." Three points should
be stressed when using extinction:
q When the behavior is dangerous to the
student or others,
• The use of extinction is not recom-
q When every other intervention has been
mended for behaviors that are unsafe
appropriately implemented and failed; or
q When the student's behavior is so noxious
that it prevents them from learning or
• If the student is gaining desired
forming meaningful social relationships.
attention from his or her peers, thebehavior will not decrease unless
Time-Out. Time-out is an often misun-
peers also ignore it;
derstood punishment technique that actuallyrefers to "time-out from positive reinforce-
• Usually, a short-term consequence of
ment." With time-out, all reinforcement
extinction is that the targeted be-
ceases and the student is essentially removed
havior initially tends to become
from a reinforcing situation. It is especially
worse before it becomes better.
effective for behaviors that are used to seek
Punishment. Punishment receives a
attention. For example, if a student makes
great deal of attention. While occasionally it
inappropriate comments during small group
may be necessary to use punishment as a
activities to get the other students to laugh,
consequence for inappropriate behavior (see
removing the student from the others in his
sidebar: Using Punishment), it should be
or her group might be a good intervention.
only a small part of a behavioral manage-
Effective use of time-out requires
ment plan. The theory behind punishment is
discussing with the student in advance those
that the behavior will decrease, if it is
behaviors that may lead to a time-out, as
followed by something the student perceives
well as the proper procedures for going to,
as negative. "Response cost" (e.g., losing
being in, and returning from time-out.
points in a token economy) is an example of
There are three correlates to punish-
techniques, such as planning rooms or
ment. First, punishment focuses on what the
places to cool-down," which students
student should not be doing rather than on
voluntarily go to when they feel they need
what he or she should be doing. Second,
time to gain control over themselves or their
reactions, not only from the student whose
Effective time-out strategies incorporate
behavior is being punished, but from other
a multilevel system of increasing seclusion.
students. Finally, many student behaviors
For example, a student may be asked to put
Table 1 contains guidelines for implemen-
his or her head down. At the next level, the
tation of time-out procedures.
student might turn away from or leave thegroup; and finally, a separate location, or
"seclusionary time-out," may be used whenthe intensity of the behavior warrants such
TIME-OUT: GUIDELINES FOR
q Consult school administration for district time-
The use of seclusionary time-out has
caused some controversy. Critics allege it
q Discuss the use of time-out options and
denies students their right to education,
procedures with students' parents.
while serving as nothing more than a form
q Define which behaviors will earn time-out.
of "imprisonment." As a result of such
q Decide how long the time-out should last.
claims, some school districts have banned
q Thoroughly discuss the time-out procedure
the use of seclusionary time-out. It is,
with the students:
therefore, best to consult school policiesbefore implementing seclusionary time-out
q Specify the behaviors.
in the classroom; it is also a good idea to
q Specify the warnings to be given.
discuss the procedure with the child's IEP
q Teach directions for going to time-out.
team before implementing such a technique.
q Teach proper time-out behavior.
If school board policy allows seclusionary
q Teach procedures for returning from time-out.
time-out, the facilities should be adequate,and the time-outs well-monitored, short in
q Post time-out rules in the classroom.
duration, and used judiciously. The question
q Warn students when their behavior may lead
should be asked each time a student is sent
to time-out, "Is this student being denied an
q Implement time-out without emotion or
opportunity to learn while in seclusionary
q Begin timing the time-out only when the
student begins to exhibit appropriatebehavior.
q Discuss appropriate alternative behaviors in
private upon student's return from time-out.
q Specify time-out procedures in the
LOGGING THE TIME-OUT
are used to help students manage andevaluate their own behavior. For example, a
Keep a time-out log for each incidence
student may keep track of the frequency (or
of seclusionary time-out that includes:
duration) with which he or she demon-strates the new behavior.
The following combination of instructional
• Description of behavior or incident
strategies may help when teaching students new
that resulted in time-out
q Modeling—showing the student the
• Time of incident
appropriate use of the behavior.
• Duration of time-out
q Rehearsing appropriate behavior—
providing opportunities for the student topractice the behavior.
• Behavior during time-out.
q Role-playing—providing the student the
Review the time-out log regularly to
opportunity to practice the behavior in the
evaluate the effectiveness of the time-out
context of a situation in which the behaviormight be needed.
q Continuous reinforcement—providing
TEACHING NEW BEHAVIORS
reinforcement to the student as he or shepractices the new behaviors.
Some students with learning difficulties
q Prompting—giving the student cues to help
do not learn appropriate behaviors by
him or her remember how and when to usethe new behaviors.
observation alone. Sometimes, a studentmay not be performing a particular behaviorsimply because he or she has not been
TEACHING SOCIAL SKILLS
taught it. In these cases, the behavior maynot indicate defiance on the student's part,
A growing trend in elementary schools is to
but simply the inability to behave in an
teach social skills as part of regular
classroom lessons. Teachers first identifynecessary classroom social skills (such as
Such a situation may arise if certain social
waiting one's turn, sharing materials, saying
skills are required for the performance of a
"excuse me," listening, and following
specific task (e.g., sharing or taking turns as lab
directions), then they select a particular skill
partners in a science experiment). Many
and break it down into observable steps.
students with emotional disturbance and
They teach those steps, while modeling the
behavioral problems have never been taught
behaviors themselves, and while asking
correct social skills, and, as a result, are at a
students to do the same. Students also role-
distinct disadvantage in situations requiring
play the skill, and receive positive feedback
any social interaction.
from the teacher, paraprofessional, andother students. Throughout the rest of the
Once the students have performed the
day, adults target naturally occurring
new behavior with frequent success, a self-
opportunities to reinforce the students when
monitoring strategy may be introduced
they demonstrate newly learned social skills.
where students keep a count of how oftenthey use the new behavior. Such strategies
SUPPORTING APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR
STRATEGIES TO SUPPORT APPROPRIATE
Sometimes, educators find that students
Proximity control. The educator uses his or her
physical presence to reduce inappropriate behaviors and
need extra support to behave appropriately.
to increase appropriate ones. For example, if a student
The following are "tricks of the trade" that
is staring out of a window, the teacher can continue
might be used to support appropriate
lecturing, but move toward the student in a non-threatening way. The teacher's presence serves as a
reminder to the student that he or she should be payingattention. The use of direct eye contact can be used to
enhance this technique. It is important to remember thatin emotionally charged situations it is not good to get tooclose or make the student feel cornered.
A key to increasing appropriate behav-
Signal interference. Rather than use a direct warning to
iors and decreasing inappropriate ones is
stop an inappropriate behavior and encourage a positive
motivation. Through careful application of
one, educators can signal or prompt a student by using apreviously agreed upon sign. (This can be a private
behavior management strategies, teachers
signal known only by the student and educator.) For
and paraprofessionals can actually teach
example, teachers commonly put their index finger over
motivation, and, hence, improve classroom
their lips to indicate that it is time to be quiet; or they tapa chime to alert students to stop what they are doing and
face the teacher.
Redirection. Teachers and paraprofessionals use
Strategies designed to manage behavior
redirection, when necessary, to verbally remind a
may be quite effective in the short run, but, by
student of the task at hand. For example, if a student is
themselves, they are not sufficient to bring
wandering out of his seat, the paraprofessional mightredirect the behavior by saying: "John, show me how
about long-term behavior change. Teachers
many answers you've completed in your workbook." The
and paraprofessionals that also build a positive
redirective statement positively reminds John of what he
relationship with students have, however, the
should be doing, and it allows him to re-engage in thelearning activity without punishment.
greatest chance of succeeding over time. Basic
Relaxation. When students are agitated (e.g., after a
skills must be delivered within a compassionate
heated argument during recess), teachers can have
context—and that context is a humane and safe
them relax quietly by putting their heads on their desks.
environment filled with caring relationships.
Similarly, when students feel upset, they can be taughtto count backwards or breathe deeply before reacting. It
All students benefit from having caring adult
is best, however, to teach students such techniques
educators in their lives. Both students and
when they are calm. Educators also may enhance the
educators contend that such a person can be,
success of these techniques by teaching students torecognize triggers of stress and anger.
in fact, the single most important component
Talking the student down. If a student has become
in helping anyone with emotional disturbance
agitated, but has not lost control, it may be useful to "talk
or behavioral problems take the first step
the student down" to a more relaxed state. This
toward adjustment. The power of caring is
technique has the teacher or paraprofessional talk verycalmly, slowly, and quietly to a student, leading him or
impossible to overemphasize.
her to a positive solution.
Humor. Sometimes potentially volatile behavior can be
MANAGING AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIORS
diffused by gently drawing attention to something funnyabout the situation provoking the behavior. Educators
Back early f rom lu n ch , Terran ce
are cautioned, however, against using sarcasm ortrivializing a deeply-felt emotion. It is important to
st orm s in t o t h e classroom , kn ockin g
maintain a mutually respectful relationship with the
over d esks an d ch airs. He sw in g s at
a st ack of b ooks sit t in g on t h ecou n t er,
sen d in g
q u ickly
Terran ce, h overin g close t o t h e
may ask lots of questions and begin arguing.
t each er's d esk an d alon g t h e
Sometimes just showing interest in him or
room 's p erim et er. Scream in g , "I
her, or giving the student a chance to talk
h at e you ," h e lu n g es t ow ard Bryan ,
about what is bothering him or her, can help
w h o is racin g t ow ard t h e d oor.
the student regain self-control or enable the
Even when lessons are delivered effec-
educator to provide appropriate support.
tively, with a management system in place
Provide the student with time and space at
and rapport established, it is still possible for
this point. Allow him to work independently
aggressive acts to occur. When a student
and prompt him to use relaxation skills and
loses control in the classroom, it is the
problem-solving skills to work through his
educator's primary responsibility to protect
anger. It is important to remain calm and to
the safety of everyone involved.
continue to treat the student with respect. Ifyou become upset or rude it will only
Usually, a student does not lose control
escalate the student's behavior.
without "giving notice." We understandfrom research that when students act out,
If the student's behavior continues to
their behavior follows a predictable pattern.
escalate remind him or her in a respectful
In fact, one of the best lines of defense for
way of the consequences of the behavior.
classroom teachers and paraprofessionals is
Give the student the opportunity to choose
to understand the nature of this acting-out
the appropriate behavior.
behavior pattern, and to use that knowledgeto support the student.
Should a student loose control, however,
the educator's priority is safety. This
A student's sense of calm can become
includes the safety of the others in the room,
as well as that of the student who is out of
"triggers," such as changes in routine, too
control. If the student's behavior in
many errors or corrections on assignments,
endangering others in the classroom, ask the
or peer provocation. Triggers also may be
student to leave the room. If he or she will
outside the classroom, and might include
not leave, have the other students leave the
gang pressure, substance abuse, lack of sleep,
room and send one student for help. In
or peer or family conflicts. There are some
either case, tell the student(s) exactly where
triggers that educators can control (e.g.,
they should go and whom they should talk
preparing students for transition, ensuring a
to. Again, remain calm and respectful so as
student takes his or her medication as
not to escalate the behavior.
scheduled, teaching anger managementskills), and others that are beyond their
Following a loss of control, the teacher
control (e.g., an upheaval in the family,
or paraprofessional should debrief with the
conflicts with friends, etc.). Providing a
student and help him or her identify
structured, supportive environment and
appropriate alternatives to his or her
teaching the student the skills needed to
behavior. This should be done when the
control anger and to problem-solve will
student has calmed down and is receptive to
reduce the impact of triggers on a student's
working with an adult to improve his or her
behavior. This debriefing should beapproached as an opportunity for the
If a student is triggered, he or she usually
student to learn. The issues of discipline and
becomes confused or defiant. The student
consequences for the disruptive behaviorshould be broached separately.
CRITERIA OF A SCHOOL-WIDE BEHAVIOR
Schools should take the time to develop
q Explain the purpose of the plan;
emergency procedures in the event that a
q State behavioral expectations;
student loses control and threatens the safety
q Explain strategies for teaching behavioral
of other students. This plan should be taught
expectations to students;
and practiced before an incident occurs.
q Include structures for reinforcing students
who demonstrate desired behaviors;
ENLISTING HELP AT SCHOOL
q Agree in advance on strategies for
managing students who demonstrate
Some students demand more attention
and understanding than any one teacher or
q Include a continuum of back-up
paraprofessional can give. It is rare that these
consequences for students who resist
students have problems with their behavior
efforts to change inappropriate behaviors;
in only one setting (e.g., classroom,
q Outline a referral system (complete with
lunchroom, playground, or hallways). In
strategies that educators should use to
such cases, colleagues work together to help
document students who repeatedly
support the student's behavioral growth. A
demonstrate problem behavior). Also
behavior management plan, for instance, is
include a system for explaining how
more powerful if it is applied in more than
officials are to share information gathered
one setting, and by more than one adult.
via the plan with families, district officials,and, if appropriate, law enforcement
Essentially, school-wide approaches are
good ideas, as such approaches can
minimize environmental triggers, provide
Include a step-by-step procedure forcommunicating the purpose of the school-
structure and consistency, and are more
wide plan and the ways it will be used to
effective in addressing behavioral needs over
address violence and criminal actions to
the long run.
parents and others.
To be most effective, the entire school
community and family must address violent
Policies must be written down stating
and aggressive behavior; therefore, it is
what is and is not allowable in a plan in
imperative that the support and resources of all
order to avoid misconceptions. Once a plan
concerned be enlisted. In response to this
is developed, staff must receive training
growing need, many schools are providing
about how to put the plan into effect, and
students with conflict-resolution and peer-
review its implementation after a practice
mediation skills. Some schools are even
run to evaluate its effectiveness.
adopting school-wide social skills and
discipline programs. Procedures should be in
ORKING TOGETHER WITH FAMILIES
place for dealing with violent behavior and
Emotional disturbance and behavioral
criminal actions in the school because
problems affect children in all life situations—
educators should not be left on their own to
home, community, school, church, etc. In
deal with such situations. In general, to adopt a
addition, families experience significant
school-wide plan, the following criteria are
stress when a child has emotional and
behavioral problems and they need to workwith the schools to address the student's
needs. Communication with the student'sfamily should, therefore, be one of the most
When talking to a family about their child'sbehavior in school, the following approaches may
important components of any school program.
enlist their support:
Because a family unit may be configured in
many ways, it frequently helps to know and
Refer to behavioral difficulties within thecontext of mastering academic goals;
refer to the significant members of a child'sfamily (e.g., mother, father, grandparent, aunt,
q Be concrete and specific about behavior
problems. Expressions that exaggerate the
older sibling, other adult.) and the part they
frequency of problem behaviors, such as
play in a student's life, in all plans concerning
"he always looks away when I smile at
the education of a student with emotional or
him," or "she talks back all of the time,"
behavioral problems. The core members of the
serve only to make family members
family should be included in all significant
deliberations about the student's education.
q Actively listen to family members,
empathize with their concerns, and learn
The IEP team offers opportunities to meet
from their knowledge and experience;
with the child's family. Collaboration can
q Share positive examples of the student's
extend throughout the year, as family
performance, and reaffirm a commitment to
members are made to feel at home with
helping the student become successful in
teachers and other professionals charged with
instructing their children. Meetings can be
q Solicit the family's suggestions concerning
scheduled to facilitate family involvement, and
how to reduce inappropriate behaviors.
conducted in a manner that demonstratesrespect for the student's family, their culture,
and their knowledge and concerns. Empathy,respect, and sincerity are key factors in
While the characteristics presented by
establishing and maintaining a positive
children with emotional disturbance and
relationship with families.
behavioral problems may sometimes seemdaunting, the bottom line is never to give up
Because families like to hear good news,
on any student. Because children with
it is suggested that teachers and others share
emotional disturbance and behavioral
reports on student progress with families,
problems may challenge a teacher's patience
either through notes, reward charts,
and cause momentary despair, teachers
completed contracts, phone calls, or record
should not be alone in helping students
cards. When meeting with families, in order
to build trust and good support, it may behelpful to begin with positive examples of
The school is a learning community. While
their child's performance or behavior before
it is important to build a positive climate in the
addressing inappropriate behaviors.
classroom, such work does not stop at theclassroom door. The success of a classroombehavior management program can beenhanced by other colleagues as well as by thestudent's family. In that spirit, the next chapterpresents some promising practices that schoolsand districts are using to support classroomteachers and paraprofessionals.
There is much that can be done in the
problems or identify resource needs. They
can develop a rich understanding of their
educational programs to students with
students' needs and share a stake in
emotional disturbance and behavioral
designing effective collaborative interven-
problems. The school and district, however,
tions that can help improve student learning
must support such efforts. From this system-
and behavior. Teachers and paraprofession-
wide perspective, the goal is to build the
als can play key roles in recommending the
school and district capacity to undertake the
support services and resources that facilitate
strategies and approaches that sustain and
success in school.
support positive results for all students,including
disturbance and behavioral problems.
Across the country, special services are
When teachers and paraprofessionals
being reconfigured to support students and
serve as team members, and are provided
educators. In some cases, social services are
with adequate time to meet with the team,
being brought to schools. In other cases,
they are in an excellent position to solve
new concepts are being developed, as well,
to address the emotional and behavioral
made that day, and the student is invited to
needs of students. Three examples of
make suggestions on how he or she can
redesigned service delivery models follow.
improve the next day.
Social workers in a Michigan district are
This chapter describes some promising
assigned to classrooms that include children
practices and approaches that are having apositive impact on students and classroom
with emotional disturbance. As needed,
environments, such as:
those social workers provide positive
support to children in following the
Reconfiguring services within and outsideof the classroom and school;
classroom rules, solving problems, anddeveloping positive attitudes.
q Developing effective collaborative teams;
Behavior specialists in Toledo, Ohio
q Offering professional development to all
work with teachers who have students with
behavior problems that exceed the teachers'
An understanding of how these approaches
skills for dealing with them. A behavior
can support student progress enables teachers
specialist will consult with the teacher;
and paraprofessionals to seek out the
observe the student; talk with the counselor
approaches and advocate for theirestablishment in practice.
and the parents; consult with the familyphysician, if necessary; and then develop abehavior management plan. The specialist
To support high school students with
works with the teacher to put the plan into
emotional disturbance and behavioral
place and is on call to help if the plan is not
problems, educators in a district in Rhode
Island have established a "planning room"wherein all students may find emotional
These are just a few options schools have
support or extra help with schoolwork, do
found to support the needs of both students
their homework in a quiet setting, or
and educators. In other cases, services that
perform social problem-solving activities. A
were once the sole province of "pull-out"
special education teacher, skilled in behavior
settings are now being brought into the
management, supervises the planning room
classroom. Teachers are becoming part of
and tutors students in academic subjects,
co-teaching partnerships, and some teachers
and, when necessary, helps them solve
have developed meaningful and productive
problems in socially appropriate ways. When
new ways to include various service
a student needs additional help, such as
providers in the classroom program. For
community mental health services, the
example, a behavior specialist may spend
supervising teacher assists students in
some time each day assisting a student in the
obtaining that help.
regular classroom; or, the teacher ofstudents with learning disabilities might co-
Educators in an Ohio district have
teach a lesson with the regular teacher at
designed a plan that assigns special
various levels to ensure that all students are
education paraprofessionals to regular
challenged and no one is frustrated with the
education elementary classrooms where they
work to provide academic and behavioralsupport directly to students. At the end of
Some school structures currently in
the day, the teacher, the paraprofessional,
place also are being revamped, with a special
and individual students go over the progress
focus on supporting students with emotional
disturbance and behavioral problems.
the decision that a student could be better
served in an alternative setting. An
systems, for instance, are being designed and
alternative setting could be a "school within
implemented by entire school staffs, and are
a school" or it could be a separate school
being geared to offer a consistent approach
facility. The configuration of an alternative
to supporting all students and to defining
setting depends on what each community
and communicating rules, expectations, and
can provide, but it is best to keep students as
close to the mainstream setting as isappropriate, because the goal of effective
Often, instructional components are
alternative programs should be to enable the
built into such school-wide behavior
students to get back to their original settings
management systems to actually teach
as soon as possible.
support programs are sometimes offeredthat address the behavioral needs or skilldeficits
disturbance. In addition, school districts arestarting to implement early intervention andprevention services for young children atrisk of developing emotional disorders orbehavioral problems, as well as transitionservices for older youth. Research suggeststhat all these services can enhance astudent's intellectual and social developmentand allow successful adjustment into theworld of work or further study.
It is helpful to find out about programs
like these in your district, or, whenappropriate, employ or work with others toimplement them. Educators can play acritical role in offering ideas for how newservices can be developed or used in theirparticular classrooms and schools.
Whenever possible, it is expected that
students will participate in the generalcurriculum with appropriate aids andsupports. Sometimes, however, studentsrequire more than reconfiguration ofservices in their current setting to achievesuccess in controlling or improving theirbehavior. In such cases, educators may make
SELECTED COMPONENTS OF EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVE PROGRAMS
A Qualified Staff—The staff of alternative programs should be qualified, well-trained, and experienced toteach students with emotional and behavior problems. They should choose to teach in these settings andbe present in sufficient numbers to guarantee a strong, positive adult presence. This ensures thatstudents are getting effective instruction and also are being understood by people who want to see themsucceed.
Functional Assessment of Student's Skills—An assessment should be performed to determine whateach student needs, both academically and behaviorally, rather than what a particular curriculum saysshould be taught. Each assessment should be tailored to each individual child, rather than using apackaged assessment program. This kind of assessment aligns with that required when preparing anindividualized program of instruction for each student.
Functional Curriculum—based on the results of the individualized assessment, each student should havea functional curriculum that addresses his or her particular needs. In addition to appropriate academicinstruction, the curriculum should be individualized to include instruction in whatever vocational, social,and life training skills a student might need in order to function in the classroom. This curriculum shouldbe written into a student's individualized plan of instruction.
Effective and Efficient Instructional Techniques—The instructional strategies chosen to implement thestudent's curriculum should take into account how each child learns, such as considering a student'sattention span or learning style. For example, a student may learn better when a direct instructionapproach is used, than he or she does in cooperative learning groups.
Transition Program—alternative programs should have a process in place to transition a student back tohis or her regular program. Each student should begin this process as soon as he or she enters thealternative program. Transition programs should address the skills that each student needs to besuccessful in his or her regular setting or in a job, when appropriate.
Comprehensive Systems—Alternative programs should work with community agencies that may alsoprovide services to students in a coordinated manner. Such agencies may include: social services, fostercare, juvenile justice, child protective services, and children's mental health. Working together to meeteach student's spectrum of needs may improve student outcomes both in and beyond school.
Availability of Resources for Students with Disabilities. Alternative programs should have small classsizes; an emphasis on intensive instruction; effective and frequent communication among students,families, teachers and other school staff; and sufficient social work, psychological, and counselingresources so that all students receive effective services.
COMPONENTS OF A SYSTEM OF CARE
A glossary appears as in Appendix B to offer definitions or descriptions of these components.
1. Mental Health Services
4. Health Services
Health education and prevention
Early identification and intervention
Screening and assessment
Day treatmentEmergency services
5. Vocational Services
Therapeutic foster care
Therapeutic group care
Therapeutic camp services
Job survival skills training
Residential treatment services
Vocational skills training
Crisis residential services
Job finding, placement, and retention services Supported employment
2. Social Services
6. Recreational Services
Relationships with significant others
Home aid services
Special recreation projects
7. Operational Services
3. Educational Services
Assessment and planning
Self-help and support groups
Self-contained special education
Residential schools Alternative programs
Source: From A System of Care for Severely Emotionally Disturbed Children and Youth by B. A. Stroul & R. M. Friedman, 1986, rev.
1994. Washington, DC: CASSP Technical Assistance Center, Georgetown University Child Development Center.
In the past, many alternative settings were
Linkages also can be developed where
thought of as custodial programs that served to
previously none existed. Teachers in one
keep students more than to educate them.
school were surprised to learn about the
Effective alternative programs now are more
behavior specialist's availability to work with
them inside their classrooms. After a
personnel offer coordinated services that
planning day with the behavior specialist,
support students' return to their original
during which teachers learned about what
settings. See Selected Components of Effective
her services included, teachers scheduled her
Alternative Programs for a detailed description
to conduct social skills activities in their
of services that alternative programs should
classrooms. They also drew upon her
provide for students.
expertise in including families in cooperativeplanning. In other situations, a school or
community social worker, or the school
psychologist may be able to provide similarservices.
professionals, and the community in
Teachers and paraprofessionals often
improvement efforts is the cornerstone of
report satisfaction with collaborative models,
long-term change. Learning from colleagues
primarily citing the opportunity they provide
and others is a tried and true way to discover
to share knowledge, expand skills, and develop
new ideas and approaches. Strategies for
creative solutions to problems. At the same
addressing the needs and strengths of
time, teachers stress that time has to be made
students with emotional disturbance and
available on a regular basis for such
behavioral problems can be identified
collaborations to become effective. Districts,
through school-based student assistance
too, need to reduce barriers to collaboration
teams; special and general education teacher
and introduce opportunities for professionals
partnerships; and school, family, and
and families to meet or to integrate
community teams that include other service
community service providers into the school
providers. With the new amendments to the
setting to create a "system of care." (For
IDEA, general and special education teachers
information on specific resources, contact the
are now partners in developing the IEP for
Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice
all students educated partly or wholly in a
or the Center on Positive Behavioral
regular education setting—This allows for
Interventions and Support.) The following
enhanced collaboration among all parties.
exhibit details the components of a system ofcare and the services each component can
Because the needs of students with
provide to meet such needs collaboratively.
emotional disturbance and behavioralproblems often transcend what schools are
PROVIDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR
able to provide, community agencies are
increasingly playing an important role instudents' lives, making linkages between
Educators and related service providers
schools and the community especially
alike want to ensure that students with
valuable to all involved.
emotional disturbance and behavioralproblems receive the best education
possible. School districts are discovering that
their behaviors is a vital part of ensuring that
effective professional development for
they will not miss out on learning that will
educators can improve the education of
improve the quality of their lives. As the
these students. Teachers, paraprofessionals,
examples in this booklet suggest:
parents, community members, administra-tors, and support staff—including bus
• comprehensive programs of school-
drivers and cafeteria and playground
wide discipline expectations,
monitors—should work together. All canbenefit from improving their understanding
• improved classroom management—
of students with emotional disturbance and
using rules and procedures, teaching
behavioral problems. Research has shown
replacement behaviors, strategies
that professional development activities
that enhance acceptable behavior
must have certain characteristics to be
and reduced unacceptable behav-
maximally effective (see sidebar: Selected
Characteristics of Effective ProfessionalDevelopment).
• collaborative teaming to address the
needs of students with low-levelchallenging behaviors,
SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF
EFFECTIVE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
• emergency planning, and
q Supplies educators with research-based
content knowledge about the subject.
• high quality alternative settings for
q Gives educators not only ideas for what to do,
students whose needs cannot be met
but provides them with information about why
in the regular classroom or neigh-
borhood school can ensure that stu-
q Is intensive (i.e., time and training) and
inclusive (i.e., support and resources) enough
continue to move forward.
to produce a measurable change in students.
q Engages educators and gives them skills to
fine-tune what they have learned to fit theirparticular setting.
q Is sensitive to the unique needs of the school
community and addresses the concerns ofeducators.
q Is conducted in a variety of formats to
address learning styles.
Many students at some time or another
present challenging behaviors. Classroomteachers
therefore, always on the front lines, as theywork to prevent inappropriate behaviorsfrom interfering with students' academicprogress. Clearly, helping students manage
SUPPORT AND RESOURCES
There is now much that teachers and
those interested in issues of implementing
paraprofessionals can do to support the
the IDEA; (2) offers Author Online
educational development of students with
discussions through its website; (3)
emotional disturbance and behavioral
maintains a database of relevant meetings
problems, particularly since many of the
and conferences on the website; and (4)
techniques that work with these students can
helps to link individuals to services providers
work to improve results for all students.
through its network of Nursery andGreenhouse sites. The Center's website alsoprovides access to free publications
This chapter suggests additional organizationsand resources that educators and school districts
produced by the Center on many of the
can use to assist them in improving the education
topics addressed in this document.
of all students.
The Center for Effective Collaboration andPractice
American Institutes for ResearchThomas Jefferson St. NW, Suite 400
THE CENTER FOR EFFECTIVE
Washington DC 20007
COLLABORATION AND PRACTICE
Phone: 202-944-5400 or Toll-Free at: 1-888-
The Center is working to improve results
E-mail: [email protected]
for children and youth with, or at risk of
developing, emotional disturbance and
behavioral problems and their families. Its
HE CENTER FOR THE STUDY AND
main goals are to identify effective practices
PREVENTION OF VIOLENCE (CSPV)
and to disseminate this information toteachers, mental health professionals, Head
CSPV was established in 1992 to provide
Start personnel, juvenile justice personnel,
child welfare professionals, family members,
preventing violence, particularly among
and others. To do this, the Center has put
adolescents. Since that time, CSPV has
together a network of individuals and
expanded its focus to violence prevention
information sources that can help teachers
throughout the course of life. CSPV's
locate a variety of resources, and it
research-to-practice efforts have resulted in
constantly updates its own records to
the following services: (1) a collection of
include many of those on the list that
research literature and resources relating to
follows. In addition, the Center: (1)
the study and prevention of violence; (2)
technical assistance for the development and
teachers, school psychologists, emotional
evaluation of violence prevention and
and behavioral disorder specialists, and
intervention programs; and (3) research
analyses that focus on the causes of violence
CENTER ON POSITIVE BEHAVIORAL
and the search for best practices to prevent
INTERVENTIONS AND SUPPORT
The Center on Positive Behavioral
Center for the Study and Prevention of
Interventions and Support was created
through the U.S. Department of Education's
Institute of Behavioral Science
Office on Special Education Programs to
University of Colorado at Boulder
give schools capacity-building information
and technical assistance for identifying,
Boulder, CO 80309-0442
adapting, and sustaining effective school-
wide disciplinary practices. The Center aims
to meet two goals: (1) to widely disseminate
LUEPRINTS FOR VIOLENCE PREVENTION
communities; and (2) to demonstrate to
Blueprints for Violence Prevention is a
concerned parties at all levels (students,
collection of ten violence prevention
schools, districts, and states) that school-
programs, which, the Center for the Study
wide positive behavioral interventions and
and Prevention of Violence (CSPV)
supports are feasible and effective.
determined, have high scientific standards ofprogram effectiveness. "Blueprints" includes
Center on Positive Behavioral
a description of each of the selected violence
Interventions and Support
5262 University of Oregon
theoretical rationale for the program, the
Eugene, OR 97403-5262
program's core components for implemen-
tation, evaluation design and results, and
practical experiences encountered during the
Blueprints for Violence Prevention
THE COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL
Center for the Study and Prevention of
Institute of Behavioral ScienceUniversity of Colorado at Boulder
CEC is the largest international organi-
zation dedicated to improving educational
Street, Suite 107
outcomes for students with disabilities. The
CEC holds international, state, and local
Boulder, CO 80309
conferences through its various chapters,
and produces a catalog of publications,
available by calling 1-800-232-7323. It also
maintains several ERIC Clearinghouses of
information and research on educationissues, accessible though the Internet. TheCouncil can be contacted at:
The Council for Exceptional Children
1920 Association Drive
Reston, VA 20191-1589
Voice phone: 703-620-3660
TTY: 703-264-9446FAX: 703-264-9494
THE INSTITUTE ON VIOLENCE AND
E-mail: [email protected]
The Institute on Violence and Destruc-
THE COUNCIL FOR CHILDREN WITH
tive Behavior (IVDB) at the University of
BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS (CCBD)
Oregon is an institute made up of Universityof Oregon faculty representing schools of
The CCBD, a division of the Council for
Education, Psychology, Sociology, Law,
Exceptional Children, is committed to
Architecture, and Public Policy and
promoting and facilitating the education and
Planning. IVDB was created to address social
general welfare of children and youth with
problems of public concern; to focus, make
behavioral and emotional disorders. The
accessible, and deliver expertise related to
CCBD publishes the research journal
violence and destructive behavior; and to
Behavioral Disorders, a newsletter, and a
integrate the Institute's research, training,
and service activities in this context. Its
Behavior, which are distributed to its
activities focus on research, instruction, and
members several times a year. The Council
public service. One school-wide violence
for Exceptional Children may be contacted
prevention curriculum that IVDB has
for information regarding the CCBD's other
implemented is Effective Behavior Support
publications, as well as membership
(EBS), which is described in further detail
opportunities and regional and national
Institute on Violence and Destructive
THE FEDERATION OF FAMILIES FOR
CHILDREN'S MENTAL HEALTH (FFCMH)
1265 University of OregonEugene, OR 97403-1265
The FFCMH is a national, parent-run
organization focused on the needs of
children and youth with emotional,
behavioral, or mental disorders, and their
families. The Federation has chapters inevery state, offers regional and national
EFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT (EBS)
meeting and events, provides technicalassistance and materials, and publishes a
The Institute on Violence and Destruc-
newsletter, Claiming Children. The national
tive Behavior at the University of Oregon
office can be contacted at:
implemented Effective Behavior Support(EBS), a school-wide violence prevention
The Federation of Families for Children's
program. EBS provides behavioral support
for students, including students who exhibit
1021 Prince Street
chronic behavior problems. EBS schools
Alexandria, VA 22314-2971
clarify expectations for student behavior and
give students reminders when needed. These
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL
schools simplify rules students are expected
to follow, teach children appropriate, pro-social behaviors, and reward students when
NASP has more members than any
they have been "caught doing something
association of school psychologists in the
good." Consequences for inappropriate
world. Their goal is to promote effective
behaviors are understood and are quickly
research-validated programs that facilitate
acted upon when warranted. In EBS schools,
the creation of healthy school environments,
classrooms and special settings within the
support independence, and maximize
school (e.g. the cafeteria or playground)
learning. Professional, but caring service,
have procedures that are consistent with the
reliable research, advocacy, and constant
school-wide expectations for students and
program evaluation are emphasized. NASP
staff. For students whose behavior needs are
publishes a newspaper eight times a year, as
beyond the reach of the EBS features, a
well as a quarterly journal. In addition to
behavior support team addresses their
these, NASP publishes books, monographs,
special needs by establishing individual
pamphlets, videos, papers, and fact sheets.
action teams and plans for each student.
National Association of School Psychologists
Jeff Sprague & Hill Walker
4340 East West Highway, Suite 401
Bethesda, MD 20814-9457
Institute on Violence and Destructive
1265 University of Oregon
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH
NATIONAL INFORMATION CENTER FOR
CHILDREN AND YOUTH WITH
The National Institute of Mental Health
(NIMH)'s mission is to diminish the burden
NICHCY is an information clearing-
of mental illness through research. NIMH is
house funded by the Department of
a branch of the National Institutes of Health
Education, and provides information on
(NIH), the primary federal agency for
disabilities and disability-related issues for
biomedical and behavioral research. NIMH
children and youth (birth to age 22). Many
and NIH serve under the U.S. Department
of its documents are provided free of charge.
of Health and Human Services.
NICHCY can be contacted at:
National Information Center for Children
Neuroscience Center Building
and Youth with Disabilities
6001 Executive Blvd.
Bethesda, MD 20892
Washington, DC 20013-1492
E-mail: [email protected]
E-mail: [email protected]: www.NICHCY.org
OFFICE OF JUVENILE JUSTICE AND
adulthood, and for students and schools.
DELINQUENCY PREVENTION (OJJDP)
PACER also offers technical assistance toparent centers locally and nationwide.
The Office of Juvenile Justice and
PACER's goal is to make parents informed
Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) is one of
consumers for the welfare of their children
several bureaus that serve under the U.S.
by providing them with knowledge of their
Department of Justice's Office of Justice
rights and responsibilities as parents, and
Programs (OJP). OJP was established in
about laws and other resources pertaining to
1984 to develop the nation's capacity to
their special needs children and their roles as
prevent and control crime, improve the
criminal and juvenile justice systems,increase knowledge about crime and related
issues, and assist crime victims. OJJDP
4826 Chicago Avenue South
creates and funds programs that target such
Minneapolis, MN 55417-1098
issues as gang violence and juvenile crime.
With OJP, OJJDP forms partnerships among
federal, state, and local governments to
Toll-Free (in MN): 800-53-PACER
address these and other problems relating to
youth violence in the U.S.
THE ASSOCIATIONS OF SERVICE
PROVIDERS IMPLEMENTING IDEA
810 Seventh Street, NW
REFORMS IN EDUCATION (ASPIIRE)
Washington, DC 20531
PARTNERSHIP, AND THE IDEA LOCAL
IMPLEMENTATION BY LOCAL
Fax: 202-307-2093E-mail: [email protected]
ADMINISTRATORS (ILIAD) PARTNERSHIP
The Associations of Service Providers
Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse
Implementing IDEA Reforms in Education
(ASPIIRE) Partnership and The IDEA Local
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
Implementation by Local Administrators
(ILIAD) Partnership are made up of over 15
educational organizations and related
services associations. As a group, themembers of ASPIIRE and ILIAD pull
PARENT ADVOCACY COALITION FOR
together the strength of their individual
EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS (PACER)
organizations to provide ideas, technical
assistance, and other information to
implement IDEA ‘97.
PACER is a non-profit statewide organi-
ASPIIRE and ILIAD Projects
zation created to improve and expand
Council for Exceptional Children
opportunities that enhance the quality of life
1920 Association Drive
for children and young adults with
Reston, VA 20191-1589
disabilities and their families. PACER offers
Phone (Toll-Free): 1-877-CEC-IDEA
a variety of programs that provide assistance
for children with disabilities from birth to
Most state education departments have
consultants for emotional and behavioral
617-388-3300 Ext. 439
disorders who may be contacted for furtherinformation. In addition, most state
Departments of Mental Health have officerswho are responsible for children's mental
health. Both professionals can provide you
with information about resources in yourstate. Their names and telephone numbers
District of Columbia:
503-378-3598 Ext. 649
617-727-5600, Ext. 543
STATE CHILDREN'S MENTAL
Ext. 49 or684-633-1130
801-538-4270 or 4275
809 773-1311Ext. 3013
MATERIALS FOR FURTHER STUDY
A number of publications specifically address practitioners' questions about educating
students with emotional disturbance and behavioral problems. A few are listed below:
The Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Reclaiming Children and Youth and The
Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders are both published quarterly by:
ProEd8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757Phone: (512)451-3246; or Toll-Free at: (800) 897-3202
Preventing School Failure is published quarterly by:
Heldref Publications1319 Eighteenth Street, NW,Washington, DC 20036-1802Phone: (202) 296-6267, or Toll-Free at: (800) 365-9753Fax: (202) 269-5149
Reaching Today's Youth: The Community Circle of Caring Journal, published quarterly by:
National Educational Service1252 Loesch RoadP.O. Box 8 Station Z1Bloomington, IN 47402-0008Phone: (812) 336-7700, or Toll-Free at: (800) 733-6786Fax: (812) 336-7790
Local colleges and universities are another resource. Many college and university libraries
subscribe to research and practitioner journals that publish updated information on strategies forworking with students with emotional disturbance and behavioral problems and their families.
Also, education or school psychology departments often are aware of upcoming conferences andworkshops.
Finally, the Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice has produced a variety of prod-
ucts that may be of interest to teachers, paraprofessionals, administrators and others oneducational strategies for children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems. These arelisted and described below, and most can be acquired free of charge. To obtain any of these
materials (and unless otherwise indicated), please contact the Center for Effective Collaborationand Practice using the information provided at the beginning of this chapter.
Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools. This document was produced in
collaboration with the National Association of School Psychologists in response to thePresident's call for the development of an early warning guide to help "adults reach out totroubled children quickly and effectively." This guide has been distributed to every district in thenation to help them identify children in need of intervention into potentially violent emotionsand behaviors. It can be acquired through the U.S. Department of Education by calling Toll-Free1-877-4ED-PUBS or via the Center's website.
Safe, Drug-Free, and Effective Schools for ALL Students: What Works! This report came out of a
collaborative effort between the Office of Special Education Programs and the Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, both of the U.S. Department of Education. It profiles six differentapproaches in three different communities or districts to addressing schoolwide prevention andreduction of violent and aggressive behavior by all students. The report is the result of a literaturereview and focus groups with students, families, administrators, teachers, and community changeagents from local agencies.
The Role of Education in a System of Care: Effectively Serving Children with Emotional and
Behavioral Disorders. This is one of seven monographs prepared for the Center for Mental HealthServices (CMHS) of the U.S. Department for Health and Human Services. It profiles effectiveschool-based mental health systems of care in three of CMHS's Comprehensive CommunityMental Health Services for Children and Families program urban grantees. The information inthis report was gathered through a series of site visits and focus groups, interviews, and a reviewof the literature. Seven additional monographs in this series on Promising Practices in a System ofCare are also available by contacting the Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice.
Addressing Student Problem Behavior: An IEP Team's Introduction to Functional Behavioral
Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans. Written with some of the country's leading experts,this document serves as a useful tool for educators to understand the requirements of IDEA ‘97with regard to addressing behavior problems and implementing the fundamental principals andtechniques of functional behavioral assessment and positive behavioral supports for studentswith behavior problems.
Addressing Student Problem Behavior— Part II: Conducting A Functional Assessment. The
second document in the Addressing Student Problem Behavior series, this monograph provides anin-depth discussion of the rationale for functional behavioral assessment and instructions forhow to conduct the process. Sample forms are provided.
The third document in this series on creating and implementing positive behavioral interven-
tions and supports is forthcoming by the end of 1999. The fourth document will be a trainers'manual on the techniques outlined in the series.
Functional Assessment and Behavioral Intervention Plans: Part 1 is a two-hour video workshop
on functional behavioral assessment. Produced as a cooperative effort between the Center forEffective Collaboration and Practice and Old Dominion University (as part of the University's
state-funded technical assistance project), it covers (1) the definitions and origins of functionalbehavioral assessment, (2) what is involved in conducting a functional behavioral assessment andthe criteria for determining when one is needed, and (3) other relevant issues surrounding thistechnique. It is available from the Training and Technical Assistance Center, Old DominionUniversity, 1401 West 49th Street, Norfolk, VA 23529-0146.
Functional Assessment and Behavioral Intervention Plans: Part II is a two-hour video work-
shop that builds on Part I to provide in-depth discussion of and instruction on how to conduct afunctional behavioral assessment. It will be available in the coming months and can be obtainedby contacting Old Dominion University at the address above.
THE INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION
ACT (P.L. 105-17):
Sections of the Law that Pertain Specifically to Students with Emotional and Behavioral
Readers may find the complete text of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act statute
and regulations in a variety of places, including on the websites of the U.S. Department ofEducation (http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/IDEA/) and the Center for Effective Collaborationand Practice (http://www.air.org/cecp/).
Sec. 612(a)(22) SUSPENSION AND EXPULSION RATES-
(A) IN GENERAL- The State educational agency examines data to determine if significant
discrepancies are occurring in the rate of long-term suspensions and expulsions of children withdisabilities—
(i) among local educational agencies in the State; or
(ii) compared to such rates for nondisabled children within such agencies.
(B) REVIEW AND REVISION OF POLICIES- If such discrepancies are occurring, the State
educational agency reviews and, if appropriate, revises (or requires the affected State or localeducational agency to revise) its policies, procedures, and practices relating to the developmentand implementation of IEPs, the use of behavioral interventions, and procedural safeguards, toensure that such policies, procedures, and practices comply with this Act.
Sec.613(j) DISCIPLINARY INFORMATION- The State may require that a local educational
agency include in the records of a child with a disability a statement of any current or previousdisciplinary action that has been taken against the child and transmit such statement to the sameextent that such disciplinary information is included in, and transmitted with, the student recordsof nondisabled children. The statement may include a description of any behavior engaged in bythe child that required disciplinary action, a description of the disciplinary action taken, and anyother information that is relevant to the safety of the child and other individuals involved withthe child. If the State adopts such a policy, and the child transfers from one school to another,the transmission of any of the child's records must include both the child's current individualizededucation program and any such statement of current or previous disciplinary action that hasbeen taken against the child.
Sec. 614(d)(3) DEVELOPMENT OF IEP
(B) CONSIDERATION OF SPECIAL FACTORS- The IEP Team shall—
(i) in the case of a child whose behavior impedes his or her learning or that of others,
consider, when appropriate, strategies, including positive behavioral interventions, strategies, andsupports to address that behavior;…
(C) REQUIREMENT WITH RESPECT TO REGULAR EDUCATION TEACHER- The
regular education teacher of the child, as a member of the IEP Team, shall, to the extentappropriate, participate in the development of the IEP of the child, including the determinationof appropriate positive behavioral interventions and strategies and the determination ofsupplementary aids and services, program modifications, and support for school personnelconsistent with paragraph (1)(A)(iii).
Sec. 615(j) MAINTENANCE OF CURRENT EDUCATIONAL PLACEMENT- Except as
provided in subsection (k)(7), during the pendency of any proceedings conducted pursuant tothis section, unless the State or local educational agency and the parents otherwise agree, thechild shall remain in the then-current educational placement of such child, or, if applying forinitial admission to a public school, shall, with the consent of the parents, be placed in the publicschool program until all such proceedings have been completed.
Sec. 615(k) PLACEMENT IN ALTERNATIVE EDUCATIONAL SETTING-
(1) AUTHORITY OF SCHOOL PERSONNEL-
(A) School personnel under this section may order a change in the placement of a child with
(i) to an appropriate interim alternative educational setting, another setting, or suspension,
for not more than 10 school days (to the extent such alternatives would be applied to childrenwithout disabilities); and
(ii) to an appropriate interim alternative educational setting for the same amount of time that
a child without a disability would be subject to discipline, but for not more than 45 days if—
(I) the child carries a weapon to school or to a school function under the jurisdiction of a
State or a local educational agency; or
(II) the child knowingly possesses or uses illegal drugs or sells or solicits the sale of a con-
trolled substance while at school or a school function under the jurisdiction of a State or localeducational agency.
(B) Either before or not later than 10 days after taking a disciplinary action described in
(i) if the local educational agency did not conduct a functional behavioral assessment and
implement a behavioral intervention plan for such child before the behavior that resulted in thesuspension described in subparagraph (A), the agency shall convene an IEP meeting to developan assessment plan to address that behavior; or
(ii) if the child already has a behavioral intervention plan, the IEP Team shall review the plan
and modify it, as necessary, to address the behavior.
(2) AUTHORITY OF HEARING OFFICER- A hearing officer under this section may order a
change in the placement of a child with a disability to an appropriate interim alternativeeducational setting for not more than 45 days if the hearing officer—
(A) determines that the public agency has demonstrated by substantial evidence that main-
taining the current placement of such child is substantially likely to result in injury to the child orto others;
(B) considers the appropriateness of the child's current placement;
(C) considers whether the public agency has made reasonable efforts to minimize the risk of
harm in the child's current placement, including the use of supplementary aids and services; and
(D) determines that the interim alternative educational setting meets the requirements of
(3) DETERMINATION OF SETTING-
(A) IN GENERAL- The alternative educational setting described in paragraph (1)(A)(ii) shall
be determined by the IEP Team.
(B) ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS- Any interim alternative educational setting in which a
child is placed under paragraph (1) or (2) shall—
(i) be selected so as to enable the child to continue to participate in the general curriculum,
although in another setting, and to continue to receive those services and modifications,including those described in the child's current IEP, that will enable the child to meet the goalsset out in that IEP; and
(ii) include services and modifications designed to address the behavior described in para-
graph (1) or paragraph (2) so that it does not recur.
(4) MANIFESTATION DETERMINATION REVIEW-
(A) IN GENERAL- If a disciplinary action is contemplated as described in paragraph (1) or
paragraph (2) for a behavior of a child with a disability described in either of those paragraphs,or if a disciplinary action involving a change of placement for more than 10 days is contemplatedfor a child with a disability who has engaged in other behavior that violated any rule or code ofconduct of the local educational agency that applies to all children—
(i) not later than the date on which the decision to take that action is made, the parents shall
be notified of that decision and of all procedural safeguards accorded under this section; and
(ii) immediately, if possible, but in no case later than 10 school days after the date on which
the decision to take that action is made, a review shall be conducted of the relationship betweenthe child's disability and the behavior subject to the disciplinary action.
(B) INDIVIDUALS TO CARRY OUT REVIEW- A review described in subparagraph (A)
shall be conducted by the IEP Team and other qualified personnel.
(C) CONDUCT OF REVIEW- In carrying out a review described in subparagraph (A), the
IEP Team may determine that the behavior of the child was not a manifestation of such child'sdisability only if the IEP Team—
(i) first considers, in terms of the behavior subject to disciplinary action, all relevant infor-
(I) evaluation and diagnostic results, including such results or other relevant information
supplied by the parents of the child;
(II) observations of the child; and
(III) the child's IEP and placement; and
(ii) then determines that—
(I) in relationship to the behavior subject to disciplinary action, the child's IEP and place-
ment were appropriate and the special education services, supplementary aids and services, andbehavior intervention strategies were provided consistent with the child's IEP and placement;
(II) the child's disability did not impair the ability of the child to understand the impact and
consequences of the behavior subject to disciplinary action; and
(III) the child's disability did not impair the ability of the child to control the behavior
subject to disciplinary action.
(5) DETERMINATION THAT BEHAVIOR WAS NOT MANIFESTATION OF
(A) IN GENERAL- If the result of the review described in paragraph (4) is a determination,
consistent with paragraph (4)(C), that the behavior of the child with a disability was not amanifestation of the child's disability, the relevant disciplinary procedures applicable to childrenwithout disabilities may be applied to the child in the same manner in which they would beapplied to children without disabilities, except as provided in section 612(a)(1).
(B) ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENT- If the public agency initiates disciplinary procedures
applicable to all children, the agency shall ensure that the special education and disciplinaryrecords of the child with a disability are transmitted for consideration by the person or personsmaking the final determination regarding the disciplinary action.
(6) PARENT APPEAL-
(i) If the child's parent disagrees with a determination that the child's behavior was not a
manifestation of the child's disability or with any decision regarding placement, the parent mayrequest a hearing.
(ii) The State or local educational agency shall arrange for an expedited hearing in any case
described in this subsection when requested by a parent.
(B) REVIEW OF DECISION-
(i) In reviewing a decision with respect to the manifestation determination, the hearing
officer shall determine whether the public agency has demonstrated that the child's behavior wasnot a manifestation of such child's disability consistent with the requirements of paragraph(4)(C).
(ii) In reviewing a decision under paragraph (1)(A)(ii) to place the child in an interim
alternative educational setting, the hearing officer shall apply the standards set out in paragraph(2).
(7) PLACEMENT DURING APPEALS-
(A) IN GENERAL- When a parent requests a hearing regarding a disciplinary action de-
scribed in paragraph (1)(A)(ii) or paragraph (2) to challenge the interim alternative educationalsetting or the manifestation determination, the child shall remain in the interim alternativeeducational setting pending the decision of the hearing officer or until the expiration of the timeperiod provided for in paragraph (1)(A)(ii) or paragraph (2), whichever occurs first, unless theparent and the State or local educational agency agree otherwise.
(B) CURRENT PLACEMENT- If a child is placed in an interim alternative educational
setting pursuant to paragraph (1)(A)(ii) or paragraph (2) and school personnel propose tochange the child's placement after expiration of the interim alternative placement, during thependency of any proceeding to challenge the proposed change in placement, the child shallremain in the current placement (the child's placement prior to the interim alternativeeducational setting), except as provided in subparagraph (C).
(C) EXPEDITED HEARING-
(i) If school personnel maintain that it is dangerous for the child to be in the current place-
ment (placement prior to removal to the interim alternative education setting) during thependency of the due process proceedings, the local educational agency may request an expeditedhearing.
(ii) In determining whether the child may be placed in the alternative educational setting or
in another appropriate placement ordered by the hearing officer, the hearing officer shall applythe standards set out in paragraph (2).
(8) PROTECTIONS FOR CHILDREN NOT YET ELIGIBLE FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION
AND RELATED SERVICES-
(A) IN GENERAL- A child who has not been determined to be eligible for special education
and related services under this part and who has engaged in behavior that violated any rule orcode of conduct of the local educational agency, including any behavior described in paragraph(1), may assert any of the protections provided for in this part if the local educational agency hadknowledge (as determined in accordance with this paragraph) that the child was a child with adisability before the behavior that precipitated the disciplinary action occurred.
(B) BASIS OF KNOWLEDGE- A local educational agency shall be deemed to have knowl-
edge that a child is a child with a disability if—
(i) the parent of the child has expressed concern in writing (unless the parent is illiterate or
has a disability that prevents compliance with the requirements contained in this clause) topersonnel of the appropriate educational agency that the child is in need of special education andrelated services;
(ii) the behavior or performance of the child demonstrates the need for such services;
(iii) the parent of the child has requested an evaluation of the child pursuant to section 614;
or (iv) the teacher of the child, or other personnel of the local educational agency, has expressedconcern about the behavior or performance of the child to the director of special education ofsuch agency or to other personnel of the agency.
(C) CONDITIONS THAT APPLY IF NO BASIS OF KNOWLEDGE-
(i) IN GENERAL- If a local educational agency does not have knowledge that a child is a
child with a disability (in accordance with subparagraph (B)) prior to taking disciplinarymeasures against the child, the child may be subjected to the same disciplinary measures asmeasures applied to children without disabilities who engaged in comparable behaviorsconsistent with clause (ii).
(ii) LIMITATIONS- If a request is made for an evaluation of a child during the time period
in which the child is subjected to disciplinary measures under paragraph (1) or (2), theevaluation shall be conducted in an expedited manner. If the child is determined to be a childwith a disability, taking into consideration information from the evaluation conducted by theagency and information provided by the parents, the agency shall provide special education andrelated services in accordance with the provisions of this part, except that, pending the results ofthe evaluation, the child shall remain in the educational placement determined by schoolauthorities.
(9) REFERRAL TO AND ACTION BY LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUDICIAL
(A) Nothing in this part shall be construed to prohibit an agency from reporting a crime
committed by a child with a disability to appropriate authorities or to prevent State law
enforcement and judicial authorities from exercising their responsibilities with regard to theapplication of Federal and State law to crimes committed by a child with a disability.
(B) An agency reporting a crime committed by a child with a disability shall ensure that
copies of the special education and disciplinary records of the child are transmitted forconsideration by the appropriate authorities to whom it reports the crime.
(10) DEFINITIONS- For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions apply:
(A) CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE- The term ‘controlled substance' means a drug or other
substance identified under schedules I, II, III, IV, or V in section 202(c) of the ControlledSubstances Act (21 U.S.C. 812(c)).
(B) ILLEGAL DRUG- The term ‘illegal drug'—
(i) means a controlled substance; but
(ii) does not include such a substance that is legally possessed or used under the supervision
of a licensed health-care professional or that is legally possessed or used under any otherauthority under that Act or under any other provision of Federal law.
(C) SUBSTANTIAL EVIDENCE- The term ‘substantial evidence' means beyond a prepon-
derance of the evidence.
(D) WEAPON- The term ‘weapon' has the meaning given the term ‘dangerous weapon'
under paragraph (2) of the first subsection (g) of section 930 of title 18, United States Code.
GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN EXHIBIT I:
COMPONENTS OF A SYSTEM OF CARE
The following definitions were gathered from six sources:
Bruns, B.J., & Goldman, S. K. (Eds.). (1999). Promising practices in wraparound for children
with serious emotional disturbance and their families. Systems of Care: Promising Practices inChildren's Mental Health, 1998 Series, Volume IV. Washington, DC: Center for EffectiveCollaboration and Practice, American Institutes for Research.
Butts, J.A., Snyder, H.N., Finnegan, T.A., Aughenbaugh, A.L., and Poole, R.S. (1996). Juvenile
Court Statistics, 1993. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Preven-tion. (Available online at http://www.rtc.pdx.edu/resource/terms.htm)
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1994). Juvenile Justice Treatment Planning Chart.
Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services.
Education Week on the Web. Glossary. (Available online at
Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health. (1994). Glossary
of Children's Mental Health Terms. Portland, OR: Author, Portland State University. (Avail-able online at http://www.rtc.pdx.edu/resource/terms.htm)
Stroul, B.A., & Friedman, R.M. (1986, rev. 1994). A system of care for severely emotionally
disturbed children and youth. Washington, DC: CASSP Technical Assistance Center, George-town University Child Development Center.
1. MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES
Prevention. The goal of prevention is to reduce the occurrence of emotional problems in
children and youth and their families who have not yet been identified as having emotionalproblems, particularly those who may be at risk.
Early identification and intervention. Treatment for emotional and behavioral problems that
begins early in the course of the problem with the goal of lessening the duration and severity ofthe problem.
Assessment. A process that results in an opinion about a child's mental or emotional capac-
ity, and may include recommendations about treatment or placement.
Outpatient treatment. Outpatient treatment includes mental health services available in non-
residential settings, such as mental health clinics, hospital outpatient departments, or communityhealth centers.
Home-based services. Home-based services are delivered to children and youth and their
families in a family's home. One goal is to emphasize the needs of the whole family, not just anindividual within the family.
Day treatment. Day treatment programs provide education, counseling, and family interven-
tions during the entire day to a child or youth who then returns to his or her caregiver in theevening.
Emergency services. Emergency services range from prevention efforts through crisis stabili-
zation provided by a variety of agencies. Examples include hotlines and shelters for those in needof crisis intervention or emergency care.
Therapeutic foster care. Treatment and care for children and youth by trained families in
their private homes.
Therapeutic group care. Treatment for children and youth provided in homes with other
children or youth, and which provides an variety of interventions.
Therapeutic camp services. Children and youth and staff in therapeutic camp programs live
together in a rustic situation, which places more expectations for responsible and independentbehavior on the campers than might more traditional residential settings.
Residential treatment services. Residential treatment service are delivered in a facility that
offers 24-hour residential care, as well as treatment and rehabilitation, or short-term crisisintervention.
Crisis residential services. Residential treatment services that aim to intervene in the crisis at
hand and transition the child or youth back into his or her home and community.
Inpatient hospitalization. Inpatient services that provide medical intervention for a child or
youth's emotional or behavioral problem.
2. SOCIAL SERVICES
Protective services. Protective services are intended to prevent and protect children and
youth from neglect, abuse, and exploitation by offering social services to identified or at-riskchildren and youth and their families.
Financial assistance. Financial assistance from sources including local and federal govern-
ment to help families pay for necessities, such as food, clothing, and shelter.
Home-aid services. Services provided in the home, usually by nonprofessionals.
Respite services. Temporary care given to an individual for the purpose of providing a period
of relief to the primary caregivers. Respite is used to decrease stress in the homes of persons withdisabilities or handicaps, thereby increasing caregivers' overall effectiveness.
Foster care. Foster care includes the placement of children in foster family homes, group
homes, group child care facilities, and residential treatment centers because of abuse, neglect, orabandonment.
Adoption. In contrast to temporary care, adoption is intended to be a permanent placement.
It is designed for those situations in which return to the biological parents is unlikely for a childor youth.
3. EDUCATIONAL SERVICES
Assessment and planning. Techniques used to identify and determine placement of children
in special education programs. Assessment is done using a variety of methods and measures.
Planning for a student assessed and identified with a disability includes the development of anindividual educational program (IEP).
Resource rooms. A setting within the regular school where students with disabilities may
receive educational services from a special education teacher (and teachers' aids, when available)for one or two instructional periods each day.
Self-contained special education. Full-time placement in a special education classroom, in
which a special educator (and teachers' aids, when available) provides intensive, structuredacademic and behavioral support and supervision.
Special schools. Nonresidential programs that provide a full-day educational program for
children within a setting that is separate from the regular school.
Homebound instruction. Using this option, the school district arranges for the child to
receive instruction at home.
Residential schools. Often located outside a child's home community, residential schools
stress educational achievement for students with emotional and behavioral problems.
Alternative programs. Alternative programs include a wide range of settings, and are thus
difficult to define. Not all children served in these programs are formally identified as having adisability. The advantage offered by alternative education programs is flexibility for students whohave difficulty functioning in the regular classroom setting and/or are at risk for dropping out.
4. HEALTH SERVICES
Health education and prevention. Educational programs aimed at promoting both physical
and mental health, as well as educating students about public health issues, such as sex educationor substance abuse.
Screening and assessment. Evaluation to identify potential health problems early, and to
determine an appropriate course of treatment of service delivery.
Primary care. Complete health examinations and follow-up care by physicians during a
child's growth and development.
Acute care. Care for children who are injured or become ill. Services are usually provided on
an outpatient basis.
Long-term care. Services for children with chronic illnesses and their families. Children and
youth receiving long-term care for their health problems also may require services from schools.
5. VOCATIONAL SERVICES
Career education. Designed to prepare students to enter the working world, career education
programs teach students about types of careers, how to choose a career, skills and approches thatmay be useful, and what to expect in working with an employer and other employees.
Vocational assessment. An evaluation process for determining an youth's ability, career
interests, and readiness for employment.
Job survival skills training. Programs that teach youth how to maintain and succeed at their
job. The skills covered often include training in: social skills for appropriate interaction withothers, taking criticism from employers, managing frustration, and meeting deadlines and stayingon schedule.
Vocational skills training. Training in more technical vocational skills includes instruction in
fields such as technology or industries such as auto maintenance, childcare, or hospitality.
Work experiences. Some programs organize vocational training and work experience
opportunities for older youth to build their skill sets as well as their confidence.
Job finding, placement, and retention services. Provides services such as interviewing skills
or services listed above to help youth find job opportunities, apply for jobs, and maintain theiremployment over time.
Supported employment. An alternative to traditional full or part-time employment, for
youth who need assistance making the transition to these kinds of jobs. Through supportedemployment programs, a youth has a paying job and the support of an adult to help him or heracquire and use the skills he or she needs to maintain the position.
6. RECREATIONAL SERVICES
Relationships with significant others. Recreational programs, such as Big Brothers/Big
Sisters, that match a child or youth that could benefit from adult companionship and an adultvolunteer.
After-school programs. Programs that typically offer students a place to do their homework
with the support of program staff, as well as opportunities to participate in extracurricularactivities such as art, music, or sports in a supervised setting between the close of the school dayand the evening.
Summer camps. Held during the summer for a limited number of days or weeks, summer
camps provide children and youth with the opportunity to learn new skills, enjoy recreationalactivities, and interact with adults and peers outside the school setting. Summer camps mayoperate as a day camp program or as an overnight, residential program.
Special recreation projects. Projects designed to help children and youth with emotional and
behavioral problems learn and enjoy a new activity.
7. OPERATIONAL SERVICES
Case management. A service that helps clients obtain and coordinate community resources
such as income assistance, education, housing, medical care, treatment, vocational preparation,and recreation.
Self-help and support groups. Groups that provide emotional support and help for dealing
with a problem that members or their family members share, such as alcoholism, substanceabuse, or extreme anxiety or anger.
Advocacy. The process of actively supporting the cause of an individual (case advocacy) or
group (class advocacy), or speaking or writing in favor of—or on behalf of—an individual orgroup.
Transportation. Many children and their families have difficulty accessing programs and
services because they lack transportation to and from the locations where they are offered.
Legal services. Legal assistance is given in situations that cannot be settled through alternative
resolution methods. Legal services are commonly retained in such cases as when a child might beremoved from his or her home, or when a youth becomes involved in the juvenile justice system.
Volunteer programs. Volunteers organized to serve in a variety of roles, such as acting as a
big brother/big sister or tutor, helping a youth find a job, or assisting in a classroom as a teacher'saide.
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