Design of Group IIA Secreted/Synovial Phospholipase A2Inhibitors: An Oxadiazolone Derivative SuppressesChondrocyte Prostaglandin E2 Secretion Jean-Edouard Ombetta1., Natacha Thelier2., Chang Zhi Dong3, Ste´phanie Plocki3, Lydia Tsagris2, Franc¸ois Rannou2,4, France Massicot5, Atime´ Djimde´3, Elissar El-Hayek2, Yiming Shi3, Franc¸oise Heymans3, Nohad Gresh6, Caroline Chauvet2*
Three-prong American ginseng plant.
Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated
Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems
Andy Hankins* other hand, wild ginseng sells for over $300 a pound andthe market demand in Asia for wild roots is practically American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium, Araliaceaefamily) is a familiar plant to many people in the Southern unlimited. That market demand and price can not beeasily dismissed.
Appalachian region. For several generations, "diggingsang" has been an enjoyable and profitable activity for Within this publication, a system of growing ginseng many mountain people. American ginseng is native to called wild simulated ginseng production will be many states, east of the Mississippi River, in the United described. Using this production system, landowners may States. It prefers a cool, temperate climate and is only establish naturalized populations of wild American found in the mountainous regions of the Southern states.
ginseng on the forest floor in their privately-owned It also grows naturally in the Eastern provinces of woodlands. If managed correctly, these natural stands of Canada. Ginseng is a tender perennial. The first frosts ginseng will be perpetual. A natural stand of undisturbed of fall kill the leafy top, but a new top grows up the wild ginseng renews itself by self-seeding. Careful following spring, from an underground bud on the harvest of mature plants can take place, in wild simulated perennial root. It takes seven or eight years for American ginseng patches, without taking the site out of production.
ginseng plants to grow to maturity in a natural woodland Young seedling ginseng plants will just grow up to take their place. A carefully managed stand of naturalizedAmerican ginseng may produce income for several American ginseng is a complicated opportunity for forestfarmers to understand because it can be grown in several different production systems and because there is greatvariation in market demand and prices paid for the various Cultivated versus Wild Ginseng
grades of dried roots. It is a controversial plant. Wild In 1999, wild dried roots of ginseng sold for as much as harvest has depleted the natural population to such a $425 per pound. That price has doubled in the last 10 degree that it has become threatened with extinction in years. In 1999, quite a few pounds of field-cultivated, certain regions (Convention on International Trade in dried ginseng roots, produced under artificial shade, sold Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES).
for $10 per pound. That price has been reduced by 75 Ginseng has a reputation as an aphrodisiac, which has percent in the last 10 years. Why should there be such a made it a comical rather than a credible plant. It is not difference in the prices paid for wild and cultivated easy to grow. A great deal of failure has occurred, in the ginseng? Most of the ginseng, grown or gathered from past, by landowners who casually scatter ginseng seeds the wild in the United States, is exported to Asian in their woods hoping to get rich without doing any work.
countries for sale. Hong Kong has traditionally absorbed The ginseng market is disorganized. Certain dealers try the bulk of North American ginseng, accounting for a to buy ginseng at low prices so they can sell it at high consistent 80 percent of all purchases of unprocessed root prices. The threat of human theft has made ginseng (Bozak and Bailey, 1995). Ginseng growers and production impractical in certain regions. There are gatherers in the United States and Canada produce about constant reports about the low prices being paid for four million pounds of dried roots for export to Asia each cultivated ginseng crops grown in Wisconsin. On the year. Apparently, the Chinese people prefer wild ginseng *Extension Specialist, Alternative Agriculture; Virginia State University Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, religion, sex, age, veteran status, national origin, disability, or political affiliation. An equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia State University, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Lorenza W. Lyons, Administrator, 1890 Extension Program, Virginia State, Petersburg; VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE J. David Barrett, Director, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg.
AND STATE UNIVERSITY VIRGINIA STATE UNIVERSITY
over cultivated because it more closely resembles the One of the primary reasons for declining prices of revered wild Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng, C. A.
cultivated American ginseng is increased production in Meyer). This Asian species has been an important China. The author traveled to the famous ginseng component of Chinese folk medicine for over 4000 years production regions of Northeast China in 1996 with two (Konsler, 1983). The Chinese believe that the slower West Virginia Extension Agents, David Cooke and John growing wild roots, which are harvested at an older age, Scott. They saw hundreds of acres of American ginseng absorb more curative power from the forest floor being grown under artificial shade in Liaoning, Jilin and (Persons, 1994). Scientific laboratory tests are not used Heilongjiang Provinces. The Chinese ginseng experts to determine the value of ginseng roots in China. Over told them that they have been buying American ginseng the centuries, the Asian buyers have developed quite an seed from Canada for the past 20 years. The Chinese have elaborate grading system based on the visual appearance become very adept at growing excellent quality cultivated of the roots.
American ginseng roots. Officials from the People'sRepublic of China - Ministry of Agriculture told the Experienced buyers of ginseng can easily tell the American visitors that China will be self sufficient in difference between wild and cultivated roots. The wild American ginseng by the year 2000 (Hankins, 1997).
roots are dark tan in color, gnarled in appearance and They were referring to cultivated American ginseng.
show many concentric growth rings. They are often China will not be self sufficient in wild American forked. Some of them resemble the body of a man. Wild ginseng. All of the ginseng Cooke, Hankins and Scott roots are generally small in size and light in weight. One saw in China was growing under artificial shade. During distinctive characteristic of a wild root is a long neck. The hard times in the past, the Chinese cut down most of their cultivated roots are cream colored, smooth and fat and forests to heat their homes and for cooking. The forested exhibit few concentric growth rings. Cultivated roots are lands that are so abundant in the United States do not exist often large and heavy. They are most often shaped like a to any large degree in China. Without access to hardwood carrot. Ginseng grown from cultivated seed will typically forests, they do not have the capability to establish have a short neck.
naturalized populations of American ginseng.
American ginseng roots are offered for sale in shops and
American ginseng growing under artificial shade in Jilin
stores throughout China. The Chinese believe that
Province, People's Republic of China.
ginseng is a panacea for their health.
Approximately two million pounds of ginseng were When ginseng is grown in an open field under artificial grown in intensive cultivation under artificial shade in shade, the stressful conditions which wild ginseng plants Wisconsin in 1994. Ginseng cultivation has been must face are eliminated. Cultivated ginseng does not practiced there since 1900. In 1994, production in have to compete with woodland plants for nutrients or Ontario, Canada, exceeded one and one-half million water. Under intense cultivation, the roots quickly grow pounds. In 1994, production in British Columbia to a size suitable for harvest. Four-year old roots are very exceeded one-half million pounds (Bozak and Bailey).
commonly harvested. Yields as high as 2,500 pounds of In 1994, artificial shade grown roots were selling for $30 dried root per acre have been reported. Establishment to $40 per pound. In 1995, artificial shade grown roots costs for one acre of ginseng beds, under wood lath shade sold for $18 to $30 per pound. In 1996, artificial shade or under polypropylene shade cloth, varies from $20,000 grown roots sold for $10 to $22 per pound. In 1997, to $40,000 depending upon the current prices of materials artificial shade grown roots sold for $6 to $18 per pound (Persons, 1998). Current prices are below the costs ofproduction. The artificial shade cultivated ginseng The greatest problem associated with intensely cultivated industry in North America is collapsing.
ginseng is disease control. Alternaria blight is the most widespread fungus disease. Damping off is a common Soil Management For Wild
disease of seedlings. In soils that do not have adequate Simulated Ginseng Crops
drainage, actual root rotting can be caused by Once a potential site has been identified, a soil test should Phytophthora cactorum and other fungal organisms. Any be taken. Dig up soil from at least six spots on the slope, disease outbreaks severely threaten ginseng under intense mix it together in a plastic bucket and take the soil to your cultivation because the plants are so close together that local Extension office so it can be mailed to the state soil the disease can quickly spread through the entire bed.
test laboratory for analysis. When the soil test results This intense fungus disease pressure forces artificial come back, the most important numbers to look at for shade growers to use a vigorous spray schedule to prevent ginseng are the soil pH, available calcium (Ca) and losses. Many ginseng consumers worldwide have available phosphorus (P). A typical pH from a soil sample become concerned about these fungicide applications.
taken from the forest floor from a north facing hillside in Ginseng is a medicinal herb taken to improve a person's Virginia is 4.5. In the past, growers have been told to treat health. The presence of pesticide residues on the roots soil, with a pH that low, with lime to try to bring the soil or within the roots, in the case of systemic fungicides, is pH up to 5.5 to 6.0 for ginseng production. Recent a severe drawback. This concern is certainly a factor in research by Bob Beyfuss in Greene County in the state the price decline for cultivated roots.
of New York calls this practice into question. Mr.
Beyfuss is an Extension Agent with Cornell Cooperative Production Of Wild
Extension who has a very strong interest in ginseng. In1996, he recruited a team of ginseng hunters to assist him in a soil research program with wild ginseng. He asked A method called wild simulated cultivation can be used these wild ginseng diggers to take soil tests wherever they to grow ginseng without fungicide sprays and expensive found patches of wild ginseng growing well out in the establishment costs. The prices paid for ginseng grown woods. He got back 70 soil samples from them.
under wild simulated cultivation are normally the sameas prices paid for wild ginseng roots. Ginseng production Beyfuss was surprised at the soil test results that came is very risky. The chosen site may not be suitable for good from this study. He said in his report, "The most growth. The crop may be stolen. Rodents may destroy interesting and puzzling result of the analysis was the the roots. The market price may fall. Plant diseases will positive correlation of very low pH and very high levels almost certainly occur. On the other hand, if the right of calcium. This is the exact opposite of what would be conditions can be found, wild simulated ginseng expected in mineral soils. The average pH for these production can provide income for those who have samples was 5.0 + or - 0.7. Soils that are strongly acid patience, perseverance and discretion. It is also a very such as this usually have calcium levels in the range of enjoyable project.
1000 to 2000 pounds per acre or less. The averagecalcium levels in these samples (where ginseng was growing well) was 4014 + or - 1679. It is my suspicionthat this abnormality may, in fact, be the key to the limited To grow wild simulated ginseng, the first step is site range of healthy populations of wild ginseng. Duplicating selection. The most favorable temperature and soil this soil condition may be the key to successfully moisture conditions generally are associated with north cultivating American ginseng in a forested or east facing slopes with at least a 75 percent shade canopy. That is dense shade. The best shade is providedby deep rooted, deciduous trees such as Yellow poplars At the same time that Bob Beyfuss was testing the soils and oaks. Ginseng grows best in a moist, well drained under wild ginseng stands in New York, Jim Corbin, a soil. That is almost a contradiction of terms but these soils Plant Pest Specialist with North Carolina's Department do exist. Successful growth of ginseng most often occurs of Agriculuture, was conducting similar research in the in sites where other herbaceous woodland plants are Great Smoky Mountains National Park in western North growing. Plants that indicate a good place to grow Carolina and East Tennessee. He conducted soil analysis ginseng include Jack-in-the pulpit, bloodroot, Solomon's from several wild ginseng stands and reported that, "In seal, jewel weed, galax, trillium, wild yam, hepatica, ginseng, calcium deficiencies can be seen in stunted Black cohosh, wild ginger and ferns. In certain soils plants that lack general vigor. Growth buds are smaller ginseng even grows well in association with poison ivy.
and more fragile. In good ginseng stands, calcium on a Excellent soil drainage is essential. A swampy soil or a per acre basis is consistently higher than in the other heavy clay soil must be avoided.
stand categories, and within these stands there was betterplant diversity, less disease and a larger stem height inmature plants." (Corbin, 1997) These two reports have caused controversy among requirements for ginseng force everyone to plant in the ginseng growers and researchers. The new idea is to fall. That seed needs to come out of the stratification box apply gypsum (Calcium sulphate) to soils for ginseng and into the soil after 12 months. If the seeds are left in rather than lime (Calcium carbonate) which has been used stratification for a longer time to accommodate spring in the past. The reasoning behind this is that the gypsum planting, the seeds will sprout inside of the stratification will add calcium but will not raise the soil pH. Rates as box and will be useless. Some growers make the mistake high as 5 pounds of gypsum per 100 square feet of of planting ginseng seeds in September and in October growing bed have been recommended to bring the before the trees lose their leaves. The problem with this calcium levels up to 4000 pounds per acre. There are practice is that the falling leaves form a mulch on the strong suspicions among several ginseng experts that forest floor that may be too deep for the germinating ginseng diseases, like Phytophthora root rot, may be ginseng seedlings to grow through. Fall planted seeds lie suppressed by acid soil conditions. There are strong in the soil until the following April. When they suspicions among the same group that applications of germinate, they can grow up through an inch or two of lime to bring the soil pH up may lead to increased disease leaves but they cannot grow up through four or five inches problems. Unfortunately, these suspicions have not been of leaf mulch, which may accumulate in many sites from tested by replicated research studies. A few concerns natural leaf fall.
about heavy applications of gypsum have been voiced bysoil scientists. They are worried that growers may throw There are presently about 20 commercial sources of the soil fertility out of balance if they apply too much American ginseng seed. Most seed is sold by experienced gypsum. Clearly, controlled research studies need to be ginseng growers, who have developed large-scale ginseng conducted as soon as possible.
farms. Beginning growers should be cautious in buyingginseng seed. Most experienced growers have bought The other soil nutrient that ginseng growers should seed at one time or another that failed to germinate in the monitor is phosphorus. In 1978, Dr. Tom Konsler spring after fall planting. Growers are advised not to buy initiated a four-year study to measure ginseng root growth cheap seed. It is rarely a good deal. A great deal of response to P additions to the low P soils found at the meticulous care is required to successfully produce Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station in viable, stratified ginseng seed. Seed producers, who do Fletcher, N. C. Dr. Konsler found positive correlation of the job the right way, are not likely to sell their seed at root weight with phosphorus additions. He also found cheap prices. Most seed producers do like to sell their that ginseng plants took up calcium more readily in soils stratified seed in advance. To be assured of the best seed, that had available phosphorus so the interrelationship is growers should order and pay for ginseng seed in July or important (Konsler, 1990). Growers should amend their August. Once the seed is paid for, delivery can be low P soils so that at least 95 pounds per acre of actual postponed until the middle of October. Growers who wait phosphorus is available (Persons, 1994).
until the middle of October to buy ginseng seed are likelyto receive poor quality seed from the "bottom of the In the wild-simulated method, there is no tillage of the barrel." When purchased ginseng seed is received, it soil. Many persons recommend planting "woods grown" should be stored in the refrigerator. It usually comes in ginseng in tilled up, raised beds in the woods, under a zip lock plastic bags. The seed in the bags should be natural canopy of shade. That method certainly can be misted with water, once a week, until planted. A pound used for production of ginseng but growers should not of ginseng seed contains about 6500 seeds. If the seed expect to receive high prices for roots produced in tilled ever dries out it will die. A good way to check the beds. Ginseng roots harvested from tilled beds look like viability of any ginseng seed is to dump it in a bucket of cultivated roots rather than wild roots. Prices paid for this water. All of the good, viable seed will quickly sink to kind of ginseng range from $30 to $100 per pound of dried the bottom. Any seeds that float on the surface are roots. Since there is no tillage of the soil with wild probably dead and are worthless for planting.
simulated ginseng crops, all fertilizers are applied on thesoil surface. Applications of gypsum and/or rock It is a good idea to plant ginseng seed in defined beds that phosphate may have to be made every two or three years.
are 5 feet wide and 50 feet long. The beds should be Soil testing should be done every year to monitor separated by 3-foot wide walkways. The beds should run available soil nutrients.
up and down the slope, rather than across the slope, forbetter air drainage around the plants. It is not necessary or desirable to clear undergrowth away from the planting In the wild simulated method, stratified ginseng seed is beds. It is perfectly natural for there to be trees, shrubs planted in the fall after the trees lose their leaves. The and herbaceous weeds growing in the beds that will be best month for planting in Virginia is November. Ginseng planted in ginseng. Wild ginseng grows in close cannot be planted in the spring. The stratification association with other plants. Plant diversity decreases
fungus disease pressure. This is an extensive planting that any planting method. If dense patches of weeds exist on the site, has occurred. The simply avoid them and plant in other areas. It is desirable to disturb the site as little as possible to reduce spread of fungus diseases. Growers are advised not to plant ginseng in close proximity to patches of ferns. The roots of fernssecrete allelopathic chemicals which deter other plants The stratified seed from growing next to them. Ginseng grows well on many will germinate the hillsides where ferns grow, but not right up next to them.
next spring. Theplants will looklike three smallstrawberry leaveson a stem aboutone inch tall.
Some of the seedwill not germinateand some will beeaten by rodents.
One-year old plants of American
seven years, theplant population in each bed will be reduced every yearby natural forces. The final stand will be a thin, healthypopulation of wild ginseng plants. In the wild simulated It takes 10 pounds of stratified ginseng seed to plant
method, after planting, no more work is required until the one-half acre of wild simulated ginseng.
ginseng roots are dug six to 10 years later. The ginseng One management practice that may increase yields of plants are left to the vagaries of nature. Weeds on the ginseng is treating seed before planting. Nearly all of the forest floor will compete with the plants for water and stratified seeds purchased from commercial sources will nutrients. Insects and rodents will attack certain plants.
be contaminated with spores of Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Fungus diseases may defoliate the ginseng plants. Severe Fusarium and Phytophthora fungi. These diseases may weather may reduce plant growth. All of these stressful spread from contaminated seed. If stratified seed is conditions result in a wild appearance of the roots that soaked in a 10 percent bleach solution for two minutes, are eventually harvested. When the ginseng plants these fungal spores will be reduced. One cup of Clorox become four or five years old, they will begin producing to nine cups of cold water will effectively control spores red berries that contain ginseng seeds. The plants will located on the surface of the seed. The bleach solution self-seed and begin new populations of ginseng on the should be rinsed off of the seeds after two minutes. This ground underneath the parent plants. This self-generation control is not completely effective. The diseases may be is fine but growers should not count on it for reliable present inside the seed. Careful selection of seed sources future crops. Growers who want to have ginseng roots is recommended.
to sell every year should plant a couple pounds of seedsin new beds, every fall, for future harvests. This should The only tools needed to plant wild simulated ginseng are not be a one-time activity.
a rake and a garden hoe. Rake the leaves on the forestfloor away from the 5 foot wide bed right down to thetopsoil. Using one corner of the hoe, make three narrowfurrows 18 inches apart, all the way down the length ofthe bed. The furrows should be one inch deep and threeinches wide. Plant ginseng seeds, by hand, 3 inches apartin each furrow. About one ounce of seed will be neededto plant three furrows, at this spacing, in a bed that is 5feet wide and 50 feet long. Cover the seeds with 3/4 inchof soil. After planting, carefully step down each row tofirm the soil around the seeds. Once the seeds are in theground, gypsum or rock phosphate may be applied overthe surface of the bed as needed. To finish the planting,rake one inch of leaves back over the bed as a mulch.
A perpetual stand of ginseng may be maintained by
After a couple of rain storms, no one will be able to detect allowing mature plants to self-seed.
growers have grown wild simulated ginseng until they The costs involved in growing half an acre of wild first see evidence of theft. At that point, growers accept simulated ginseng, planted in the method described the inevitable and go ahead and harvest their ginseng above, are as follows: roots. Usually theft problems do not begin until theginseng is somewhat mature, so there will probably be 10 lbs. of ginseng seeds no real financial loss.
planting labor (160 hrs. at $6.00/hr.) harvest labor (270 hrs. at $6.00/hr.) It is quite possible to grow American ginseng without drying labor (16 hrs. at $6.00/hr.) experiencing any theft problems. It is highly gypsum (16 - 50 lb. bags at $4.00/bag) recommended that anyone attempting to grow ginseng rock phosphate (16 - 50 lb. bags at $8.00/bag) $128.00 this way keep quiet about the enterprise. There are miscellaneous - tools, clorox, heat, phone, etc. $100.00 approximately 300 landowners in Virginia growingginseng today and they all prefer to remain anonymous.
The wild simulated method of growing ginseng is bestpracticed on lands that are controlled. There are many The income involved in growing half an acre of wild areas, within the native range of ginseng, in which traffic simulated ginseng depends upon the yield and future over private land by hikers is restricted. The crop should price. If a low price of $260 per pound of dried roots is not be planted within view of any public road or trail. A used, income will be: few loud dogs that sense the presence of strangers can be an excellent deterrent to Gross income - $13, 000 Net income - $9,232 trespassers. An isolated patch of Gross income - $19,500 Net income - $15,732 woods, fenced off from the cattle, Gross income - $26,000 Net income - $22,232 in the middle of a large pasturemight be a good site to grow ginseng. This might be an especially safe location if acouple of those cattle are bulls. American ginseng has The greatest threat to a crop of wild simulated ginseng is even been grown in wood lots, located in suburban human theft. This problem is most common in regions neighborhoods, without any threat of theft.
where many people go out in the woods searching for wildginseng. This activity, which is called "hunting sang," Growers are warned not to become too aggressive in is part of the culture of the Southern Appalachian region.
protecting ginseng crops from thieves. Shooting a gun Ginseng hunters comb the mountains of Virginia, West in the air to scare trespassers away from the woods is all Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee and North Carolina in late right, but shooting the trespassers even if they are actively summer looking for ginseng. Most of these ginseng digging the ginseng is not all right. Ginseng growers who hunters are honest people who do not steal and who do do this will be subject to imprisonment. It is against the not trespass on private land. A small percentage of the law to shoot people trespassing on private property unless ginseng hunters are, however, lowlife rogues who will they break into the home. Growers are also advised not certainly be very excited if they come across a dense to keep a vicious dog. If the dog injures the ginseng thief, population of plants. These criminals think nothing of the owner of the dog is liable. If the dog injures an property boundaries or "No Trespassing" signs. They innocent person, the owner of the dog is liable.
know that they are likely to find more ginseng onsomeone's privately-owned land than they will find in theNational Forest where the legal gatherers search. They Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng
are likely to cross private property at times when they Small farmers who try to grow and sell fruit and know the landowners will be gone. They will steal as vegetables for profit generally have to give a great deal much ginseng from a wild simulated stand as they can of time and attention to marketing. With those crops, it is extremely important to have a buyer lined up beforeeven planting the crop. Seasonal price fluctuations can The good news about this theft problem is that one man mean the difference between profit and loss. In some with a shovel cannot dig very much wild simulated years markets become totally flooded with certain kinds ginseng in any short period of time. It takes nearly three of produce and growers can barely give it away.
hours to dig up three pounds of fresh roots that shrink to Vegetable growers often spend long hours at tailgate one pound of dried ginseng. Most thieves are not likely farmer's markets trying to sell their produce directly to to stay at a growing site any longer than that. A thief the public. Various kinds of cooperatives and grower could steal all of the roots in a small patch in one morning associations have been organized to assist vegetable but no one could possibly steal half an acre of wild growers with the difficult job of marketing.
simulated ginseng in just a few hours. Quite a few
In selling dried roots of wild simulated ginseng, the situation is totally different. It is hard to find any productthat is easier to sell. In Virginia, there are 45 certified Beyfuss, R. L. 1997. Ginseng Soil Characterization and ginseng buyers spread out across the state. These buyers Ecology Study. Cornell Cooperative Extension of Greene are regulated by the Virginia Department of Agriculture County, HCR 3, Box 906, Cairo, New York 12413.
and Consumer Services - Office of Plant Protection. Alist of the certified buyers can be obtained from that office Beyfuss, R. L. 1998. Growing Ginseng and Goldenseal (See literature review). All that a grower has to do is drive in Your Forest. Cornell Cooperative Extension of Greene to the buyer's house or store or service station, carry the County, HCR 3, Box 906, Cairo, New York 12413.
roots in, watch as they are weighed and accept payment Bozak, G. and Bailey, W. G. 1995. Ginseng Production if he agrees with the price that is offered. If the grower In North America. Presented at the International does not like the price that is offered, he can take his roots Conference of Ginseng and Allied Plants, Harbin, to the next buyer down the road. A grower who has a People's Republic of China.
large volume of roots to sell often will allow buyers tomake bids on his roots to get the highest price. Some CITES regulations. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, growers sell directly to large herb companies who buy Office of Management Authority, 4401 North Fairfax ginseng for export to Asia. In a few states, ginseng Drive, Arlington, VA 22703.
auctions have been organized to help both the buyers and the sellers. Current price information is easy to obtainfrom several sources. Marketing wild simulated Corbin, J. 1997. A Study of American Ginseng in American ginseng roots is easy because market demand Western North Carolina and East Tennessee. North is very strong for this scarce commodity. The only thing Carolina Department of Agriculture report.
a first time seller has to watch out for is country dealerswho might try to buy valuable ginseng at a low price.
Hankins, A. 1997. The Chinese Ginseng Industry. The Many of these country dealers also buy and sell guns, Business of Herbs. Vol. 25. Jemez Springs, New Mexico.
hunting dogs, furs, used car batteries, etc. They practicethe art of trading. If they make a low offer and the grower Konsler, T. 1983. Ginseng: A Production Guide for North accepts it, it is his own fault.
Carolina. The North Carolina Agricultural ExtensionService Pub. AG-323. Raleigh, N. C.
Konsler, T. 1990. Lime and Phosphorus Effects onAmerican Ginseng: 1. Growth, Soil Fertility, and RootTissue Nutrient Status Response. Journal of AmericanSociety for Horticultural Science. Alexandria, VA.
Persons, S. 1994. American Ginseng: GREEN GOLD.
Bright Mountain Books Inc. Asheville, North Carolina.
Persons, S. 1998. Tuckasegee Valley GinsengNewsletter, P. O. Box 236, Tuckasegee, North Carolina28783.
828-293-5189 Freshly dug ginseng roots have three times more weight
than dried ginseng roots.
Virginia Department of Agriculture and ConsumerServices. Virginia Ginseng Management Program. Officeof Plant Protection, Endangered Species Coordinator, P.
O. Box 1163, Richmond, VA 23209804-786-3515
Contents lists available at Artiﬁcial Intelligence in Medicine A semantic graph-based approach to biomedical summarisation Laura Plaza , Alberto Díaz, Pablo Gervás Departamento de Ingeniería del Software e Inteligencia Artiﬁcial, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, C/Profesor José García Santesmases, s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain Objective: Access to the vast body of research literature that is available in biomedicine and related